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A N 







Difcoveries in the Southern Hemifphcrc, 


Commodore Byron, 
Captain Wallis, 

Captain Carteret, 
And Captain Cook, 

In the Dolphin^ the Swallow, and the Endeavour : 

Drawn up from the Journals which were kept by the feveral 
Commanders, and from the Papers of Joseph Banks, Efqi 




By commodore PHIPPS. 


Illuftrated with Charts and elegant Copper-plates. 


Pfinted far JAMES WI L L 1 A M S, Wo. z\y ^Vvxv'cvw-tws » 


^ O THE 


S I R, 

AFTER the great in^rovements that 
have been made in Navigadon fince the 
difcovery of America, it may well be thought 
firange, that a very conliderable part of the 
globe on which we live Ihould ftill have remained 
unknown ; chat it fliould ftill have been the 
fubje& of fpeculation, whether a great portion 
of the Southern Hemifphere is land or water ; 
and, even w^ere land had been difcovered, that 
neither its extent nor figure fhould have been 
afcertained. But the atufe has probably been, 
that fovcrcign Princes have feldom any other 
motive for attempting the difcovefy of new 
countries than to conquer them ; that the advan- 
tages of conquering countries which muft firft 
be difcovcred are remote and uncertain, and 
that ambition has always found obje£ts xiearer 

It is the diftinguiftiing charadleriftic of Your 
Majefty to a6t from more liberal motives •, and 
having the beft fleer, and the braveft as vjd\ ^^^^ 

A 2 tt\o^ 




moft able navigators in Europe, Your Majefty 
has, not with a view to the acquifition of treai- 
fure, or the extent of dominion, but the im- 
provement of commerce and the incrcafe and 
difFufion of knowledge, undertaken what had fo 
long been negleded -, and under Your Majefty's 
aufpices, in little more than feven years, difco- 
verics have been made far greater than thofc of 
all the navigators in the world colle6tively, from 

the expedition of CpUimbus to the prefent >|ine, 


To have been appointed to record them, and. 
permitted to infcribe the Narrative to Your 
Majefty, is an honour, the fenfe of which will 
always be retained with the warmeft gratitude^ 


Mpft faithful, 

and moft obliged 

Bromley, Kent, 
iftMay^ 1773- 

Subjeft and Servant, 



O F .T HE 


if I R S T V O L tr M E. 

General Introduction*. Paget 

An Explanation of the Nautical Termsy not generally 
underjloodf suhich occtr ii^ thiiJVork, xiz 


C H A P. L 

The Pajfage from the Dawns to Rio de yaneiro. 4 

C H A P; H. 

Pafagejrm kto'di Janeiro toPortDiJire ^ witb fome 
Jdyfcriftidnof that Place. 7 

CHAP. iir. 

Courfefi^bfn Port Defift, in Search ofPefy/IJIand, and 
afiefWardi to^ the Coajl of Patagonia ; with a Defcrip^ 
tion of the HthahltantSr 19 

€ HA P. IV. 

Pajage upy^e Smighf of Ma^eiUn^ to Port Famine j 
witkfonte AdouAt of tffat Harbour, and the adjacent 
Coajl. 27 

t *H A P. V. 

The Courfe back from Port Famine to Falkland s Ifiands ; 
with fome Account of the Country, 34 

(J H A P. VI. 

^i f^ffagt through the St r eight ofi/tageltaH as far as 
Cape Monday ; with a Defer ipiion of fever at Bays and 
Harbour 5 f formed by the Coaji on each Side. 48 


; C H A "p; VII. : 

"The Pajfage from Cape Monday^ in the Streight of 
Magellan y into the South Seas ; with fime general re- 
marks on the Navigation of that Streight. . 6z 


Run from the Wejtern Entrance of the Streight of Ma?- 
geUan, to the Iflands of Dif appointment. 70 

C H A P. IX. 

^he Oifcoveryof King Georges Iflands J with a Defcrip^ 
iion of them, and an Account of fever al Incidents that 
happened there* 'jg 

C H A P. X. 

The Run from King Giorgis IJkmds to the Iflands of 
Sajfpan, Tiffian, and Aiguigan • with an Account of 
. feveral Iflands that were dif covered in thai Track. 8 7 

\mf XX A '-t^* Xi« 

-^he Arrival of the Dolphin and Tamar at Tinian. A 
Defcription of the prejent Condition of that IJland, 
and an Account of the Tranfa^ions there. 94 

c H A P. xn. 

The Run from Tinian to Pulo Timoan ; with fome Ac- 
count of that IJltindi^ its Inhabitants and ProduSfions, 
nd thence to Batavia. 100 


Tranfa^iions at Batavia, and Departure from that 
Place. loS 


Tht PaJ/agefi'em Batavia to tht Cape of Good Hope, and 
from tbtnct to England 109 


C O N T E >N T S. 


Tie Paffage tp the Caajl of Patagoftiet vritbftme Accatatt 
ef the Natives. 115 

C H A P. II. 


The Paffage thr&ugh tbeStreight of Magellan^ witbfomi 
farther Account of the Patagonians, and a Defcrtption 
of the Coaft on each Side, i(n4 its Inhabitants. i a8 


^particular Account of the Places in which we anchored 
during bur Pajfage through the Streight, and of the 
Shoals and Rocks that lie near them. 1 53 

C H A P: IV. 

The Paffage from the Stf eight, of Magellan^ to King 
George the Thirdly Mind, called Otaheiif^ in the 
South Sea, with an Account of the Difcoveryof feve» 
ral other IJlands, and a Defcrtption of their Inhabi- 
tants. i6z 


jin account of the Difcovery of King George the Thirds 
Iflandy or Otaheite, and of feveral Incidents which 
happened both on hoard the Ship^ and on Shore, 173 


The Sick fent on Shore, and a regular Trade ejiahlijhed 
with the Natives. Some Account of their Character 
and Manners, of their Vifits on board the Jhip, and a 
Variety of Incidents that happened during this Inter- 
courfe. 190 


C O iff T E H T J. 

C flf A P. Vil. 

t • 1 • 

Jp.yfccouni of an Bxpedition to difcovir the inland Part 
of the Country^ and our other Tranfa^ions, till we 
quitted the IJlond to fttntime our Voyage. 205 

■ » « •. ■ 

g rH-,A p. VIIL . 

•. \, ■ - • 

4 ^^f^^fi^^^^''^,^^^^ Inkabitant^efQtdsieitei 

and of their domejlic Life, Manner s, and Arts. 211 

C .. H^ A i?. IX. 

■ * * m « ( 

Ba£age fjcom. Qtal^tf. to-Timan. ; with fomeJuouni^ of 
jeveral other I^ruk^thalvier^ dtjmnredin- the South 

. *\< 

€ H<T A, P. X. 

• • • - 

§0«f6 Accent, ^tirprejjmi Sf^eoftbi IfiandofTinian, 

\ and Olftr' Mffiplt^^ifft tionsi with tmat happened in 

.i}M,^Mflfrifn^tbxncetoBaUw 226 

C H A P. XII. 

Tranfa^ions at Batavia^ and an Jteount of the Paffage 
from thence to the Cape of Good Hope, 233 

C H A P. Xllfi 

An Account of our Tranfa^ions at the Cape ofGoodHope, 
and of the Return of the Dolphin to England. 238 


C H A P. I. 

The Run froffi Plymouth to Madeira f and' from thenct 
through the Streight of Magellan. 249 




^he Fqf^ftm Cape Pf/lar^ at tie Weftem Entrana 

iff the Stteighti if Magellan , to Mafafkero ; with 

Jbme Account of the IJlu nd. 258 


Thie fMffctgefrom Mafafuertfto^ien Cbarlotte'^s Ifiand: 
Several mijiaket corteHed concerning Davis* s Land^ 
and an Account of fame fmali IJIandSf fuppofed to be 
the fame that were feen by ^iros. 274 


jtn Account of the Difcovery of ^een Charlotte* s I/lands ; 
with a Defcription of them and their Inhabitants ^ and 
of what happened at Egmont Ifland. 283 

C H A P. V. 

Dtparture from Egmont Ifland^ and Paffage to Nova 
Britannia ; with a Defcription of feveral other 
IJlandSf and their Inhabitants. 296 

C H A P. VI, 

Difcovery of a Strei^t ^viding the Land called Nova 
Britannia into two Ijlands ; with a Defcription offe* 
veral ffmdl Ijlands^ that lie in the Pajfagey and the 
Land on each Side ; with the Inhabitants. 305 

C H A P. VII. 

The Paffage from Sf. George'* s Channel to the Ijland of 
Mindanao ; with an Account of many Ijlands that were 
feen J and Incidents that happened by the Way. 3 1 1 



CHAP, vni. 

Some Account of the Coaft of Mindanao^ and the IJIands near 
it J in which feveral Miftakes ofDampier are correSfed. 


The Pajfage from Mindanao to the IJland Celebes ; with 
a particular Account of the Streight of Macajfar ; in 
which many Errors are corrected, 327 

C H A P. X. 

TranfaSlions off Macajfar 9 and the Pajfage thence to 

Bonthain. 333 

C H A P. XI. 

TranfaSiions at Bonthain, while the Vejfel was waiting 
for a Wind to carry her to Batavia, with fome Ac- 
count of the Place 9 the Town of Macajfar , and the 
, adjacent Country i, 339 


Pajfage from Bonthain Bay, in the IJland of Celeies, to 
Batavia. TranfaSfions there, and the Voyage round 
the Cape of Good Hope to England. 348 


• * 

C H A P. I. 


The Pajfage from Plymouth to Madeira, with fome 

Account -of that Ifland, 367 

C H A P. IL 

The Pajfage from Madeira to Rio de Janeiro, with 
fome Account of the Country, and the Incidents that 
happened there* 273 

C O N T E -N T S. 


Sr5^^ Paffagefrom Rio de Janeiro to the Entrance of tbe 
Sir eight if Le Maire^ with a Defer ipticn of fome of 
the Inhabitants of Terra del Fuego. 398 


An Account of what happened in afcending a Mountain 
to fearch for Plants* 403 

C H A P. V. 

The Paffage through the Str eight of Le Maire, and a fur^ 
ther Defer iption of the Inhabitants of Terra del Fuego^ 
and its Prodtt^ions, 410 


A general Defmption of the 5. E. part of Terra dtt^ 
FuegQ, and the Streigbt of Le Maire ; with fome 
Remarks on Lord Anforfs Account of them ^ andDi^ 
reef ions for the Paffage Wfjlward, round this part of 
Ame/ka^ into the South Seas, 416 

CHAP. yiL 

The Sequel of the Paffage from Cape Horn to the neivly 
difcovered Iflands in the South Seas ; with a Defcrip- 
tion of their Figure and Appearance f fome Account of 
the Inhabitants^ and fever al Incidents that happened 
during the Courfe^ and at the Ship^s Arrival among 
them. 422 

C H A P. VIII. . 

The Arrival of the Endeavour at Otaheiiey called by 
Captain Wallis King George the lUd's IJland. Rules 
e/lablijhed fir Traffic with the Natives y and an Ac- 
count of fever al Incidents which happened in a Vifitto 
Tootahah andTubourai Tamaidcy two Chiefs. 430 



C H A P. IX. 

A Place fixed upon f (ft an Otfervat^ry and Fort : an E^i- 
curfion into the Woodsy and its Cot^eifumcis, 7he 
Fort ere^ed : a Vifit from fevered Chiefs on board and 
at the Fort, with fome Account of the Muftc of the 
Natives, and the Manner in which they difpofe of their 
Dead. 438 

C H A P. 3f; 

An Excurfton to the Eajhvard, an Acciunt offeveral In- 
cidents that happened both on board and on Jhore, and of 
the firfl Interview with Obereay the Perfon who, when 
the Dolphin was here,, was fuppofed to he the ^ueen of 
the IJland, with a Defcription of the* Fori. 445 

C H A P. XI. 

The Obforvatory fa ufi^; the$uudrantfhkn, and Con- 
fequences of the Theft : AVifit rt Tootoimh : ^Defcrip- 
tion of 0t WrefUmg-maHh : Europeftn eeds fiwn : 
Names given to our People by the Indians. 4 5 $ 


Some Ladies vifit the Fort with very uncommon Cerenw- 
nies. The Infant attend Divine Service, and in the 
Evening exhibit a mofl extraordinary Spe^ade. Tu- 
bourai Tamaide falls into Temptation, 466 

CHAP. xin. 

Another Vifit to To otahah, with various Adventures : 
Extraordinary Amufement of the Indians', with Re- 
marks upon its rreforatiom u obferve the Trunfit 
of Vmuey gndwhaibaffptfUiinthi meantin^ at the 
Fort. 472 

G E N E- 


MIS Majefty, fpon after his acc^on to the 
crown, formed a defign of fending out veffels for 
, ig difcoverles of countries hitherto unknown ; 
and in the year 1764, the kingdom being then in a 
ilate of profound peace, he proceeded to put it into 
execution. The t)olphin and the Tamar were dif- 
patched under the command of Commodore Byron ; 
and the beft account of his Majefty's motives and de- 
fign that can be given, will be found in the following 
preamble to Commodore Byron's inftruftions, which 
are dated the 1 7th of June in that y^ar. 

** Whereas nothing can redound more to the 

** honour of this nation, as a maritime power, to the 

" dignity of the Crown of Great Britain, and to th^ 

** advancement of the trade and navigation thereof, 

" than to make difcoveries of countries hitherto un- 

** known ; and whereas there is reafon to believe that 

lands and iflands of great extent, hitherto unvifited by 

any European power, may be found in the Atlantic 

•* Ocean, between the Cape of Good Hope and the 

" Magellanic Streight, within the latitudes convenient 

** for navigation, and in climates adapted to the pro-, 

. *• d\ice of commodities ufeful in commerce ; and 

<* wher^^5 


** whereas his Majefty's iflands, called Pcpys* Ifland^ 
*^ and Falkland's" Iflands, lying within the (aid trad^ 
** notwithftanding their having been firft difcovercd 
** and vifited by Britifti navigators, have never yet 
*' been fo fufficiently furveyed, as that an accurate 
** judgment may be formed of their coafts and pro- 
** duGt ; his Majefty taking the premifes into confi- 
" deration, and conceiving no conjun^ure fo proper 
** for an enterprize of this nature, as a time of pro- 
'^ found peace, vchicb his kingdoms at prefent hap- 
" pily enjoy, has thought fit that it (hould now be 
** undertaken." 

The Dolphin was a roan of war of the fixth rate, 
mounting twenty- four guns : her complement was 
150 men, with three Lieutenants, and thirty -feven 
petty officers. 

The Tamar was a floop, mounting (ixteen guns : 
her complement was ninety men, with three Lieute- 
Dants, and two and. twenty petty officers, and the 
conunand of her was given to Captain Mouat. 

Commodore Byron returned in the month of May 
in the year 1 766, and in the mopth of Auguft follow- 
ing, the Dolphin was again fent out, under the com* 
mand of Captain Wallis, with the Swallow, com- 
manded by Captain Carteret, in profecution of the 
fame general deiign of making difcoveries in the 
Southern Hemifphere. The equipment of the Dolphin 
was the fame as before. The Swallow was a floop 
mounting fourteen guns ; her complement was ninety 
men with one Lieutenant, /and twenty-two petty 

Thefe veffels proceeded together till they came with- 
in fight of the South Sea, at the weftern entrance of 
the Streight of Magellan, and from thence returned, 
by diflFcrent routes to England. 

In the latter part of the year 1 767, it was refolved, 
by the Royal Society, that it would be proper to fend 
perfons into fome part of the South Sea, to obferve a 
tranfit of the planet Venus over the Sun's di(k, which, 
according to the aftronomical calculation, would happen 
in the year 1 769 ; and that the ifls^nds called Marque*- 
fes de Mendoza, or thofe of Rotterdam or Amfterdam, 
were the propereft places then known for making fuch 
obfervation. In 



In confequence of ttiefe refolutions, it was recom- 
mended to his Majeily, in a memorial from the Society, 
dieted February 17689 that he would be pleafed to or- 
der fuch an obfervation to be made ; upon which his 
Majefty fignified to the Lords Commiflioners of the 
Admiralty his pleafure that a ihip fhould be provided 
to carry fuch obfervers as the Society ihould think fit 
to the South Seas ; and in the beginning of April foI«» 
lowing the Society received a letter from the Secretary 
of the Admiralty, informing them that a bark of three 
hundred and feventy tons had been taken up for that 
purpofe. This vefTel was called the Endeavour, ana 
the command of her given to Lieutenant James Cook, 
a gentleman of undoubted abilities in aftronomy and 
narigation, who was foon after, by the Royal Society, 
appointed, with Mr. Charles Green, a gentleman 
who had long been afliftant to Dr. Bradley at the 
Royal Obfervatory at Greenwich, to obferve the tranfit. 

While this veffel was getting ready for her expedi- 
tion. Captain Wallis returned; and it having been 
recommended to him by Lord Morton, who went 
out, to fix on a proper place for this aftrononfical ob- 
fervation, he, by letter, dated on board the Dolphin, 
the 1 8th of May 1768, the day before he landed at 
Haftings, mentioned Port Royal harbour, in an ifland 
which he had difcovered, then called George's Ifland, 
and fmce Otaheite : the Royal Society therefore, by 
letter, dated the beginning of June, in anfwer to an 
application from the Admiralty to be informed whither 
they would have their obfervers fent, made choice of 
that place. 

The Endeavour had been built for the coal trade ; 
and a veffel of that conftruSion was preferred for many 
reafons, particularly becaufe (he was what the failors 
call a good fea-boat, was more roomy, would take 
and lie on the ground better, and might be navigated 
by fewer men than other veflels of the fame burden. 

Her complement of officers and men was Lieutenant 
Cook the Commander, with two Lieutenants under 
him, a Mafter and Boatfwain, with eacli two Mates, 
a Surgeon and Carpenter, with each one Mate, a Gun- 
ner, a Cook, a Clerk and Steward, two Quarter-mafters, 
an Armourer, a Sailmaker, three Midfhipmen, forty- 


one able feamen, twelve marioes, and nine fervan^s ; 
in all eighty-four perfons, befides the Commander: 
She was vi^ualied for eighteen months^ and took on 
board ten carriage and twelve fwivel guns, with good 
ftore of ammunition and other neceflarics. The £n-=' 
deavour alfo, after the aftronomical obfervation (hoyld 
be made, was ordered to profecute the defign of makiiK^ 
difcoveries in the South Se4s. What was elFe^ed by 
thefe veflels in their feveral voyages, will appear iit 
the coiirfe of this work » of which it is now rieeeflary 
to give fome account. 

It is drawn up from the Journals that were kept by 
the Commanders of the feyeral fliips, which were put 
into my hand^ by the Lords Commiffioners of the 
Admiralty for that purpofe : and, with refpeS to the 
voyage of the Endeavour, frc^m other paperjB equally 
authentic; an aiCftance which I have acknowledged 
in an introdujSion to the account of her voyage. 

When I -firft undertook the work, it was debated, 
ivhether it (hould be written in the.firftor third perfon : 
it w^s readily acknowledged on all hands, that a naf* 
rative ki the firft perfon would, by bringing the Ad- 
venturer and the Reader nearer together, without the 
intervention of a ftranger, more ftrongly excite an 
intereft, and confequently afford more entertainment ; 
but it was otijeSed, that if it was written in the 
name of the feyeral Commanders, I could exhibit only 
a naked narrative, without any opinion or fentiment 
of my own, however fair on the occafion, and without 
noting the fimilitude or difiiovlitude between the opi- 
nions, cuftoms, or manners of the people now firft 
difcovered, and thofe of nations that have been long 
known, or remarking on any other incident or parti- 
cular that might occur, In anfwer to this objeSion, 
however, it was faid, that as the manufcript would 
be fubmitted to the Qentlemen in whofe names it 
would b^ written, fiippofing the narratives to be in the 
6rft perfon, and nothing pubiifhed without their 
apprx>bation, it wo.gld "" fignify little wtw? conceived 
the tentimeiHs that (hould Ue expreffed^ and there- 
fore I might ft ill be at liberty to exprefs my own. 
1)3 this opinion all pirtic^ acquicfgcd j and it wa:s 


ge;neral intrqduction, 

determined that the narrative (hpul^ be written in (h(( 
firft perfon^ and that I might, notwithstanding^ inter- 
iperfe fuch feotiments and obfervations as my fubjed 
Ihould fugged : t}iey are not indeed numferousy and 
when they occur, are always curfory and fliort ; for 
nothing would have beep more abfurd than to interrupt 
an interefliiig narrative, or new defcriptions^ by hypo- 
tKefis and differtation. They will however be found 
znoft frequent in the account of the voyage of the En- 
deavour, and the principal reafon is, that although it 
fiands lad in the feries, great part of it was printed be- 
fore the others were written, fo that feveral remarks, 
which would naturally have been fuggefted by the in- 
cidents and defcriptions that would have occurred in the 
preceding voyages, were anticipated by (imilar incidents 
and defcriptions which occurred in this. 

Some particulars that are related in one voyage will 
perhaps gpp^ar to be repeated in another, as they would 
.peceflarily have been if the feveral Commanders had 
written the account of their voyages themfelves; for a 
digeft could not have been made of the whole, without 
invading the right of each navigator to appropriate the 
relation of what be had feen : thefe repetitions however, 
taken together, will be found to fill but a few pages of 
the book. 

That no doubt might remain of the fidelity with 
.^liich I have related the events recorded in my mate- 
rials, the manufcript account of each voyage was read 
to the r^fpei^ive Commanders at the Admiraltv, by 
the appointment of Lord Sandwich, who was himfelf 
prefent daring much the grcateft part of the time. The 
account of the voyage of the Endeavour was alfo read 
to Mr. 3anks and Dr. Sojander, in whofe hands, as 
well as in thofe pf Captab Cook, the manufcript was 
left for aconfiderable time after the reading. Commo- 
dore Byron, alfo Captain Wallis and Captain Carteret, 
had the manufcripts of their refpeSive voyages to pe- 
nife, after they had been read at the Admiralty in their 
prefence, and fuch emendations as they fuggefted were 
made. In order thus to authenticate the voyage of Cap- 
t^ip Cook, the account of it was firft written, becaufe 
it WAS expefted, when his journal was put into my 

Vol. I. b hands. 


hands, that he would have failed on the voyage he is 
now making in lefs five months. 

It will probably be thought, by many Readers, that I 
have related the nautical events too minutely; but it 
muft be remembered, that minutely to relate thefe 
events was the great objeft of the work. It was in par- 
ticular thought neceflary to infert the fituation of the 
ihip at different hours of the day, with the bearings 
of different parts of the land while (he was navigating 
feas, and examining fhores, that hitherto have been al- 
together unknown, in order to afcertain her track more 
minutely than could be done in any chart, however 
targe the fcaie, to defcribe with critical exaSnefs the 
bays, headlands, and other irregularities of the coaft ; 
the appearance of the country, its hills, vallies, moun- 
tains, and woods, with the depth of water, and every 
other particular that might enable future navigators ea- 
fily to find, and fafely to vifit, every part of it. I was 
not indeed myfelf fufficiently apprifed of the minutenefs 
that was necefTary in this part of the work ; fo that I 
was obliged to make many additions to it, after I had 
prepared my manufcript. It is however hoped, that 
thofe who read merely for entertainment, will be com- 
penfated by the defcription of countries, which no Eu- 
ropean had before vifited, and manners, which in 
many inflances exhibit a new pidure of human life. In 
this part the relation of little circumflances requires no 
apology; for it is from little circumflances that the re- 
lation of great events derives its power over the mind. 
An account that ten thoufand men periihed in a battle, 
that twice the number were fwallowed up by an earth- 
quake, or that a whole nation was fwept away by a 
peftilence, is read in the naked brevity of an index, 
without the leaft emotion, by thofe who feel themfelves 
flrongly interefted even for Pamela, the imaginary 
heroine of a novel that is remarkable for the enume- 
ration of particulars in themfelves fo trifling, that we 
almoft wonder how they could occur to the author's 

The mofl efTeftual way to prevent obfcurity and con- 
fufion in relating events, is to ra^ge theni in order of 
time, which however cannot be done in an unbroken 
feries, when the complicated and multifarious objeds 


of hiftory are to be recorded ; but as each of the narra- 
tives in this work is a (ingle thread, the tranfadions of 
every day are fet down in a regular fucceflion, and the 
tinae noted in the margin. 

By this narrative, it will be feen how far the exift- 
ence ornon-exiflence of a fouthern continent is already 
afcertained, and what land has in the courfe of thefe 
voyages been firft difcovered : and a careful attention in 
comparing the latitudes and longitudes afligned to the 
various places mentioned herein, will prevent any mif- 
tafce that might arife from the fame name having been 
given to different iflands, &c. &c. by the feveral Com- 
manders in thefe voyages. 

As it is but a very few years fince the exiftence of a 
race of men above the common flature, upon the coaft 
of Patagonia, wsls the fubjeS of eager difpute among 
all ranks of people in this country, I have brought to- 
gether the whole of the evidence on the queftion, as I 
find It in a cotledion of voyages lately printed in 
France, under the title of ** Hiftoire des Navigations 
aux Terres Auftrales.'* 

'* It muft be acknowledged, that the contrariety of 
the reports that have been made, by ocular witneffes, 
concerning a fa£t eafy to be determined, does not de- 
viate lefs from the common courfe of things than the 
gigantic ftature of the people in queftion. It appears, 
that during an hundred years, almoft all navigators, of 
whatever country, agree in affirming the exiftence of 
a race of giants upon the coaft of Patagonia ; and that, 
during another century, the much greater number 
agree in denying the faft, treating their predeceflbrs as 
idle fabulifts, and imputing their reports either to the 
terror which the rude fiercenefs of a favage people in- 
fpired, or to the natural propenfity of mankind to af- 
fume importance, by pretending to have feen wonder- 
ful things. That men have a ftrange propenfity to 
the marvellous cannot be denied, nor that fear naturally 
magnifies its obje£b ; but though it be allowed, that 
the accounts of the Patagonians have in fome inftances 
been exa^erated, it is certain, that all, who have af- 
firmed their ftature to be gigantic, were not under the 
kflueace of fear ; and it is very ftrange, that nations, . 

b 2 who 


who have an hereditary hatred to each other, and an 
acknowledged oppofition of istereft, fhonld agree in 
aflferting an evident falfehood. 

" In the firft place, it is well known to have hetti 
an opinion long eAablifted, both in oar ancient world 
and in America, that there was once a race of giants 
upon earth, who diilinguifhed themfelves by violence 
and guilt. 

^* Barbenais was told by the inhabitants of South 
Anaerica, that, a deluge having laid Peru under wa- 
ter, the Indians retired to the mountains till the flood 
ihould fubfide ; and that when they came again down 
to the plain, they found there men of an enormous 
ftature, who attacked them with great ferocity, kill* 
ing many, and driving the reft to the caves of the 
rocks; but that having continued in their hiding 
places many years, they faw in the air a young man 
who deftroyed the giants by thunderbolts, and thus 
reftored to them the pofTeiBon of their country. His 
guides alfo (hewed tnm many marks upon a rock, 
which they faid were impreffed by the thunderbolts; 
and nuny bones of an extraordinary fize, which they 
believed to be the remains of the giants ; but they did 
not pvetend to know when the deluge happened. 
Pedro de *^ Thc Ynca Garcilaflo de la Vega, in his hiftory 
cicca, ch. of Pefu, relates, that according to a tradition univer- 
fc. Hift"du f^^^'y received, a number ofveflels or junks came to 
Perou, liv. Point Saint Helena with a company of giants on board, 
K. chap. 9. ^f ^ ftature fo enormous that the natives of the coun- 
try were not higher than their knees : that their eyes 
were as broad as the bottom of a plate, and their limbs 
proportionably large : that fome of them were naked, 
and others (lightly covered with the (kins of beads : 
• that when they came on (bore, they dug a pit of an 
aftonifhing depth in the rock, and each of them con- 
fuming as much proviftons as would be fufficient for 
fifty men, the country was Toon exhaufted, and they 
were obliged to live upon fi(h : that they feezed tbc 
women of the country, to whom their brutality was 
fatal ; and afterwards giving themfelves up to worfe 
vices, the whole race was deftroyed by 6re from Hea- 
. ven, which jiowevtr left their bones unconfumed, as 
: a lading menu)rial of Divine vengeance. Bones of an 



axnaiiog fixe arefatd to have been found in this coan* 
try, and fr^ments of teeth, which, if they were 
whole, mud have weighed half a poond. 

** Thofe who wiih to know all the particulars of 
thcfc American traditions, nnay fatisfy their curiofity by 
reading Torquemado, lib. i. chap. 13 and 14, where 
they will find that thefe fables are very fimilar to thofe 
relative to the fime fubjeft in other parts of the world. 
The bones, faid to have been the bones of giants, 
Tw^hich have been found in America, and which were 
Ihewn at Mexico and other places in the year 1 5 50; 
are probably the bones of fome animal unknown ; and 
indeed nothing lefs than the fight of fuch a race of hu- 
man beings, or of an entire (keleton, can be admitted 
as a proof of their exiftence. Turner, the naturalift, 
reports, that in the year 16 10, the thigh bone of a 
man was (hewn in London, who mud have been of 
an enormous fixe ; but this teftimony is not decifive ; 
though the author adds, that he had himfelf feen near 
the river Plata, upon the coafl of Brafil, a race of 
giants who went (lark naked ; that the hinder part of 
their heads was flat, and not round ; that the women 
had long black hair, as coarfe as a horfc's mane ; that 
the men were excellent archers, and, befides their bow 
and arrows, carried two maffive balls or bullets, each 
faflened to one end of a thong, a weapon which they 
ufed with great dexterity and force, either by ftriking 
•with it, or throwing it like a ftone from a fling. One 
of thefe giants, he fays, was twelve feet high ; but 
acknowledges that he faw no other fo tall. 

** Of this faft there are other ocular witnefTes, who 
perhaps may be thought more worthy of credit : 
among the Spaniards, Magellan, Loaifa, Sarmiento, 
and Nodal : among the Englilh, Cavendith, Ha'A-- 
kins, and Knivet ; among the Dutch, SebaW, de 
Noort, le Maire, and Spllberg ; and among the 
French, thofe who went in the expedition from Alar- 
feilles and Saint Maloes. Thofe who bear teftimony 
to the contrary, are Winter, the Dutch Admiral Her.-. 
mite, Froger in de Gennes's Narrative, and Sir John 
Narborough. Winter, after having himfelf feen the 
inhabitants of Patagonia, fays, in dire6t: terms, that 
the accounts of their being giants are falfchoods, in-* 



vented by the Spaniar.ds ; and it mufl: be confefledy 
that the teftimony of thefe navigators at lead couo* 
terbalances the evidence on the other fide, efpecially 
as they were beft acquainted with the Streight of Ma- 
gellan, and the neighbouring country. Such naviga- 
tors as have vifited this country, and are filent with 
refpeS to the ftature of the inhabitants, particularly 
Sir Francis Drake, muft be confidered as wltnefles 
againft the fa£l in queftion ; for their filence is a proof 
that they fav/ nothing extraordinary. It muft, how- 
ever, be obferved, in the firft place, that the greater 
part of thofe, who hold the affirmative in this quefti* 
on, fpeak of people that inhabited the defert coaft of 
Patagonia to the eaft and weft ; and that, on the con- 
trary, thofe who hold the negative, fpeak of thofe 
who inhabit the Streight upon the fides of the utmoft 
point of America to thcf north and fouth. The na- 
tions of thefe two diftriSs are certainly not the fame ; 
and if the firft have fometimes been feen in the Streight, 
it cannot be thought ftrange, confidering how (bort 
the diftance is from Port Saint Julian, which appears 
to be their ordinary habitation. Magellan and his 
people faw them there very often, and trafficked with 
them, fometimes on board his fhips, and fometimes 
onfliore: nor was this all, he feized two of them^, 
and kept them prifoners in his veflel ; one of whoro 
was baptized fome time before his death, and taughjt 
feveral words of his language to Pigafette, who form- 
ed them into a little diQ:ionary : thefe are hSts than 
which nothing can be more pofitive, or lefs fubjefk to 

** I affirm, fays Knivet, that when I was at Port 
Defire I meafured feveral dead bodies that I found bu- 
ried there, which were from fourteen to fixteen fpans 
high, and faw tracks in the fand which muft have been 
left by people of nearly the fame ftature. I have alfo 
frequently fecn at Brazil one of the Patagonians who 
had been taken at Port Saint Julian, and though he 
was but a youth, he meafured no lefs than thirteen 
fpans : and our Englifti prifoners at Brazil have af- 
fured me that they had feen many men of the fame 
:(laturc upon ihe coafts of th? Streight." Sebald de 



Wert fays, that when he was in the Streight, he faw 
giants of the fame bulk, who tore up trees by the roots, 
that were a fpan in diameter, with great facility; he 
alfo faw women that were gigantic, and others of the 
common flature. Oliver de Noert reports, that he 
faw favages of a gigantic flature at Port Defire, but 
does not call them giants : that he took fix of them 
prifoners, and carried them on board his ihtp^ one of 
whom afterwards told him that the country was inha- 
bited by many different nations, four of which were 
of the ordinary flature : but that father within the 
land, in a territory called Coint there was a gigantic 
people, diflinguifhed by the name of Tircmencn, 
who were continually making war upon the other na* 
tions. Spilberg relates, that he faw a nun of an ex- 
traoc<linary flature upon the coafl of Terra del Fuego, 
but that the feptilchres which he found, had received 
men of the comimon height. Aris-Clafz, who was 
en board La Maire's fleet in the charader of Com- 
miflary, a man well worthy of credit, declares, that 
having viftted the fepulchf es which he diicovered upon 
the coaA of Patagonia, he found the bones of men 
who were between ten and devcn feet high, which 
convinced him that the reports of former navigators 
were true; and here it mufl be confefTed that the ex- 
amination was made in cold blood, when it cannot 
be pretended that the obje£k was magnified by fear. 
Some others, particularly Nodcl and Sir Richard 
Hawkins, content themfelves with faying that thefe 
lavages were a head taller than the inhabitants of Eu- 
rope, and of fuch a flature that the people on board 
their vefTels called them giants. Such is the evidence 
of paft times ; we fball now confider that of the age 
in which we live. In 1 704, the Captains Harrington 
and Carman, who commanded two French vefTels, 
one from Saint Maloes, and the other from ^fa^^eille.s, 
faw at one time feven of thefe giants in PofTeflion Bay, 
at another time fix, and at a third time they had an 
interview with a company of more than four hundred 
men, part of whom were gigantic, and part of the 
common flature. That Harrington and Carman re- 
ported this fa£l, is attefled by M. Frezier, fuperin- 
tendant of the fortifications of Bretagnc, a man well 



known^ dtid univerfally ifeft^icrticd. Frezier neter faw 
any of thfefe favages himfelf ; but he fays, that being 
upon the coaft of Chili, Don Pedro Molina, Gover- 
nor of the ifle of Chilo^, and niany other eye-witnefles, 
told hiiti, that there was^ at a confiderable diftance 
within the country, afl Indian rtation, called by their 
ncighbonrs Cauehuesy who foinetimes came down to 
the Spanilh fettlements, that wer^ more than nine feet 
high, and were the fartie race with the Patagor.ians 
who live on the eaftern coaft, and have been menti- 
oned in former relations. We are told by Reaveneau 
de Luffan, that the Spanisirds who live upon the fea 
coaft in f^outh America report, that certain white In- 
dians inhabit part of Chili, with whom they are al- 
ways at war : that they are of aft enormous bulk and 
ftaturc, and that whenever they take a Spaniard prl- 
foner, they force up the breaft-bone, as they would 
the (hell of d tortoife, and tear out his heart. Narbo- 
rough, on the contrary, though he agrees that the 
Indians who inhabit the moui^tains near the Spanifti 
fettlements at Chili, and perpetually commit hoftilities 
againft theni, are tall, exprefsly denies that their fta- 
ture is gigantic. He had often meafured the Ikulls 
and the prints of the feet of the favages on the coafts 
of the Streight of Magellan, Which, he fays, were 
of the common fi^e : he had atfo feveral times feen 
numerous companies of them even at Port Saint Ju- 
lian, and thefe he declares not to be taller or bigger 
than other men. Nafborough is certainly a credible 
witncfs, and his evidence is direflly to the point : it is 
confirmed by that of l/Hermitc, who fays, that the 
people he faw upon the coaft of Terra del Fuego, tho' 
they were robuft and well-proportioned, were nbt larger 
than the inhabitants of Europe ; and laftly, M. de 
Gennes bears teftimony that none of the people he faw 
at Port Famine were fix feet high. 

** Thofe who diligently confider thefe different re- 
lations will find reafon to believe, that all the parties 
have fpoken truth, each of them faithfully reporting 
what he faw; and therefore that the exiftence of a gi- 
gantic race in thefe parts is a real faQ, not to be quef- 
lioned merclv becuufe they were not feen by every ma* 
riner that vifited the country. 


CENERAL introduction. xiii 

It appears to be well eilabliflied, that the inhabitants 
6f the two borders of the Streight are of the common 
ftature; and that the race diftinguifhcd by the name of 
Patagonians, made their ccnflant refidence upon the 
defart coafts, cither in fonie miferable hovels in the 
depth of the woods, or in fome caverns of the rocks, 
fqarcely acceflible to any but themfelves : and it ap- 
pears from the account of Oliver de Noort, that when 
the Streight began to be frequented by European vef- 
felsy they hid themfelves as foon as the (hips were in 
light, which accounts both for their not being feen, and 
for the recent marks of inliabitants upon a coafl that 
appeared to be a defart. Perhaps the frequent ap- 
pearance of our (hips upon this coaft, at length deter- 
mined them to quit it as a fettled habitation, returning 
only at particular feafons of the year, and taking up 
their confiant refidence in the interior part of the coun* 
try. Lord Anfon was of opinion, that they refided 
ftatedly on the wcftern fide of the Cordeliers, and vi- 
fited the eaftern fide occafionally, but not often : fo 
that if they have been rarely feen by the veflcls which 
have touched at the coaft of Patagonia for the laft hun- 
dred years, the reafon probably is, that being, like 
other Indian nations, defirous to conceal themfelves 
from ftrangers, they retired to the mountains. It is 
indeed to be regretted, that no fkeleton of thefe peo- 
ple has been brought into Europe; and it may at firft 
feem ftrange, that no fuch evidence of their uncommon 
flature (hould have been produced, as it is known that 
feveral of them, who had been made prifoners by the 
Commanders of European veflcls, died on board foon 
after they came into a hot climate ; but the wonder 
will ceafe, when it is confidered that all mariners have 
a fuperftitious opinion, ** That the compafs v^ill not 
travcrfe, if there is a dead body on board the veflel." 
Upon the whole, it may reafon ably be prefumcd, that 
the concurrent teftimony of late navigators, particu- 
larly Commodore Byron, Captain Wallis, and Cap- 
tain Carteret, Gentlemen of unqueflionale veracity, 
who are ftill living, and who not only faw and con- 
verfed with thefe people, but meafured them, v/ill put 

an end to all the doubts that have been hitherto enter- 


tained of their exiftence." 




Having thus brought together the whole of the cvi- 
dence for and againfl: a fad, which has long been the 
objed both of popular and philofophical curiofity, I 
ihall not anticipate any opinion thaf the Reader may 
form concerning future navigations, in the trad which 
has been defcribed by any of the veffels, whofe voy- 
ages are here related, except that although it Is the 
opinion of Commodore Byron, who fpent feven weeks 
and two days in pafling through the Streight of Ma* 
gellan, that it may be pafTed in three weeks at the 
proper feafon, yet the paflage cod Captain Waliis near 
four months, though he pjerformed it precifely at the 
time recommended by the Commodore, having reach- 
ed the eaftern entrance about the middle of December. 
I cannot however difmifs my Readers to the follow- 
ing narratives, without exprefling the regret with which 
I have recorded the deftrudion of poor naked favages, 
by our fire-arms, in the courfe of thefe expeditions^ 
when they endeavoured to reprefs the invaders of their 
country ; a regret which I am confident my Readers 
will participate with me ; this however appears to be 
an evil which, if difcoveries of new countries are at- 
tempted, cannot be avoided : refiftance will always be 
made, and, if thofe who refift are not overpowered, 
the attempt muft be relinquifhed. It may perhaps be 
faid, that the expence of life upon thefe occafions is 
more than is neceflary to convince the natives, that 
further conteft is hopelefs ; and perhaps this may fome- 
titnes have been true: but it muft be conlidered, that 
if fuch expeditions are undertaken, the execution of 
them muft be intrufted to perfons not exempt from hu- 
man frailty; to men who are liable to provocation by 
fodden injury, to unpremeditated violence by fudden 
danger, to error by the defeO: of judgment or the 
ftrength of paflion, and always difpofed to transfer 
laws, by which they are bound themfclvcs, to others 
who are not fubjeft to their obligation ; To that every 
excefs thus produced is alfo an inevitable evil. 

If it fhould be faid, that fuppofing thefe mifchiefs to be 
inevitable in attemptingdifcoveriesjdifcoveries ought not 
to be attempted ; it muft be confidered, that upon the 
only principles on which this opinion can be fupported, 
the rifk of life, for advantages of the fame kind with 



thofe propofed in difcovering new countries, is in every 
other inftance unlawful. If it is not lawful to put 
the life of an Indian in hazard, by an attempt to ez- 
axtiine the country in which he lives, with a view to 
increafe commerce or knowledge ; it is not lawful to 
riik the life of our own people in carrying on commerce 
with countries already known. If it be faid, that the 
ri(k of life in our own people is voluntary, and that 
the Indian is brought into danger without his confent, 
the confequence will ftill follow ; for it is univerfally 
agreed, at leaft upon the principles of Chriftianity, that 
men have no more right over their own lives than over 
the lives of others; and fuicide being deemed the word 
fpecieis of murder, a man muft be proportionably cri- 
minal inexpofing his own life, for any purpofe that would 
notjuftify his expoflng the life of another. If thegratifi- 
cation of artificial wants, or the increafe ofknowledge, 
are juftifiable caufes for the rifk of life, the landing by 
force on a newly difcovered country, in order to ex«- 
atmne its produce, maybejuflified; if not, every trade 
and profeffion that expofes life for advantages of the 
fame kind is unlawful ; and by what trade or profeP 
iion is not lifeexpofed? Let us examine all the multi- 
tudes that art has employed, from the refiner who 
fweats at the furnace to the fedentary artificer who 
grows pale at the loom, and perhaps none can be found 
in which life is not in fome degree facrificed to ihe ar- 
tificial neceffities of civil fociety. But will it therefore 
be faid, that civil fociety, to which this facrifice is 
made, is for that reafon a combination contrary to the 
great original principles of morality, which arc the bar- 
fis of all duty? Will it be faid, that to excrcife the 
faculties which are the diftinguirtiing charaderiftics of 
our nature is unnatural? and that' beinsc endowed with 
the various powers which in civil focitties only can be 
brought into a£tion,- it was incongruous to the will of 
our Creator that any fuch fociety fnould be formed ; 
and that it would be pleafing to him, if, dill continuing 
in a favage ftate, thefe powers (hould lie torpid in our 
nature, like life in an embrio, during the whole of our 
exiftence? This fu rely muil appear extravagant and 
abfurd in the higheft degree, efpecially as it mud be 
gllowed, that although commerce and arts in fome in- 
ftances expofe life, in others they preferve it ; they fup- 


ply the wants of Nature, without rapine and violence, 
and, by producing a common intereil, they prevent 
the inhabitants of the fame country from being divid- 
ed into different clans, which among favages are al* 
moft perpetually committing hoftilities againft each 
other, with a ferocious cruelty which is not to be 
found whfere civil goverilment and literary knowledge 
have meliorated the manners of mankind. Upon the 
whole, therefore, it feems reafodable to conclude, that 
the increafe of knowledge and commerce are ultimate- 
ly common benefits; and that the lofs of life, which 
happens in the attempt. Is among the partial evils which 
terminate in general good. 

• I have now only to requeft of fuch of my Readers 
as may be difpofed to cenfure me for not having at- 
tributed any of the critical efcipes from danger that I 
have recorded, to the particular interpofition of Pro- 
vidence, that they would, in this particular, allow me 
the right of private judgment; which I claim with the 
greater confidence, as the very fame principle, which 
would have determined them to have done it, has de- 
termined me to the contrary. As 1 firmly believe the 
divine precept delivered by the Author of Chriftianity, 
** There is not a fparrow falls to the ground without my 
father,'* and cannot admit the agency of chance in the 
government of the world, I muft neceffarily refer every 
event to one caufe, as well the danger as the efcape, 
as well the fufferings as the enjoyments of life : and 
for this opinion, I have, among other refpeftable au- 
thorities, that of the Bible. ** Shall we," fays Job, 
receive good from the hand of God, and (hall we 
not receive evil ?" The Supreme Being is equally wife 
and benevolent in the difpenfation of both evil and 
good, as means of afFefting ultimate purpofes worthy 
of his inefi^able perfedions ; fo that whether we con- 
fider ourfelvesas Chriftians or Philofophers, we muft ac- 
knowledge that he deferves blefling not more when he 
gives than when he takes away, if the fall of a fpar- 
row, as well as its prefervation, is imputed to Provi- 
dence, why not the fall as well as the prefervation of 
a man ? and why fhould we attribute to Providence 
only what appears to be good in its immediate efFeft, 
when we fuppofe that the whole concatenation of 




events, whether the prefervation or deftni£^ion of par* 
ticuiar parts, tends ultimately to the good of the whole ? 
The fame voice commiflions the winds to plough up 
the deep, which at the appointed time rebukes themp 
faying, " Peace, be ftiil." If the adorable Author 
and Prefe^ver of Nature was fuch a being as Baal is 
reprefented to have been by the Prophet, when he de- 
rided his woribippers; if he was fometimes on a jour* 
ney, and fometimes a()eep, we might with propriety 
fay, that a fire, happened to break out, or a ftorm to rife, 
but that by the interpoiition of Providence life was pre- 
ferved ; eitprefllons which imply that the mifchief had 
one origin, and the remedy another ; but fuch lan- 
guage certainly derogates from the honour of the great 
Univerlal Caufe, who, ading through all duration, and 
fubfiflingin allfpace, fills immenfity with his prefence, 
and eternity with his power. 

It will perhaps be faid, that in particular indances evil 
neceflarily refults from that conftitution of things which 
is beft upon the whole, and that Providence occafi- 
onally interferes, and fupplies the defefts of the con- 
ftitution in thefe particulars : but this notion will ap- 
pear not to be fupported by thofe fafts which are faid 
to be providential : it will always be found that Pro- 
vidence interpofes too late, and only moderates the 
mifchief which it might have prevented. But who 
can fuppofe an extraordinary interpofition of Provi- 
dence to fupply particular defeSs in the conftitution of 
nature, who fees thofe defe&s fupplied but in part ? 
It is true that when the Endeavour was upon the rock 
off the coaft of New Holland, the wind ceafed, and 
that otherwife fhe muft have been beaten to pieces ; 
but either the fubfiding of the wind was a mere natu- 
ral event or not. If it was a natural event. Providence 
is out of the queftion; at leaft we can with no more 
propriety fay, that providentially the wind cealed, than 
that providentially the fun rofe in the morning. If it 
was not a mere natural event, but produced by an ex- 
traordinary interpofition, correQing a defeft in the 
conftitution of nature, tending to mifchief, it will lie 
upon thofe who maintain the pofiiion to fhew* why 
.an extraordinary interpofition did not take place rather 



to prevent the ftiip*s ftriking, than to prevent her be- 
ing beaten to pieces after (he had ftruck : a very flight 
impulfe upon the fliip's courfe would have caufed her 
to fleer clear of the rock ; and if ail things were not 
equally eafy to Omnipotence, we fliould fay that this 
might have been done with lefs difficulty than a calm 
could be produced by fufpending the general laws of 
Nature, which had brought on the gale. 

I have, however, paid my homage to the Supreme 
Being, confonant to my own ideas of his agency and 
perfe6^ions ; and thofe, who are of opinion that my 
notions are erroneous, mud allow, that he, who does 
what he thinks to be right, and abflains from what he 
thinks to be wroing, acquits himfelf equally of morale 
obligation, whether his opinions are falfe or true. 


^^T^ -3r- 





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3 OS 


' ■«^B 


1 r tT' 

'- r ttr 

HrOr^ _ . '?:^ — _i^^*^— !«— r- ♦»- -..-,fc_ ..^>^ 


the keel. Hence, when a fhip receiyes a frafture in this 
place, fhe is faid to be bilged. 

BIRTH, the ilation in which a fhip rides at anchor. 

Birth, alfofignifies the room (>r apartment where any 
particular number of the officers or fhip's company ufually 
mefs and lefide. 

BOARD, the h'ne over which the fhip runs between 
tack and lack, when fhe is turning to windward, or fail- 
ing againit the diredtion of the wind. 

BOW, the rounding part of a fhip's fide forv^ard, be* 
ginning at the place where the planks arch inwards, and 
terminating where they clofe at the (lem or prow. 

BREAKE!RS, billowy thajt break violently over rocks 
lying under the furface of the fea. 

To BRlNG-TO, to check the courfe of a fl^ip when 
fhe is advancing, by arranging the fails in fuch a manner 
as that they fhall counteract each other, and prevent her 
either from retreating or moving forward. In this fitua- 
rion the fhip is faid to Iie-by» or lie-to. 

BULK-HEADS, certain partitions, or walls, built up 
in feverai plapes of a fhip between two decks, either 
lengthways or acrofs, to form ^nd feparate the various 

BUOY, a fort of clofe calk, or block of wood, faflened 
by a rope to the anchor, to determine i\k^ place where the 
anchor is (Ituated. 


CABLE'S lengtfj, an hundred-ai^- twenty fathoms. 

CAP, a flrong, thick block oJF wood, ufed to confine 
two malls together, when the one is ereded at the h(sad of 
the other, in order to lengthen it. It is for this purpofe 
furnifhed with two holes perpendicular to its length and 
breadth, and parallel to its thicknefs; one of thefe is 
fquare, and the other ro^ind ; the foicmer being fplidiy 
fixed upon the upper end of the lower maft, whilil thle 
latter receives the mail employed to lengthen it| and fe- 
cures it in this pofition. 

CAPSTERN, or Capstan, a flrong maffy coliimn 
of timber, formed like a truncated cone, and having its 
upper extremity pierced with a number of holes to re- 
ceive the bars or levers. It is let down perpendicularly 
through the decks of a fhip, and is 6xed in fuch manner 
that the men, by turning it horizontally with their bars, 
may perform any work which requires an extraordinary 

CASTING, the motion of falling off, fo a? to bring 
the diredion of the wind on either fide of the fliip, after 
it had blown for fome time right-a-head. 



CHAINS, ftroDg links, or plates of iron, the lower 
«nds of which are bolted through the (hip's fide to il^ 
timbers. They are placed at fliort diftauces from each 
other on the fhip's outfide, as being ufed to contain the 
blocks called Jeadeyes, bj which the Jlrroutis of the mads 
are extended. 

CH££KS o/ilf€ maftf the faces, or proje^ing parts on 
each fide of the mails, ufed to fuftain the frame of the top, 
together with the top-maft, which refis immediately upon 

CLAWING, or Clawing-off, the a<£t of beating or 
turning to windward from a lee ihore« fo as to acauire 
a fufEdent diftance from it, toefcape the dangers of iliip^ 

CLEATS, pieces of wood of difierenc jhapes, ufed oc- 
cafionally to faften ropes upon in a fhip. 

CL£NCH, orCLiNCH, that part of a cable, or other 
rope, which is faftened to the ring of the anchor. 
^ CLOS£.»/»if ^*evjW, or Closb-hauled, the general 
at^ngement or trim of a fhip's fails, when fhe endea- 
voiirs to make a progrefs in the neareft direction pofiible, 
towards that point of the com^afs from which th« wind 

To CLEW, or Clue -up, to trufs the fails up to the 
yards by tackles faftened to their lower corners, called 
their clues. 

COCKSWAIN, or Coxen, the officer who manages 
-and fteers a boat, and has the command of the boat's 

COMPANION, a fort of wooden porch placed over 
tlie entrance or ftair-cafe of the mafter's cabin in a mer- 
chant (hip. 

COURSES, a name by which the principal fails of a 
fliip are ufually diilinguifhed, viz. the main-fail, fore«fail, 
and mizen. 

CRANK, the quality of a fhip which, for want of a 
ftiificicfht quantity oihallaft or cargo, is rendered incapa- 
ble of carrying fait without being expofed to ther danger 
of overturning. 

Htf^/'-DECK, a fpace under the quarter-deck of a fhip 
of war, contained between the foremoft bulkhead of the 
Ji^erage and the fore-part of the quarter-deck, 

DRIVING, the ftate of being carried at random along ^ 
the furface of the water, by a ftormor current ; it is ge- 
ceraliy exprefiedof a (hip when broken loofe from her an- 
chors or moorings. 

Vol. I. c "T^ 


. To EDGE a*way^ to decline gradually from the fhore, 
or from the line of the courfe which the fliip formerly 
(leered. x 


FALL, the loofe end of a tackle, or that part upon 
.which the people pull, or hoid, to produce the defired 

To FILL, to brace the fails in fuch a manner as that 
the wind, entering their cavities from behind, dilates 
them fo as to advance the fhip in her courfe. 

FISH, is a long piece of oak, convex on one fide, and 
concave on the other. It is ufed to fallen upon the out- 
fide of the lower mads, as an additional fecurity, to 
ftrengthen them, when it becomes neceifary to carry an 
extraordinary prefTure of fail. The fifties are* alfo eno- 
pioyed for the fame purpofe on any yard, which happens 
to be fprungorfradured. 

FLAW, a fudden breeze, or guft of wind. 

FLOOR, the botto^ of a fliip. 

FOOT of a fail y lower edge or bottom. 

FooT-ROpE, the rope to which the foot of a fail is 

FORE, all that part of a ftiip's frame and machinery 
which lies near the head. 


GAFF, a fort of boom, or pole, ufed to extend the 
upper edge of the mizen. The foremoft, or inner extre- 
mity of it, is furniftied with two cheeks, forming a fe- 
micircle, which inclofe the after part of the maft To as to 
confine the gaff clofe to its refpedive mail, whilft the fail 
is hoifting or lowering. 

-GANGWAY, a narrow platform, or range of plank?, 
laid horizontally along the upper part of a iliip's fide, 
from the quarter-deck to the fore-caflle, for the conveni- 
ence of walking more expediiioufly fore and afi, than by 
defcending into the waid. 

Gangway, is alfo that part of a (hip's {\dQ, both 
. within and without, by which the pafTengers enter and 
depart. It is for this purpofe provided with a fuflicient 
number of (leps, or cleat s^ nailed upcXh the ftiip's fide, 
nearly as low as tbe fiirface of the water j and fometimes 
furniftied with a railed accommodation-ladder, whofe 
lower end projedls from the ftiip's fide, being fecured in 
ihis pofition by iron braces, fo as to render theafcent and 
defcent convenient. 

GRAPPLING, a fniall anchor, fitted with four or ?ivt 
fiiikes, or claws, commonly ufed to ride a boat, or other 
iiiiull veflel. 



GUNNEL, or Gunwale, the upper edge of a fliip*s 


HANDING the y^//r, *ro!ling them up clofe to the yarJ 
or icaft to which they belong. 

HAMMACOES, the fame with hamnioc. 

7a HAUL, ao expreflion peculiar to feanien, implying 
to pull a fingle rope, without the aHiftance of blockf, or 
oiher mechanical powers. 

7a Haul tbe 'wind^ to direct the Oiip's courfe nearer to 
that point of the compafs from which the wind arifet. 

HAWSER, a large rope which holds the middle degree 
between the cable and totv-line. 

HEAVING-y&w/, is the drawing (o much of the cable 
into the ihip, by means of the capltern or wintilafi, at 
that, hy advancing, fhe will be almoft perpendicularly 
above the anchor, and in a proper (ituation to fct (ail. 

H£AVING-/iz»^i&/, the ad of heaving about the cap* 
ftern, till the rope applied thereto becomes ftreight, and 
ready for adion. 

To H££L> to ftoop or incline to either fide, 

HUMMOCK, a little hill. 

JERKED, cured with fait. 

jIB^ orGiB, JiB-BooM, a boom run out from the 
- extremity of the bowfpric, -parallel to its length, and 
ferving to extend the bottom of the jib, and the (lay of 
the fore- top- gallant-maft. 

KEDGE^ a fmall anchor, ufed to keep a iliip (leady 
whilft fhe rides in a harbour or river. 

Falfe KEEL, a ftrong thick piece of timber, bolted to 
the main keel^ to preferve its lower tide. 
. KNEE, a crooked piece of timber, having two branches 
or arms, and generally ufed to conned the beaiiid of a (hip 
with her fides or timbers. 

LAGOON, a lake. 

LARBOARD, the left fide of a Hiip when the eye of a 
fpe^ator is direfted forward. 

LASHING, a piece of rope employed to fatten or fe- 
cure any moveable body in a Ihip. or about her mads, 
fails, or rigging ; alfo the a6t of fallcnlng or fccuring any 
thing by means of the rope ufed for this purpofe, 

LOG, a machine ufed to meafure ihe iliip's head-way, 
or the rate of her velocity as flie advances through the fea. 
It is compofed.of a reel and line, to which is fixed a fmall 
piece of wood, forming the quadrani of a circle. The 

c 2 term 



term log^ however, is more particularly applied to the latter. 
The log is generally about a quarter of an inch thick, and 
five or fix inches from the angular point ta the circumfe- 
rence. It is balanced by a thin plate of lead, nailed upon 
the arch, fo as to fwim perpendicularly in the water, with 
about two- thirds impreiTed under the furface. The line 
is faftened to the Ibg by means of two legs, one of which 
i_ paiTes through a hole at the corner, and is knotted on the 

oppofite fide; whilft the other leg is attached to the arch 
by a pin, fixed in another hole, fo as to draw out occafi* 
onally. By thefe legs the log is hung in eqwlibrio, and 
the line, which is united to it, is divided into certain 
fpaces, which are in proportion to an equal number of 
geographical miles, as a half minute or quarter minute is 
to an hour of time. 

LUG-SAIL, a fquare fail, hoifted occafionally on the 
maft of a boat, or fmall veifel, upon a yard which han^s 
nearly at right angles with the maft. 


TtfMAKE the land^ is to difcover it from a diftant fitua- 
tion, in confequence of approaching it after a fea voyage. 

MIZEN, the aftermoU or hindmoft of the fixed fails of 
a (hip. 

MOORING, the adt of confining and fecuring a fhip in 
a particular ftacion, by chains or cables, which are either 
faftened to the adjacent fhore,' or to anchors in the bottom. 


NEAPED, the fituation of a fhip which is left a-ground 
on the height of a fpring tide, fo that ihe cannot be float- 
ed off till the return of the next fpring. 


OFFING, implies out at fea, or at a competent diftance 
from the fhore, and generally out of anchor-ground. 

OPEN, is exprefTed of any diftant objeft, to which the 
fight or paflage is not intercepted by fomethrng lying or 
coming between. Thus, to be open with any place, is to 
be oppofite to it; as the eqtry of a port, road, or haven. 

OVER-HAULING, the aft of opening and extending 
the feveral parts of a tackle^ or other afTemblage of ropes, 
communicating with blocks or dead-eyes. It is ufed to re- 
move thofe blocks to a fafficient diftance from each other, 
that they may be again placed in a ftate of a^ion, fo as 
to produce the effect required. 

PAINTER, a rope employed to faften a boat either 
along- fide of the fhip to which fhe belongq^ or to fome 
wharf or key. 



PALM tf the anchor ^ the fame with fluke, the broad 
barbed ends of the two arms at the bottom of the /hank. 

PARCELING, certain long narrow flips of canvas, 
daubed with tar, and frequently bound about a rope, in 
the fame manner as bandages are applied to a broken limb 
xn furgcry. 

To PAY, to daub or anoint the furface of any body, in 
order to preferve it from the injuries of the water and wea- 
ther, &c. 

PORTS, the embrafures or openings in the fide of a fliip 
of war, wherein the artillery is ranged in battery upon the 
decks above and below. 

HALP-ponTSyarewhat flops that part of the portwhich 
when the gun is puibed out is left open. 

PURCHASE, any mechanical power employed in raif- 

ing or removing heavy bodies, or in fixing or extending 

the fliip's rigging. 

QUARTER, that part of a fliip's fide which lies to- 
wards the ftern. 

QuARTEit-CLOTHS, long picces of painted canvals, tx-* 
tended on theoutfide of the quarter-netting, from the up- 
per part of the gallery to y}^t gangway, 


RANGE, a fuflicient length of the cable drawn up on 
the deck, before the anchor is cafl loofe from the bow, to 
let it fink to the bottom, without being interrupted, that 
the flukes may be forced the deeper into the ground, by the 
additional weight which the anchor acquires in finking. 

REEF, a certaia portion of a fail, comprehended be- 
tween the top or bottom, and a row of eyelet-holes parallel 

To Reef, is to reduce the furface of the fail in propor- 
tion to the increafe of the wind. 

Reef alfo implies a chain of rocks, lying near the fur- 
face of the water. 

RIGGING, a general name given to all the ropes em- 
ployed to fupport the mafts, and to extend or reduce the 
fails, or arrange them to the difpoficion of the wind. 

RIGHTING, the aa of reiloringa fliip to her upright 
pofition, after fl\e has been laid on a careen, A fliip is alfo 
faid to tight at fea when flie rifes, with her mafts erected, 
after having been prefled down on one fide by the efforts 
of her fails, or a heavy fquall of wind, 


SCARFING, when two pieces of timber are to be join- 
ed together by the ends, if the ends are cut fquare, another 
piece is laid upon and faflened to both, and this is called 
fcarfing, SETTING, 

«yiii AN EXPLANATION, &c. 


VEERING, the fame as wearing, which fee. 

To Veer anuay the caiie, is to flacken it, that it may run 
out of the ihip. 


WAKE, the print or track imjvelfed by the courfc of a 
fliip on the furface ^f the water. 

WALES, an aflfemblage of ftrong planks extended along 

a fhip's (ide, throughout her whole length, at different 

^ heights, and ferving to reinforce the decks, and form the 

curves, by which the vefTel appears light and graceful on 

the water. 

WARP, a fmall rope, employed occafionally to remove 
a fhip from one place to another, in a port, road, or river. 
And hence. 

To Warp, is to change the (ituation of a fliip, by pull- 
ing her from one part of a harbour, &c« to fome other, by 
means of warps. 

WASH-BOARD, a broad thin plank, fixed occafion- 
ally on the top of a boat's fide, (o as to raife it, and be 
removed at pleafure. It is ufed to prevent the fea from 
breaking into the veffei, particularly when the furface is 

To WEATHER, is to fail to windward of fome /hip, 
bank, or head-land. 

To WEAR, the fame as to veer; to perform the ope- 
ration by which a ihip, in changin^er courfe from one 
board to the other, turns her ftern to windward ; it is the 
oppofite to tacking, in which the head is turned to the 
windward and the flern to the leeward. 

WINDLASS, a machine ufed in merchant ihips, to 
heave up the anchors. It is a large cylindrical piece of 
timber, fupported at the two- ends by two frames of wood, 
placed on the oppofiie fides of the deck, near the fore*maft, 
and is turned about as upon an axis, by levers, called 
handfpecs, which are for this purpofe thruft into holes 
bored through the body of the machine. 

WOOLDING, the aft of winding a piece of rope about 
a ma ft or yard, to fupport it in a place where it may have 
h^ttifjbed ox fcarfed \ or when it is compofed of feveriil 
pieces united into one folid. 


YARD, a long piece of timber fufpended upon the mads 
of a iKip, to extend the fails to the wind. 

YAW, the movement by which a fliip deviates from the 
line of her courfe towards the right or left in ftcering. 

...... -. »^ 

Jfc— — — i— ■ ■— — ■— — — ^^^^^» 

A N 


O F A 

VOYAGE found the WORLD. 

_ .t- ■ . - .; - ^ _^ 

C H A P. i. 

The Paffagefrom the Downs to Rio de Janeiro. 

[The longitude in this voyage is reckoned from the meridian 
of London, weft to i8o degrees, and eaft afterwards.] 

ON the 2ift of June 1764, I failed from the June 17^4' 
Downs, with his Majefty's Ihip the Dolphin,'-' JJ!***^ 
and the Tamar Frigate, which I had received '^"'*^' *** 
orders to take Utxier my command : as I was coming 
down the river, the Dolphin got a-ground ; I therefore 
put into Plymouth, where (he was docked, but did 
not appear to have received any damage. At this place 
we changed fome of our men j and having paid the peo- 
ple two months wages in advance, I hoifted the broad 
pendant, and failed again on the 3d of July ; on the r^^^^\^ 
4th we were off the Lizard, and made the beft of our wcdneC 4^ 
way with a fine breeze, but had the mortification to 
find the Tamar a very heavy failer. In the night of Friday 6, 
Friday the 6th, the officer of the firft watch faw either 
a fbipon fire, or an extraordinary phenomenon which 
greatly refembled it, at fome diftance : it continued to 
blaze for about half an hour, and then difappeared. 
In the evening of Thurfday, July the 12th, we fawThurfd. xa, 
the rocks near the ifland of Madeira, which our peo- 
ple call the Deferters j from defertest a name which has 
Vol. L B keen 


July, 1764. bcen^^enjhem from thgir barren and defolate appear- 

^.. ^~ ancc : the next day we flood in for the road of Funchi- 
ale, where, about three o'clock in the afternoon, we 

Saturd. 14. came to an anchor. In the morning of Saturday the 
14th, I waited upon the Governor, who received me 
with great politenefs, and faluted me with eleven guns, 

Sunday 15. whi|ch I returned from the (hip. The next day, he 
returned my vifit at the houfe of the Conful, upon 
which I faluted him with eleven guns, which he re- 
turned from the fort. 1 fourid here his Majefty's (hip 
the Crown,- and the Ferret floop, who alfo faluted the 
broad pendant* 

Having completed our water, and procured all the 
refrefliment I was able for the companies of both the 
(hips, every man hayinjj twenty pounds weight of 

Thurfd. 19. onions for his fea flock, we weighed anchor on Thurf- 

Saturd«2i« ^^Y ^^^ ^9^^* ^^^ proceeded on our voyage. On Sa- 
turday the 2iflj we made the Hland of Palma, one of 
the Canaries, and foon after examining our water, we 
found it would beneceflary to touch at one of the Cape 
de Verd iflands for a frefh fupply. During the whole 
of our courfe from the Li'^ard, we obferved that no fifh 
followed the fliip, which i judged to be owing to her 

Thurfd. 16. being fheathed with copper. By the 26th, our water 
was become foul, and flunk injtolerably, but we puri- 
fied it with a machine, which had been put on board 
for th^ purpofe : it' was akind of ventilator, by which 
air was forced through the water in a continued flream, 
as long as it was necefTafy. 

Friday a;. I" ^^ morning of. the 27th, we made the ifland of 
Sal, one of the "Cape de'Vcrds, and feeing feveral 
turtle upon the water, Wje hoifled out our jolly boat, 
aind attempted to flrike them, but they all went down 
before bur people could come within reach of them. 

Siturd. 28. On the morning of the 28t;h, we were very near the 

Suada ao ^^^^^ ^^ Bona Vifla, the«eiti<|^ of the ifle of May, 

and on Monday the 30th, we came to an anchor in 

on . 30. p^j.^. pj.^yj^ (j^y^ '2'f^g rainy feafon was already fet in, 

which renders this place very unfafe : a large fwell that 
rolls in from the fouthward; makes a frightful furf up- 
on thelhore, and there is reafon every hour to expeft 
a to'rnado, of which, as it is very violent, and blows 
diredly in, the confequences are likely to be fatal ; fo 
that after the 15 th of Augufl no fhip comes hither till 



the rainy feafon is over^ which happens In November; 
for this reafonl made all poflible hafie to fill my water 
and get away. I procured three bullocks for the peo- 
ple, but they were little better than carrion, and the 
weather was fo hot, that the fle(h ftunkin a few hours 
after they were killed. 

On Thurfday the 2d of Augufl, we got again under Thnria. ». 
fail, with a large cargo of fowls, lean goats, and mon- 
kies, which the people contrived to procure for old 
(hirts, jackets, and other articles of the like kind. The 
intolerable heat, and almoft inceflant rain, very foon 
afFeded our health, and the men began to fail down in 
fevers, notwithftanding all my attention and diligence 
to make them (hift themfelves before they flept, when 
they were wet. 

On Wednefday the 8 th, the Tamar fired a gun,wedhcf. 9. 
upon which we fhortened fail till (became up : we found 
that (he had fufFered no damage but the carrying 
away of her top- fail-yard ; however, as wc were obliged 
to make an eafy fail till (he got up another, and the 
wind feemed to be coming again to the fouthward, we 
loft a good deal of way. We continued, to our great 
mortification, to obferve that no fifh would come near 
enough to our copper bottom for us to ftrike, though 
we faw the fea as it were quickened with them at a lit- 
tle diftance. Ships in thefe hot latitudes generally take 
fi(h in plenty, but, except (harks, wc were npt able to 
catch one. 

No event worthy of notice happened till Tuefday Scptem. 
the I ith of September, when, about three o'clock in '^^^' '*' 
the afternoon, we faw Cape Frio, on the coaft of Bra- 
zil; and about noon, on Thurfday the 13th, we an-'^^"'f<^- »3- 
chored in eighteen fathom, in the great Road of Rio 
de Janeiro. The city, which is large, and makes a 
handfome appearant^;>is. governed by the Viceroy of 
Brazil, who is perhaps, in faft, as abfolute a Sovereign 
as any upon earth. When I vifited him, he received 
me in great form ; above fixty officers were drawn up 
before the palace, as well as a captain's guard, who 
were men of a good appearance, and extremely well 
cloathed : his excellency, with a number of perfons of 
the firft diftinftion, belonging to the place, met me at 
the head of the ftairs, upon which fifteen guns Were 
fired from the r.eareft port : we then entered iVve loota 

B 2 sk 


1764. of ft^te, and after converfing about a quarter of an 

S^tember^ hour, itt French, I took my leave, and was difmifled 

with the fame form that had been ufed at my reception. 

•He offered to return my vifit at a houfe which I had 

hired on ihore, but this I declined, and foon after he 

returned it on board. 

The people in my own fliip, who had as much frefti 
meat and greens as they could eat every day, were very 
healthy, but there being many fick on board theTamar, 
I procured a place for them on (hore, where they foon 
recovered. I alfo engaged a number of Portuguefe 
caulkers, as the feams of both the fliips were very open, 
who, after having worked fome time, rendered them 
perfeflly tight. 

While we lay here. Lord Clive, in the Kent India- 
man, came to the port. This Ihip had failed from 
England a month before us, and had not touched any 
where, yet fhe came in a month after us ; fo that her 
paflage was juft two months longer than ours, nowith* 
ilanding the time we loft in waiting for the Tamar, 
which, though the Dolphin was by no means a good 
iailer, failed fo much worfe, that we feldom fpread 
more than half our canvas. The Kent had many of 
her people down in the fcurvy. 
oaobcr. Qjj xuefday the 1 6th of Odober, we weighed an- 
chor, bemg impatient to get to lea, for the heat here 
was intolerable ; but we lay four or five days about the 
bar, waiting for the land breeze to carry us'out, for 
there is no getting out with the fea^ibij^e, and the en- 
trance between the two firft forts is fe narrow, and fo 
great a fea breaks in upon them, tj^at it was not with- 
out much danger and difficulty we got out at laft, and 
if we had followed the advice of the Portuguefe pilots 
we had certainly loft the ihip. As this narrative is pub-% 
lifhed for the advantage of futjire navigators, particu-^ 
larly thofe of our own nattojo, it is alfo neceflary I 
fhould obferve, that the Poraigiiefe here, carrying on 
a great, trade, make it their bufinefs to attend eveyy 
time a boat comes on ihore, and praSife every arti- 
fice in their power to entice away the crew : if other 
methods do not fucceed, they make them drunk, and 
immediately fend them up the country, taking effeSual 
care .to prevent their return, till thefliip to which they 



belong has left the place ; by this pra3ice I loft five of 'J'*^ 
my men, and the Tamar nine : mine I never recovered, 
but the Tamar had the good fortune to learn where hcr*s 
were detained, and by fending out a party in the night, 
furprifed them, and brought them back. 

CHAP. 11. 

Pajfage from Rio de Janeiro to Port Defire ; witb 
fome Defcription of that Place. 

ON Monday the 22d, being now once more at fea, Monday n. 
I called all hands upon deck, and informed them, 
that I was not, as they imagined, bound immediately 
to the Eaft Indies, but upon certain difcoveries, which 
it was thought might be of great importance to our 
country, in confideration of which, the Lords Cora- 
miflloners of the Admiralty had been pleafed to pro- 
mife them double pay, and feveral other advantages^ 
if during the voyage they fhould behave to my fatif- 
faQion. They all exprefled the greateft joy imaginable 
upon the occafion, and aflured me that there was no 
danger or difficulty that they would not with the utmoft 
cheerful nefs undergo in the fervice of their country, 
nor any order that I could give them which they would 
not implicitly and zealoufly obey. 

We continued our courfe till Monday the 29tb, Monday 19. 
having frequently hard gales with fudden gufts, which 
obliged us to ftrike our top-gallant-mafts, and get up 
our (lumps ; but this day it blew a ftorm, with a terri- 
ble fea, and the fhip laboured fo much, that, to cafe .. . : ": 
ier, I ordered the two foremoft, and two aftermofl 
guns to be thrown overboard : the gale continued with 
nearly equal violence all the reft of the day, and all 
night, fo that we were obliged to lie under a double- 
reefed main-fail; but in the morning, it being more Tucfd. 3.0. 
moderate^ and veering from N. W. to S. by W. we 
made fail again, and flood to the weft ward. We were 
now in latitude 35^ 50' S. and found the weather as 
cold as it is at the fame feafon |n England, although 
the month of November here is a fpring month, an - 
fwering to our May, and we were near twenty degrees 

B 3. nearer 



cwld^ nearer the line : to us, who within little more than t 
weekhaid fuffered intolerable heat, this change was nioft 
feverely felt : and the men, who fuppofing they were 
to continue in a hot climate during the whole voyage, 
had contrived to fell not only all their warm clothes, 
but their bedding, at the different ports where we had 
touched, now applied in great diftrefs for flops, and 
were all furniflied for the climate. 

Notrem)>cr. On Friday the 2d of November, after adminiftering 

Friday 2. ^jjg proper oath to the Lieutenants of both fliips, I de- 
livered them their commiffions ; for till this time they 
afted only under verbal orders from me, and expeS- 
ed to receive their commiffions in India, whither they 
imagined we were botind. We now began to fee a great 
number of birds about the (hip, many of them very 
large, of which fome were brown and white, and fome 
black : there we^re among them large flocks of pinta- 
does, which are fomewhat larger than a pigeon, and 

iS.onda74. fpo^^ed with black and white. ' On the 4th we faw a 
great quantity of tods, iveed^ and feveral feals : our 
latitude was 38.^ 53' S. longitude 51? W. the va- 
riation 13^ E. the prevailing winds here were weft- 
crly; fo that being continually driven to the eafl- 
ward, we fbrcfaw, that it would not be eafy to get in 

3aturd. 10. with the coafl of Patagon»a. On the loth, we ob- 
ferved the water to change colour, but we had no ground 
with one hundred and forty fathom ; our latitude was 
now 41^ 16' S. our longitude 55^ 17' W. the vari- 
ation was 18° 20' E. The next day we flood in for the 
land till eight in the evening, when we had ground of 
red fand with forty five fathom. We fleered S. W. 

3«nday ji. by W. all night, and the next morning had fifty-two 
fathom with the fame ground ; our latitude was 420 
34' S. longitude 58° 1 7' W. the variirtipn 1 1® | E. 

Monday la. On Monday the 1 2th, about four o*clock in the af- 
ternoon, as I was walking on the quarter-deck, all the 
people upon the forecaflle called out at once, " Land 
right a-head ;" it was then very black almoft round the 
horizon, and we had had much thunder and lightning; I 
looked forward under the forerail,and upon the lee bow, 
and faw what at firfl appeared to be an ifland, rifmg in 
two rude craggy hills, but upon looking to leeward I 
iaw land adjoining to it, and running a long way to the 



fouth-eaft : we were then fteering S. W. and I fent JT^ 

officers to the mafl-head to lock out upon the weather ^ ^ ^ \ 

beam, and they called out that they faw land atfo a Mood. it. 

great way to the windward. I immediately brought to, 

and founded ; we had ftiil fifty-two fathom, but I 

thought that we were embayed, and rather wiihed than 

hoped that we fliould get clear before night. We made 

fail and Aeered E. S. £. the land dill having the fame 

appearance, and the hills looking blue, as they generally 

do at a little diflance in dark rainy weather ; and now 

many of the people faid that they faw the Tea break 

upon the fandy beaches ; but baying (leered out for 

about an hour, what we had taken for land, vanifhcd 

all at once, and to our great aftoniibment appeared to 

have been a fog-bank. Though I had been aUnoft 

continually at fea for fevcn- and- twenty years, I had 

never feen fuch a deception before ; others however 

have been equally deceived ; for the mafterbf a (hip, 

not long ftnce, made oath, that he had feen an ifland 

between the weft end of Ireland and Newfoundland, 

and even dlftinguiftied the trees that grew upon it. Yet 

it is certain that no fuch ifland exifts, at leaft it could 

never be found, though feveral fhips were afterwards 

fent out on purpofe to feekit. And I am fure, that if 

the weather had not cleared up foon enough for us to 

fee what we had taken for land difappear, every man 

on board would freely have made oath', that land had 

been difcovered in this fituation. Our latitude this day 

was 430 46' S. longitude boo 5' W. and the variation 


The next day, at four o'clock in the afternoon, theTuef. 13. 
weather being extremely fine, the wind (hifted at once 
to the S. W. and began to blow frelh, the iky at the 
fame time becoming black to windward : in a few 
minutes all the people that were upon the deck were 
alarmed with a fudden and unufual noife, like the 
breaking of the fea upon the fhore. I ordered the top- 
fails to be handed immediately ; but before it could be 
done, I faw the fea approaching at fome diftance, in 
vaft billows covered with foam ; I called to the people 
to haul up the forefail, and let go the main fheet in- 
ftantly ; for I was perfuaded that if we had any fail 
out when theguft reached us, we fhould either be over- 




f 7^4- fet, or lofe all our mads. It reached ua ho wev(er before 
» '^-^ ' ■ we could raife the main tack, and laid us upon our 
- beam ends : the main tack was then cut, for it was 
become impofllble to caft it ofF; and the main (heet 
ftruck down the firft Lieutenant, bruifed him dread- 
folly, and beat out three of his teeth : the main top- 
fail, which was not quite handed, was fplit to pieces. 
If this fquall, which came on with lefs warning and 
more violence than afiy I had ever feen, had taken us 
in the night, I think the fhip muft have been loft. 
When it came on we obferved feveral hundreds of birds 
flying before it, which expreffed their terror by loud 
jhrieks; it lafled about twenty minutes, and then 
gradually fubfided. The Tamar fplit her main^fail, 
jbut a^ ihe was to leeward of us, (he had more time 
to prepare. In a fhort time it began to blow very hard 
again, fo that we reefed our main-fail, and lay to un- 
VTtiiu i4« der it all night. As morning approached, the gale be- 
came more moderate, but we had ftill a great (ea, and 
the wind fliifting to S. by W; we flood to the weft ward 
under our courfes. Soon after it was light, the fea ap- 
peared as red as blood, being covered with a fmall 
fhell-fifti of that colour, fomewhat refembling our 
cray-fifli, but lefs, of which we took up great quan- 
tities in bafkets. 
^fhurf. 15. At half an hour paft four in the morning of Thurf- 
day the 1 5th of November, we faw land, which had 
the appearance of an ifland about eight or nine leagues 
long, there being no land in fight either to the north- 
ward or fouthward, though by the charts it fliould be 
Cape Saint Helena, which projeSs from the coaft to a 
confiderable diftance, and forms two bays, one to the 
north, and the Other to the fouth. As the weather 
was very fine, I tacked and ftood in for it about ten 
o'clock; but as there were many funken rocks at about 
two leagues diftance from it, upon which the fea broke 
very high, and the wind feemed to be gradually dying 
away, I tacked again and ftood off. The land appear- 
ed to be barren and rocky, without either tree or bufti : 
when I was neareft to it I founded and had forty- five 
fathom, with black muddy ground. To my great 
misfortune, my three Lieutenants and the Matter 
were at thi$ tm^e fo ill as to be incapable of duty, 






though the reft of the (hip's company were in good jj^^j, 
heahh. Our latitude was 45* 21' S, longitude 63® ^ -^-ru j 
2' W. the variation 19^ 41' E. 

The next day I (haped my courfe by the chart in prid. 16. 
the account of Lord Anfon's voyage, for Cape Blanco. 
In the evening it blew extremely hard at S. W. by S, 
fo that we brought to for the night under our main- 
fail. In the morning we made fail again, but we had ^*^^* J7« 
a great fea ; and although it was now almoft midfum- 
iper in thefe parts, the weather was, in every refpeQ, 
fnuch wprfe than it is in the Bay of Bifcay at the depth 
of winter. About fix in the evening, having carried 
all the fail I could, we made land, bearing about S. 
S. W. which, as we had good obfervation of the fun, 
we knew to be Cape Blanco ; but it now began to 
blow with more violence then ever, and the ftorm 
continued all night, with a fea that was continually 
breaking over us, fo that the (hip laboured very much. 
At four in the morning, we founded aitd had forty Sund. iS, 
fathom, with rocky ground ; having flood off in the 
night, we now wore and flood in again, the ftorm ftill ' 
continued with hail and fnow : and abopt fix o'clock 
w^ faw the land again, bearing S. W, by W. Thefliip 
was now fo light, that, in a gale of wind flie drove 
bodily tp leeward; fo that I was very folicitous to get 
iijto Port Defire, that I might put her hold in order, 
^nd take in fufficient ballaft, to avoid the danger of 
being caught upon alee fliore in her prefent trim. We 
(leered in for the land with the w-ind at N. E. and in 
the evening brought to ; but the wind coming to the Mond. 19. 
weftward, we were driven off in the night. At (ewen 
the next morning, we ftood in again, fteering S. W, 
by S. by the compafs, and foon per<peived the fea to 
break right a-head of us ; we immediately found^, 
and (hpaledqur water from thirteen to feven fathom^ 
(bon after deepening it again frorn feventeen to forty- 
two ; fo that we went over the end of a flioal, which 
a little farther to the northward might have been fatal 
to ^s. Cape Blanco at this time bore W. S. W. ^ S. 
diftant four leagues : but we were ftill at a lofs for Port 
Dcfire, it being impoflible that any defcription fliould 
be more confufed than that which Sir John Narbo-. 
fpugh has given of this harbour. I ftood into ^ bay to 


1764, thefouthward of the Cape, as he direas, but could 
find no fuch place ; I therefore ftopd along the fhore 

to the fouthward, the wind blowing off the land very 
hard, and faw feveral large columns of frhoke rifing in 
many places, but no tree or bufli, the country refem- 
bling in appearance the barren downs of England. We 
obfervedalfo that the water w^s frequently very fhallow 
at the diftance of feven or eight miles from the fliore, 
f for we had many times not more than ten fathom. 
We continued to ftand along the fhore all day as 
near as pofTible, and in the evening we faw an Iflaad 
Tuef. ao. ^^ ^^^ diftance of about fix leagues ; in the morning we 
flood in for it, and found that it correfponded with 
Narborough's defcription of Penguin Ifland. As Port 
Defire is faid to lie about three leagues north weft of 
this Ifland, I fent the boat to look for it, and when 
flie returned, having found it, I flood in for the land. 
There were thoufands of feals and penguins about the 
fliip, and near Pen^in ifland feveral fmaller iflands, 
or rather rocks. In the evening, we faw a remarkable 
rock, rifing from the water like a fleeple, on the fouth 
fide of the entrance of Port Defire ; this rock is an 
excellent mark to know the harbour, which it would 
otherwife be difficult to find. At night, there being 
little wind, we anchored at the diftance of four or five 
miles from the fliore ; and in the morning, with a 
breeze from the land, we turned up the harbour*s 
mouth ; we found it very narrow, with many rocks 
and flioals about it, and the moft rapid tide I had ever 
known. I came to an anchor off the harbour in nine 
fathom, the entrance of the river being open, and 
bearing W. S. W. Penguin ifland S. E. |. E. diftant 
about three leagues ; the Steeple rock S. W. by W. 
the northermofl land N. N. W. and two rocks, 
which are covered at half tide, and lie at the fouther- 
moft extremity of a reef which runs from the fame land, 
N. E. by N. I mention all thefe bearings particularly, 
becaufe I think it may be of importance to future na- 
vigators, cfpecially as the defcriptions that have been 
given of this place, by the few who have already vifited 
it, are extremely defeflive. The wind blew very hard 
the greater part of this day, and there ran an uglyfea 
where we were fla^ioned^ yet I ofdered out two bosLts 


Wed. 21. 


to lound the harbour, and attended in my own boat '7^ 
jnyfelf. We found it very narrow for near two miles, r^^' 
-with a tide running at the rate ofeight miles an hour: 
we found alfo many rocks and fhoals, but all the danr 
ger /hows ilfelf above water. When we came to the 
ihore, I landed, and walked a little way into the coun- 
try, which as far as 1 could fee was all downs, with- 
out a (ingle tree or ihrub. We faw the dung of many 
beads, and had a glimpfe of four, which ran away as 
fi)on as we came in fight, fo that we could not cer- 
' tainly determine what they were ; but we believed 
them to be guanicoes, many of which we afterwards 
faw come down to the water fide ; they refemble our 
deer, but are much larger, the height of fome l^eing 
not lefs than thirteen hands ; they are very (hy, and 
very fwift. After I returned to my boat, 1 went far- 
ther up the harbour, and landed upon an ifland that 
was covered with feals, of which we killed above fifty, 
and among them many that were larger than a bul- 
lock, having before half loaded our boat with different 
kinds of birds, of which, and feals, there are enough 
to fupply the navy of England. Among the birds 
one was very remarkable : the head refembled that 
of an eagle, except that it had a large comb upon it ; 
roimd the neck there was a white ruff, exaQly re- 
fembling a lady's tippet, the feathers cfn the back were 
as black as jet, and as bright as the fineft polifli could 
render that mineral : the legs were remarkably ftrong 
and large, the talons were like thofe of an eagle, ex- 
cept that they were not fo fl)arp, and the wings, when 
they were extended, meafured, from point to pointy 
no lefs than twelve feet. 

The Tamar worked into the harbour with the tide 
pf flood, but I kept my ftation with the Dolphin till I 
(hould have a leading wind ; and the wind Ihifting to 
the eaftward, I weighed about five o'clock in the after- 
noon, intending to go up with the evening flood : be- 
fore I could get under fail, however, the wind Ihiffed 
again to N. W. by N. and it being low water, the 
Ihip lying but juft within the harbour, and there being 
no tide to afliift us, we were obliged to anchor near the 
fouth fliore. The wind ckme off the land in very hard 
flflwsy and in a (horttime, our anchor coming home, 


Thurf. zi. 


NovMnb ^^^ ^*P tailed on fliore againft a fteep gravelly beach. 
The anchoring ground indeed as far as we had yet 
founded was bad, being very hard; fo'that, inthisfitu- 
ation, if the wind blows frefh, there is always the 
grcateft reafon to fear that the anchor fhould come Rome 
before the fliip can be brought up. White we were on 
fhore it began to blow very hard, and the tide running 
like a fluice, it was with the utmoft difficulty that we 
could carry an anchor out to)ieaveus off; howeverjn^- 
ter about four hours hard labour, this was effefted, aiBidi-'' 
the fhip floated in the dream. As there was only about 
fix or feven feet of the after partof her that touched the 
ground, there was reafon to hope that {he had fufFered 
no' damage ; however, I determined to unhang the 
rudder, that it might be examined. 

During all this night and the next morning the wind 
blew with great violence ; we had let go our beft bower 
anchor when we .were near the fhore, in hopes it would 
have brought us up, and had not yet been able to 
weigh it. We now rode in a very difagreeable fituatton 
with our fmall bower, and that unfortunately came 
home again : we therefore got a hawfer out of the Ta- 
mar, who lay in the dream, and after weighing the 
fmall bower, we got out by her aiTiftance, and then 
dropped it again, moft ardently wifhlng for fair weather, 
that we might get the (hip properly moored. 

Triday a^. The next day we founded the harbour higher up, 
and found the ground fofter, and the water not fo deep ; 
yet the wind continued to blow fo hard that we could 
not venture to change our ftation. We had found a 
fnriall fpring of water about half a mile inland, upon the 
north fide of the bay, but it had abrackilli tafte ; I had 
alfo made another excurfion of feveral miles into the 
country, whichi found barren and defolate, in every di- 
reSion, as far as the eye could reach. We had feen 
many guanicoes at a diftance, but we could not get near 
i?nough to have fhot at them; we tracked beafls of fe- 
veral kinds in the foil, near a pond of fait water, and 
among them a very large tyger : we found alfo a 
neft ofoftriches eggs, which we eat, and thought very 
good. It is probable that all the animals, which had 
left marks of their feet near the fait pond, drank the 
water, and indeed we faw no fr^fli water for them. 



The fpring that wc had found, which was not pcrfcfik- J^^ 
ly frediy was the only one of the kind that we had 
been able to difcover ; and for that we had been oblig- 
ed to dig, there being no appearance of it except a 
Hight moifture of the ground. 

On the i24th, upon flack water, we carried both the S«t. a4. 
fhlps higher up and moored them : the extreme points 
of the harbour's mouth at low water bore from E. by 
S. I S. to E. and the Steeple rock S. E. i E. We had 
here, at low water, but fix fathom ; but at fpring 
tides the water rifes no lefs than four fathom and 
an half, which is feven and twenty feet. The tide in- 
deed in this place is fuch as perhaps it is not in any 
other. It happened by fome accident that one oi our 
men fell overboard ; the boats were all along-fide, aiid 
the man was an exceeding good fwimmer, yet before 
any afliftance could be fent after him, the rapidity of 
the dream had hurried him almoil out of fight ; we had 
however at laft the good fortune to fave him. This day 
I was again on fliore, and walked fix or fev^n miles up 
the country : I faw feveral hares as large as a fawn : 
Ifhot one of them, which weighed more than fix and 
twenty pounds, and if I had a good greyhound, I dare 
fay the fliip's company might have lived upon hare 
two days in the week. In the mean time the people on 
board were bufy in getting up all the cables upon deck, 
and clearing the hold, that a proper quantity of b^llaft 
might be taken in, and the guns lowered into it, ex- 
cept a few which it might be thought neceflary to 
keep above. 

Oa the 25th, I went a good way up the harbour in Sund. %$ . 
the boat, and having landed on the north fide, we 
foon after found an old oar of a very lingular make, 
and the barrel of a mufquet, with the King's broad 
arrow upon it. The mufquet barrel had fuffered fo 
much from the weather, that it might be crumbled in- 
to duft between the fingers : I imagined it had been left 
there by the Wager's people, or perhaps by Sir John 
Narborough. Hitherto we had found no kind of ve- 
getables except a fpecies of wild peas ; but though we 
had feen no inhabitants, we faw places where they 
had made their fires, which however did not appear to 
be recent. While we were on fliore we fliot fome wild 

ducks ^ 


>7^'. ducks and a hare ; the hare ran two miles after he was 
wounded, though it appeared whetl he was taken up, 
that a ball had paflfed quite through his body. I went 
this day many miles up the country, and had a long 
chace after one of the guanicoes, which was the largcft 
we had feen : he frequently {lopped to look at us, when 
he had left us at a good diftance behind, and made a 
noife that refembled the neighing of a horfe ; but when 
we came pretty near him he fet out again, and at lafl:, 
my dog being fo tired that he could not run him any 
longer, he got quite away from us, and we faw him no 
more* We (hot a hare however, and a little ugly animal 
which dunk fo intolerably that none of us could go 
near him. The flefli of the hares here is as white as 
fnow, and nothing can be better tailed. A Serjeant of 
marines, and fome others who were on fhore at another 
part of the bay, had better fuccefs than fell to our ihare, 
for they killed two old guamcoes and a fawn ; they 
were however obliged to leave them where they fell, not 
being able to bring them down to the water fide, near 
fix miles, without farther aifidance, though they were 
but half the weight of thofe that are mentioned by Sir 
John Narborough ; fome however I faw which could 
not weigh lefs than feven or eight and thirty (lone, 
which is above four hundred pounds. When we re- 
turned in the evening it blew very hard, and the deck 
being fo full of lumber that we could not hoift the boats 
in, we moored them aftem. About midnight, the dorm 
continuing, our fix oared cutter filled with water and 
broke adrift ; the boat keeper, by whofe negled this ac- 
cident happened, being on board her, very narrowly 
efcaped drowning by catching hold of the ftern ladder. 
As it was tide of flood when (he went from the fhip, we 
knew that file mull drive up the harbour ; yet as the 
lofs of her would be an irremediable misfortune, I fiif- 
fered much anxiety till I could fend after her in the 
morning, and it was then fome hours before (he was 
brought back, having driven many miles with the ftrcam. 
In the mean time, I fent another party to fetch the gua- 
nicoes which our people had ftiot the night before ; 
but they found nothing left except the bones, the 
tygcrs having eaten the fle(h, and even cracked the 
bones of the limbs to come at the marrow. Several 


Mood. 26. 


of our people had been fifteen miles up the country in »7^ 
fcarch of frefli water, but could not find the leaft rill : ^*'*^ 

we had funk feveral wells to a confiderable depth 
where the ground appeared moift, but upon vifiting 
them I had the mortification to find that, all together, 
they would not yield more than thirty gallons in twen- 
ty-four hours ; this was a difcouraging circumftance, 
efpecially as our people, among other expedients, had 
watched the guanicoes, and feen them drink at the 
fait ponds. 1 therefore determined to leave the place 
as foon as the (hip could be got into a little order, and 
the fix-oared cutter repaired, which had been hauled up 
upon the beech for that purpofe. 

On the 2 7th, fome of our people, who had been aftiore Xuefd. a/, 
on the north fide of the bay to try for more guanicoes, 
found the (kuU and bones of a man, which they brought . 
off with them, and one young guanicoe alive, which wc 
all agreed was one of the moil beautiful creatures wc 
had ever feen : it foon grew very tame, and would fuck 
our firtgers like a calf ; but, notwithftanding all our 
care and contrivances to feed it, it died in a tew days. 
In the afternoon of this day it blew fo hard that I was 
obliged to keep a confiderable number of hands conti- 
nually by the (heet anchor, as there was too much rea- 
fon to fear that our cables would part, which however 
did pot happen. In the mean time, fome of our peo- 
ple that were on fhore with the carpenters, who were 
repairing the cutter on the fouth fide of the bay, found 
two more fprings of tolerable water about two miles 
from the beach, in a direfl: line from the fliips ftation* 
To thefe fprings I fent twenty hands early in the morn- Wcdn. a8. 
ing with fome fmall cafks called Earecas, and in a few 
turns they brought on board a tun of water, of which 
we began to be in great want. In the mean time I 
went myfelf about twelve miles up the river in my boat, 
and the weather then growing bad, I went on fhore • the 
river, as far as I could fee, was very broad ; there were 
in it a number of, iflands, fome of v/hich were very 
large, and I make no doubt but that it penetrates the 
country for fome hundreds of miles. It was upon one 
of the iflands that I went on fliore, and I found there 
fuch a number of birds, that when they rofe they lite- 
rally darkened the flcy, and we could not walk a'ilep 

. withoiit 


NovMnb. ^^^^0"^ treading upon their eggs. As they kept hover- 
ing over our heads at a little diftance, the men knocked 
down many of them with ftones and flicks, and carried 
off feveral hundreds of their eggs. . After fome time, I 
left the ifland and landed upon the main, where our 
men drefled and eat their eggs, though there were young 
birds in moft of them. I faw no traces of inhabitants 
on either fide of the river, but great numbers of guani- 
coes, in herds of fixty or fevelity together: they would 
not however fufFer us to approach them, but flood and 
gazed at us from the hills. In this excurfion the Sut- 
geon, who was of my party, ftiot a tyger-cat, a fmalf 
but very fierce animal ; for though it wasmuchvl^ound- 
ed, it maintained a very fliarp conteft with my dog for 
a confiderable time before it was killed. 

Thurfd. 29. On the 29th, we completed our ballafl, which the' 
flrengthofthe tide, and the conflrant gales of wind 
rendered a very difficult and laborious tafk : we alfogot 
on board another tun of water. On the morning of the 

'" «y 30- jothi the weather was fobad that we could not fend a 
boat on ftiore ; but employed all hands on board in fet- 
ting up the rigging. It grew more moderate however 
about noon, and I then fent a boat to procure more 
water : the two men who firft came up to the well found 
there a large tyger lying upon the ground ; having ga- 
zed at each other fonie time, the mien who had no fire 
arms, feeing the beaft treat them with as much con- 
temptuous neglefl: as the lion did the knight of La-* 
Mancha, began to throw flones at him : of this infult 
however he did not deign to take the leaft notice, but 
continued ftretched upon the ground in great tranqui- 
lity till the reft of the party came up, and then he very 
Icifurely rofe and walked away, 

December. On the firft of December, our cutter being tho- 

Saturd. 1. roughly repaired, we took her on board, but the wea- 
ther was fo bad that we could not get off any water : 
the next da) we flruck the tents which had been fet up 
at the watering-place, and got all ready for fea. The 
two wells from which we got our water bear about S. 
S. E. of the fteeple rock, from which they are diftant 
about two miles and an half ; but I fixed a mark near 
them, that they might be ftill more eafily found thati 
by their bear'fngs. During our flay in this harbouV, 



we founded every part of it with great care, as high as j)^^^. 
a (hip could go, and found that there is no danger but «^v^ 
what may be feen at low water ; fo that now frefli wa- 
ter is found, though at fome di (lance from the beach, 
it would be a very convenient place for (hips to touch 
at, if it were not for the rapidity of the tide. The 
country about the bay abounds with guanicoes, and a 
great variety of wild fowl, particularly ducks, geefe, 
widgeon, and fea-pies, befides many others for which 
we have no name. Here is alfo fuch plenty of excel- 
lent raufcles, that a boat may be loaded with them 
every time it is low water. Wood indeed is fcarce j 
however in fome parts of this coaft there are bu(hes, 
which in a cafe of neceflTity might produce a tolerable 
fupply of fuel. 

On Wednefday the 5th of December, I unmoored, Wcda«f. 4* 
in order to get out, but the beft bower came up foul, 
and before we could heave (hort upon the fmall bower, 
the tide of ebb made (Irong ; for at this place (lack wa- 
ter fcarcely continues ten minutes; fo that we were 
obliged to wait till it (hould be low water. Between 
five and fix in the evening, we weighed, and (leered 
out E. N. E. with a fre(h gale at N. N. W. 


Courfe from Port Deftre^ in Search ofPepfs IJland^ and 
afterwards to the Coaji of Patagonia^ with a Defcrip- 
tion of the Inhabitants, 


AS foon as we were out of the bay, we (leered for 
Pepy'slfland, which is faid to lie in latitude 47** 
S. Our latitude was now 47° 22' S. longitude 65® 
49' W. Port Defire bore S. 66 W. diftant twenty- 
three leagues ; and Pepy's Ifland, according to Hal- 
ley's Chart, E. | N. diftant thirty four leagues. The 
variation here was ig^ E. 

We continued our courfe the next day with a plea- 
fent gale and fine weather, fo that we began to think Thurfd. 6. 
that this part of the world was not wholly without a 
fummer. On the 7th, I found myfelf much farther ^ . 

Vol. I. C to*^""*'" 7* 


^764- to the northward than I expeSed, and therefore fup- 
ecem cr p^f^j ^j^g (hip's way had been influenced by a current. 
I had now made eighty degrees eafting, which is the dif- 
tance from the main at which Pepy's Ifland is placed in 
Halley's chart, but unhappily we have no certain ac- 
count of the place. The only perfon who pretends to 
have feen it, is Cowley, the account of whofe voyage 
is now before me ; and all he fays of its fituation is„ 
that it lies in latitude 47 S. for he fays nothing of its 
longitude : he fays indeed that it has a fine harbour ; 
but he adds, that the wind blew fo hard he could not 
get into it, and that he therefore ftood away to the 
fouthward. At this time I alfo was fleering fouthward ; 
for the weather being extremely fine, I could fee very 
far to the northward of the fituation in which it is laid 
down. As I fuppofed itjmuft lie to the eaftward of us,, 
if indeed it had any exiftence, I made the Tamar's fig- 
nal to fpread early in the afternoon ; and as the wea- 
ther continued to be very elear, we could fee, between 
ws, at lead twenty leagues. We fleered S. E. by the 

Saturday s. compafs, and at night brought to, being by my ac- 
count in latitude 47° 18' S. The next morning it 
blew very hard at N. W. by N. and I flill thought 
the ifland might lie to the eaftward ; I therefore intend- 
ed to fland about thirty leagues that way, and if I found 
no ifland, to return into the latitude of 47 again. 
But a hard gale coming en, with agreatfea, 1 brought 
to about fix oVlock in the evening under the main- fail, 

Sunday 9. ^p, J ^t fix o'clock the next morning, the wind being at 
W. S. W. we made fail asrain under our courfes to the 
northward. I now judged myfelf to be about fix teen 
leagues to the eaflward of the track I had run before : 
Port Defire bore S. 8c° 55' W. diftant ninety-four 
leagues ; and in this fituation I faw agreat quantity of 
rockweed, and many birds. We continued to fland to 

Monday 10. the northward the next day under our courfes, with a 
hard gale from S. W. to N. W. and a great fea. At 
night, being in latitude 460 50' S. I wore fhip, and 
ftood in to the weftward again, our fhips having fpread 
every day as far as they could be feen by each other : 

'T,.rj ,, and on the 11 that noon, beinff now certain that there 
could be no fuch iiland as is mentioned by Cowley, 
aud laid down by Ilalley under the name of Pepy's 
ifland* Irefolve-d to ftand ia for the main,^and take in 



wood and water, of which both (hips were in great 17^ 
v^ant, at the firft convenient place I could find, efpc- ^^^|JJ°^' 
cially at the feafon was advancing very faft, and we 
had no time to lofe. From this time we continued to 
haul in for the Jand as the winds would permit, and kept 
a look-out for the iflands of Sebald de Wert, which, 
by all the charts we had on board, could not be far 
from our track : a great number of birds were every 
day about the fhip, and large whales were continually 
fwimming by her. The weather in general was fine, 
but very cold, and we all agreed, notwithflanding the 
hope we had once formed, that the only difference be- 
tween the middle of fummer here, and the middle of 
winter in England, lies in the length of the days. 
Oh Saturday the 1 5th, being in latitude 50^ 33' S. Ion- sattird. 15. 
gitude 66^ 59' W. we were overtaken about fix in the 
evening by the hardeft gile at S. W. that I was ever in, 
with a fea ftill higher than any I had feen ingoing round 
Cape Horn with Lord Anfon : I expected every mo- 
ment that it would fill us, our (hip being much too 
deep waifted for fuch a voyage : it would have been 
fafeft to put before it under our bare poles, but our 
flock of frefti water was not fufficient, and I was afraid 
of being driven fo far off the land as not to be able to 
recover it before the whole was exhauffcd ; we there- 
fore lay to under a balanced mizen, and (hipped many 
heavy feas, though we found our fkreen bulk-heads of 
infinite fervice. 

The ftorm continued with unabated violence the 
whole night, but, about eight in the morning, began Sunday iG. 
to fubfide. At icn, we made fail under our courfes, 
andcontinued to (leer for the land tillTuefday the i8th, Tuefday 18. 
when, at four in thejoiorning, we faw it from the maft- 
head. Our latitude was now 51° 8 S. our longitude 
710 4' W. and Cape Virgin Mary, the north entrance 
of the ftreight of Magellan, bore S. 1 9° 50' \V. diftant 
nineteen leagues. As we had little or no wipd, we 
could not get in with the land this day ; the next-morn- wedn. 194 
ing, however, it being northerly, I flood into a deep 
bay, at the bottom of which there appeared to be a . 
harbour, but I found it barred, the fca breaking quite 
from one fide of it to the other ; and at low water I 
could perceive that it was rocky, and all dry : the water 

C 2 ■. was 

*i- 4 •• 


December, w^s (hoal at a good dlftance from it, and I was hi 
^m^'y^j . fix fathom before I flood out again. In this place there 
feemed to be plenty of fidi, and we faw many porpoifes 
fwimnning after them, that were as white as fhow, 
with black fpots, a very uncommon and beautiful 
fight. The land here has the fame appearance as about 
Port Defire, all downs, without a fingle tree. 

Thurfd. ao. At break of day, on the 20th, we were ofF^ Cape 
Fair-weather, which bore about Weft at the diftance of, 
four leagues, and we had here but thirteen fathom wa- 
ter, fo that it appears neceffary to give that Cape a good 
birth. , From this place I ran clofe in (hore to Cape 
Virgin Mary, but 1 found the coaft to lie S. S. E. very 
different from Sir John Narborough's defcription, and 
a long fpit of fand running to the fouthward of the 
Cape for above a league : in the evening I worked up 
clofe to this fpit of fand, having feen many guanicoes 
feeding in the valleys as we went along, and a great 
fmcke all the afternoon, about four or five leagues up 
the ftreight, upon the north fliore. At this place I 
came to an anchor in fifteen fathom water, but the Ta- 
mar was fo far to leeward, that fhe could not fetch the 
anchoring ground, and therefore kept under way all 

Friday 21. 'pj^g ^^^^ morning, at day-break, I got again under 
fail, and feeing the fanle fmokc that I had obferved the 
day before, I flood in for it, and anchored about two 
miles from the ftiore. 1 his is the place where the 
crew of the Wager, as they were paiTing the ftreight in 
their boat, after the lofs of the veffel, faw a number of 
horfemen, who waved what appeared to be white hand- 
kerchiefs, inviting them to come on fhore, which they 
were verv defiroub to have done, biit it blew fohard 
that they were obliged to ftand out to fea. Bulkely, 
the Gunner, of the Wager, who has publifhed fome 
account ot her voyage, fays, that they were in doubt 
vviicther thefe people were Europeans who had been 
fliip wrecked upon the coaft, or native inhabitants of 
the country about the river Gallagoes. Juft as we 
came to an anchor, I faw with my glafs exa6lly what 
was feen by the people in the Wager, a number of 
horfemen riding backward and forward, du e6tly a-breafl 
of ihe (hip, and waving fome what white, as an invitation 




to us to come on (hore. As I was vcrv deiirous _ ''H' 
to know what thcl'e people were, I ordered out my 
twelve-oarM boat, and went tov/ards the beach, with 
Mr. Marfliall, my fecond l/Ieutenans and a party of 
men, very well armed ; Mr. Cumming, my firft Lieu- 
tenant, following in the Tix-oar'd cutter. When we 
came within a little diflance of the lliore, we faw, as 
near as I can guefs, about five hundred people, fome 
on foot, but the greater part on horfebixk ; they drew 
up upon a floney fpit, which rap a good way the 
fea, and upon which it was very "bad landing, for the 
water was (hallow, and the ftones very large. The 
people on (hore kept Avaving and hallooing, which, 
as we underftood, were invitations to land ; I coi:ild 
Tiot perceive that they had any weapons among them, 
however I made figns that they (hould retire to a little 
diftance, with which they immediately complied ; they 
continued to fhout with great vociferation, and in a 
(hort time we landed, though not without great diffi- 
culty, moft of the boat's crew being up to the mid- 
dle in water. I drew up my people upon the beach, 
with my officers at their head, and gave orders that 
none of them (hould move from that ftation, till I 
(hould either call or beckon to them. I then went 
forward alone towards the Indiants ; but perceiving 
that they retired as I advanced, I made figns that one 
of them Ihould come near : as it happened, my fignals 
were underftood, and one of them, wjio afterwards 
appeared to be a Chief, came towards me ; he was of 
a gigantic ftature, and feemed to realize the tales of 
monfters in a human fhape ; he had the fkin of fome 
wild bead: thrown over his fhouldcrs, as a Scotch High- 
lander wears his plaid, and was painted fo as to make 
the moft hideous appearance I ever beheld : round one 
eye was a large circle of white, a circle of black fur- 
rounded the ether, and the reftofhis face was ftreakcd 
with a paint of different colours ; I did not meafure him, 
but if I may judge of his height by the proportion of 
his ftature to my own, it could not be much Icfs than 
feven feet. When this frightful Coloffus came up, we 
muttered fomewhat to each other as afalutation, and I 
then walked with him towards his companions, to whom, 
as I advanced, I made figns that they (hould fit down, 



1764. and they all readily complied : there were among them 
.^^^^^^ many women, who feemed to be proportionably large, 
and few of the men were Jefs than the Chief who had 
come forward to meet me. I had heard their voices 
very loud at a diftance, and when I came near, I per- 
ceived a good number of very old rhen, who were 
chanting feme unintelligible words in the moft doleful 
cadence I ever heard, with an airof ferious folemnity, 
which inclined me to think that it was a religious cere- 
mony : they wer^ all painted and cloathed nearly in the 
fanve manner ; the circles round the two eyes were in no 
inftance of one colour, but they wene not univerfally 
black and white, fome being white and red, and fome 
red aiid black ; their teeth were as white as ivory, re- 
markably even and well fet ; but except the fkins, which 
they wore with the hair inwards, moft of them were 
naked, a few only having upon their legs a kind of 
boot, with a (hort pointed ftick fattened to each heel, 
which ferved as a fpur. Having looked round upon 
thefe enormous goblins with' no fmall aftonifhment, 
and with fome difficulty made thofe that were ftill gal" 
loping up fit downVith the reft, I lookout a quantity 
of yellow and whiteheads, which I diftributed among 
them, and which they received with very ftrong ex- 
prefTionsof pleafure.t:! then took out a whole piece of 
green filk riband, and. giving the end of it into the 
hands of one of them, I made the perfon that fat next 
take hold of it, and fo on as far as it would reach : all 
this while they fat very quietly, nor did any of thofe 
\ that held the riband attempt to pull it from the reft, 

though I perceived that they were ftill more delighted 
with itthan with the beads. While the riband was thus 
extended, I took out a pair of fciflars, and cut it be- 
tween each two of the Indians that held it, fo that 
1 left about a yard in the pofleilion of every one, which 
I afterwards tied about their heads,, where they fuffer- 
ed it to remain without fo much as touching it while I 
was with them. Their peaceable and orderly bchavir 
our on this occafion certainly did them honour, efpe^ 
cially as my prefents could not extend to the whole 
company : neither impatience to fliare the new finery, 
nor curibfity to gain a nearer view of me and what' I 
was doing, brought any one of them from the ftatton 



ROUND T fi L V*- O R L iX 15 

tfiat I bacilisni:; his--. I: -r-.c nt ifT" si:^ri. ft."' .^ ■"*•* 
thofe "srko iin * ztiaz G - * % i ir*.-.-, : i ;jsy :': :.t: ir* jc& 
ofa3 lacjt" Ljra:«— -it^Lft:! 'ti^'^.r^' ::^ ^ i :;. j*- ,3 
I he \rcicoi- iDc rD£C v.:.*: i^tj'iT'^i" : i^'-» :j- :r..rj; *■: 
thcmc-niij ihfc: r.i-j Je; :: i 'dc » : ■« ; * ^ : >e:. rc vx 0^1- 
piiic 1 7Jt\ r lOD^ ze 5 i -jt rii:? • :v i ^ =, r: ?2 ~ w* , isc o: acr 
rhicgr^i wbkrir::^;::^ -f atc nc.<. is i>C't:iinii;ioc:, wc 
fliouid coESibcT tii:, in ihc3iie\ves the orr.imsrits of 
favc^ 2X3 c:vi: lire ir; eq^j^i, -kz^ ii^x v:.c -.c. \\ ho ii . c 
nearlv in 2 :li;c c: rit-re, hivt r* :hi:^ :r.:.; rciroSic* 
glaf«, fo mjch 25 ^jxi's ret'einbic> 2 liianioxvi ; ii;c va- 
lue which we Set upon 2 d'lamorR:, ; here tore, is more 
c2pnciou£ ihia the vilue « hicii they let upon gUtV. 
The lore of ornament leems 10 be an univerUl principle 
in hu.-nan rstore, and the splendid trinlparency ot 
glif^, and the rezular figare of a bead, are amcnc the 
qualities that by the conftituticn of our nature excite 
pleailng ideas ; aiui although in one of thelc qualities 
the diamond excels glafs, its value is much more than 
in proportion to the difference : tlie plcafurc which it 
gives amon^ us is, principally, by conferring uif- 
tindion, and gratifying vanity, which is independent 
of natural tafte, that is gratified by certain hues and 
figures, to which for that reafon we give the name of 
beauty : it mud be remembered alfo, that an Indian 
is more diilinguifhed by a glaf» button or a beaj, than 
any individual among us by a dianfK)nd, though per* 
haps the fame facrifice is not made to his vanity, as the 
pofleflion of his finery is rather a teftimony of hisgooii 
fortune, than of his influence or power in confequcncc 
of his having what, as the common medium of ull 
earthly poffeflions, is .fuppofed to confer virtual fnpc- 
riority, and intrinfic advantage.- The people, how- 
ever, whom I had now adorned, were not wiiolly 
ftrangers to European commodities ; for upon a cIoCit 
attention, I perceived among them one woman who > 
had bracelets either of brafs, or very pale gold, upoij *\ 
her arms, and fomc beads of blue glafs, ftrun^ upon 
two long queues of hair, which being parted at llie 
top, hung down over each fhouldcr before her : flic 
was of a moil enormous fize, and her face was, if 
poflible, more frightfully painted than tlic jcih I 
had a great defire to learn where ftie got her b^ads 



1764- and bracelets, and enquired by all the figns I could 
^^^^°^^* dcvife, but found it impoffible to make myfclf under- 
ftood. One of the men fliewed me the bowl of a 
tobacco pipe, which was made of red earth, but I foon 
found that they had no tobacco among them ; and this 
perfon made me underftand that he wanted fome : 
upon this I beckoned to my people, who remained 
upon the beach, drawn up as I had left them, and 
three or four of them ran forward, imagining that 
I wanted them. The Indians, who, as I had obferv- 
ed, kept their eyes almofl: continually upon them, no 
fooner faw fome of them advance, than they all rofe 
up witha great clamour, and were leaving the place as I 
fuppofed to get their arms, which were probably left at 
a little diftance : to prevent mifchief, therefore, and 
put an end to the alarm, which had thus accidentally 
been fpread among them, I ran to meet the people who 
wereinconfequenceof my fignalcomingfrom the beach, 
and as foon as I was withirt hearing I hallowed to 
them, and told them that I would have only one come 
Tip with all the tobacco that he could colle6fc from the 
reft. As foon as the Indians faw this, they recovered 
from their furprife, and every one returned to his 
ftation except a very old man, who came up to me, and 
fung a long fong, which I much regretted my not be- 
ing able to underftand : before the fong was well finifli-» 
ed, Mr. Gumming came up with the tobacco, and I 
could not but fmile at the aftoniflient which I faw ex-» 
prefled in his countenance, upon perceiving himfelf, 
though fix feet two inches high, become at once a pigmy 
among giants ; for thefe people may indeed more pror- 
perly be called giants than tall men : of the few among 
us who are full fix feet high, fcarcely any are broad and 
mufcnlar in proportion to their ftature, but look rather 
like men of the common bulk, run Up accidentally to 
an unufual height; and a man who ftiould meafure only 
fix feet two inches, and equally exceed a ftout well-fet 
man of the common ftature in breadth and mufcle, 
would ftrike us rather as being of gigantic race, than 
as an individual accidentally anomalous ; our fenfations 
therefore, upon feeing five hundred people, thefliort- 
cft of whom were at leaft four inches taller, and 
|bulky in proportion, may be eafily imagined. After I 


hac wei e u B L tint misi rx>. fnar tr r^^ n- "n; rnts* 

evert' «: '..nuir Tsivi ae=r miTT^iiaEr.- 

: • -. «. 

ieJR IT TETiTT "TTur 3 TTUir: rr i:-*::* 'r :^ 

at t*^ tnrr cxTrrfisi x: gx i:imz*-T^ air -jt xitvt t 
tbcxr i^Erias aE&iT : L»innr -ur rair arr. rrmri. r""^^:- 
rcace, Jtr -oit! izxzz xr:*r •asu !i*t zx^mh h-'vt ir»i* rrxt 
fioassy jmc ibur-ix iii: r'"^*r tip lm r: ri./ i ~ nrv. 
atXTvarot poirrti £-f: tD r:? ^nnn^ arc :jt£t • : *"vr 
hiQsy Mr ■ T nr. «^ 5 Tmnrznec, mf r i irri:i w ^t~ -u ,: :s 
tbcm till ihc mer niag . tr>i^ xtdcit ttt: in ek -w tt^ viric 
pnnificns ^ot thit cSe' I %r*? oV.ircr f ce^ •*- 
Wbco I leti tberc, 7»c r ■x* iff tbsr:^ x:< ^^-^ •^•oir-,5*, 
bat as loor » I coiac fse theru crct.rcei :o f : c-^i- 
ctl J io tbdr places. 1 cr)fen%c :bAi i Vv Hjd u ;:h 
them a g^ei: ijciaber cf cg^ w::h lahtch I :';:?cvv"€ 
riicy cliije the wiid arriani^ m nSch fcrvc th-KH tor tbi>i* 
The horfes were not iiree, nor in cor^ cAre-, yet ihcy- 
appeared to be oimbie ar^d wdl brcken. Fnc brwJe 
was a leithero thorg, wirfi a iraa^l p coe of wood 
that ferrcd for a bit, and the fasfdics rc1"e;nblcd the 
pads that arc in ufe amon^the cour.t'^^- r^v^ie in Fng- 
land. The women rode ailride, ar^d both men and 
women without ftimips ; yet they ariHop ed tearletsiy 
over the fpit upon which we larded, the llones of 
which were large, loofe, and flippery. 


Pajfage up the Streight of Magellan^ to Port Famine \ 
withfome Account of that Harbour ^ and the aHjticmi 

SOON after I returned on board, I pot under wny, 
and worked up the ftreight, whicli is iicrc about 
nine leagues broad, with the flood, not with a view 
to pafs through it, but in fearch of fom'j place wbcre 
ImiEfhc i^et a fupply of wood and water, not cbufing 
to iruit wholly to the finding of Falkland's Iflandfj, 
which I determined afterwards to feek. About eight in 
the evening, the tide of ebb beginning to make, I anchored 


1764. in five and twenty fathom. Point Poffeflion bore N.N. 
E. at about three miles diftance, and fome remarkable 
hummocks on the north, which Bulkeley, from their 
appearance, has called the Afles Ears, W. i N. 
Situr. 22. At three in the morning, of the 2 2d, we weighed 
with the wind at E. and fleered S. W. bv W. about 
twelve miles. During this courfe we went over a bank, 
of which no notice has hitherto been taken : at one 
time we had but fix fathom and a half, but in two or 
three cafts we had thirteen. When our w^ter was 
flialioweft, the Afles Ears bore N. W. by W. j W. 
diftant three league's, and the north point of the firft 
Narrow W. by S. diftant between five and fix miles. 
We then fleered S. W. by S. near fix miles to the en- 
trance of the firft Narrow, and afterwards S. S. W. 
about fix miles, which brought us through : the tide 
here \Vas fo ftrong, that the paflage was. very rapid. 
During this courfe we faw a fingle Indian upon the 
fouth ftiore, who kept waving to us as long as we were 
in fight : we alfo faw fome guanicoes, upon the hills, 
though Wood, in the account of his voyage, fays there 
were none upon .that fhore. As foon as we had pafTed 
the firft Narrow, we entered a little fea, for we did not 
come in fight of the entrance of the fecond Narrow till 
we had run two leagues. The diftance from the firft 
to the fecond Narrow is about eight leagues, and the 
courfe S. W. by W. The land is very high on the 
north fide of the fecond Narrow, which continues for 
about five leagues, and we fteered through it S. W. f 
W. with foundings from twenty to five and twenty 
fathom : we went out of the weft end of this Narrow 
about noon, and fteered fouth about three leagues for 
Elizabeth's Ifland ; but the wind then coming right 
againft us, we anchored in feven fathom. The ifland 
bore S. S. E. diftant about a mile, and Bartholomew's 
Ifland bore E. S. E. In the evening, fix Indians upon 
the Ifland came down to the water fide, and continued 
waving and hallooing to us for a long time ; but as my 
people wanted reft, I was unwilling to employ them 
in hoifting out a boat, and the Indians feeing their 
labour fruitlefs, at length went away. While we were 
fleering from Point Pofleflion to the firft Narrow, the 
flood fet to the fouthward^ but as foon as we entered 



the Narrow, it fet ftrongly over to the north (hore: '7^ 

it flows here, at the full and change of the moon, . J 

about ten o'clock. Between the firft and the fecond 
Narrow the flood fets to the S. W. and the ebb to the 
N. E. after the weft end of the fecond Narrow is pafled, 
the courfe, with a leading wind, is S. by E. three 
leagues. Between the iflands of Elizabeth and Saint 
Bartholomew, the channel is about half a mile over, 
and the water is deep : we found the flood fet very 
ftrongly to the fouthward, with a great rippling, but 
round the Iflands the tides fet many difi^erent ways. 

In the morning of the 23d, we weighed with thcsund, 13. 
wind at S. by W. and worked between Elizabeth and 
Bartholomew's ifland : before the tide was fpcnt, we 
got over upon the north fliore, and anchored in ten 
fathom. Saint George's Ifland then bore N. E. by N. 
diftant three leagues; a point of land, which I called 
PoRPOis Point, N. by W.diftant about five miles; 
and the fouthcrmoft land S. by E. diftant about two 
miles. In the evening, we \yeighed and fteered S. by* 
E. about five miles along the north fliore, at about one 
mile's diftance, with regular foundings, from feven to 
thirteen fathom, and every where good ground. At ten 
o'clock at night, we anchored in thirteen fathom ; 
Sandy Point then bearing S. by E. diftant four miles ; 
Porpois Point W. N. W. three leagues ; and Sabt 
George's Ifland N. E. four leagues. All along this 
fliore the flood fets to the fouthward ; at the full and 
change of the moon, it flows about eleven o'clock, and 
the w^ater rifes about fifteen feet. . 

The next morning, I went out in my boat in fearch Mond. 24. 
of Frefli Water Bay ; I landed with my Second Lieu- 
tenant upon Sandy Point, and having fent the boat 
along the fliore, we walked a-breaft of her. Upon the 
Point we found plenty of wood, and very good water, 
and for four or five miles the fliore was exceedingly plea- 
fant. Over the Point there is a fine level country, with 
a foil that, to all appearance, is extremely rich ; for 
the ground was covered with flowers of various kinds, 
that perfumed the air with their fragrance ; and among 
them there were berries, almoft Innumerable, where 
the bloflfoms had been ftied : we obferved that the grafs 
was very good, and that it was intermixed with a great 




1764^ ntimber of peas in bloffom. Among this luxuriance of 
herbage we faw many hundreds of birds feedings 
which, from their form, and the uncommon beauty of 
their plumage, we called painted geefe. We walked 
more than twelve miles, and found great plenty of fine 
frefti water, but not the bay that we fought ; for we 
faw no part of the fhore, in all our walk from Sandy 
Point, where a boat could land without the utmoft 
hazard, the water being every where (hoal, and the 
fea breaking^ very high. We fell in with a great num- 
ber of the huts or wigwams of the Indians, which ap- 
peared to have been very lately defertedj for in fome of 
them the fires which they had kindled were fcarcely 
cxtinguifhed ; they were in little receffesof the woods, 
and always clofe to frefh water. In many places we 
fouiid plenty of wild celery, and a variety of plants, 
which probably would be of great benefit to feamen 
after a long voyage. In the evening, we walked back 
again, and found the (hips at anchor in Sandy Point 
•Bay, at the diflance of about half a mile from the 
Ihore* The keen air of this place made our people fo 
voracioufly hungry that they could have eaten three 
times their allowance ; I was theref:^re very glad to 
find forae of them employed in hauling the feine, and 
others on (hore with their guns : fixty very large mul- 
lets were juft taken with the feine, as I came up ; and 
the gunners had good fport, for the place abounded 
with ged'e, teale, fnipQs, and other birds, that were 
excellent food. 
Tucf. 25. On the 25th, Chriftmas day, we obferved by two 
altitudes, and found the latitude of Sandy Point to be 
530 10' S. At eight in the moi*ning, we weighed, and 
having failed five leagues from Sandy Point, in the di- 
reftion of S. by E. i E. we anchored again in thirty- 
two fathom, about a mile from the fhore ; the fouth 
point of Frefh Water Bay then bearing N. N* W. 
diftant ^bout four miles; and the fouthermoft land 
S. E. by S. As we failed along the fhore, at about two 
miles diflance, we had no ground with fixty fathom ; 
but at the diftance of one mile, we had from twenty 
to thirty-two fathom. At the full and change of the 
pioon, the tide flows off Frefh Water Bay at twelve 

o'clock ; 


o'clock; it runs but little, yet flows very much by the ^^J^l- 

fliore. o-vi-io' 

On the 26th, at eight o'clock in the morning, we Wcda. %4. 
weighed with the wind at E. N. E. and fleered S. S. 
E. for Port Famine. At noon, St. Anne's Point, which 
is the northermoft point of that port, bore S. by E. i E. 
diftant three leagues. Along this (hore, at thedifiance 
of two or three miles, we had very deep water ; but 
within a mile had ground with twenty-five or thirty fa- 
thom. From St. Anne's Point a reef of rocks runs out 
S. E. by E. about two miles ; and at the diflance of 
two cables length from this reef the water will fud- 
denly Ihoal from fixty-five to thirty-five and twenty 
fathom. The Point itfelf is very fleep, fo that there is 
no founding till it is approached very near, and great 
care muft be taken in ftanding into Port Famine, ef- 
pecially if theihip is as far fouihward as Sedger river ; 
for the water will fhoal at once from thirty to twenty, 
fifteen and twelve fathom ; and at about two cables 
length farther in, at more than a mile from the fhore, 
there is but nine feet water, when the lide is out. By 
hauling clofe round St. Anne's Point, foundings will 
foon be got; and as the water (hoals very faft, it is not 
fafe to go farther in, when there is no more than feven 
fathom; the ftreighthere is not more than four leagues 

The next day at noon, having had little wind, andThurf. 27. 
calms, we anchored in Port Famine, clofe to the fhore, 
and found our fituation very fafe and convenient : we 
had fhelter from all winds except the S. E. which 
feldom blows, and if a fhip fhould be driven afhore in 
the bottom of the bay, fhe could receive no damage ; 
for it is all fine foft ground. We found drift wood here 
fufBcient to have furnifhed a thoufand fail, fo that we 
had no need to take the trouble of cutting green. The 
water of Sedger river is excellent, but the boats can- 
not get in till about two hours flood, becaufe at low 
water it is very fhallow for about three quarters of a 
mile. I went up it about four miles in my boat, and 
the fallen trees then rendered it impoflible to go 
farther : I found it indeed, not only difficult but dan- 
gerous to get up thus far. The ftream is very rapid, and 
many flumps of trees lie hidden under it : on^ of thefc 



. 1764^ "^made its way through the bottom of my boat, and in 
December. ^^ inftant flie was full of water. We got on (hore as 
well as we could ; and afterwards, with great difficulty, 
hauled her up upon the fide of the river : here we 
contrived to flop the hole in her bottom, fo as that 
we made a (hift to get her down to the river's mouth, 
where flie was foon properly repaired by the carpenter. 
On each fide of this river there are the finiefl trees I 
ever faw, and I make no doubt but that they would 
fupply the Britifti navy with the bed mafts in the world. 
Some of them are of a great height, and more than 
eight feet in diameter, which is propbrtionably more 
than eight yards in circumference ; fo that four men, 
joining hand in hand, could not compafs them : 
among others, we found the pepper tree, or winter's 
bark in great plenty. Among thefe woods, notwith- 
ftandingthecoldnefsof the climate, there are innumera- 
ble parrots, and other birds of the moft beautiful plu- 
mage. I (hot every day geefe and ducks enough to 
ferve my own table and feveral others, and everybody 
on bpard might have done the fame: we had indeed 
^reat plenty of frefli provifions of all kinds ; for we 
caught' as much fifli every day as ferved the companies 
of both (hips. As I was much on fhore here, I tracked 
many wild beads in the fand, but never faw one ; we 
alfo found many huts or wigwams, but never met with 
an Indian. The country between this Port and Cape 
Forward, which is diftant about four leagues, is ex- 
tremely fine ; the foil appears to be very good, and 
there are no lefs than three pretty large rivers, befides 
feveral brooks. 

While we lay here, I went one day to Cape For- 
ward, and when I fet out I intended to have gone 
farther ; but the weather became fo bad, with heavy 
rain, that we were glad to ftop there, and make a great 
fire to dry our cloaths, which were wet through. From 
the place where we (lopped, the Indians had been gone 
fo lately, that the v/ood, which lay half burnt, where 
thev had made their fire, was ftill warm; and foon 
after our fire was kindled, wc perceived that another 
w^as kindled dlreci"tly oppofite to it, on the Terra del 
Fuego fhore ; probably as a fignal, which, if we had 
been Indian*;, we fhould have undcrfiood. After we 



were dried and refreftied at our fire, the rain having 
abated, I walked crofs the Cape, to fee how the Strcight 
ran, which I found to be about W. N. W. The hills, 
as far as I could fee, were of an inimenfe height, 
very craggy, and covered with fnow quite from 
the fummit to the bafe. I made alfo another excur- 
fion along the fliore to the northward, and found 
the country for many miles exceedingly pleafant, the 
ground being, in many places, covered with flowers, 
which were not inferior to thofe that are com- 
monly found in our gardens, either in beauty or fra- 
grance ; and if it were not for the fe verity of the 
cold in winter, this country might, in my opinion, 
be made, by cultivation, one of the fined in the world. 
I had fet up a fmall tent at the bottom of this bay, 
clofe to a little rivulet, and juft at the (kirts of a wood, 
foon after the fhip came to an anchor, where three 
men were employed in wafhing : they flept on fhore ; 
but, foon after funfet, were awakened out of theic 
firft fleep by the roaring of fome wild beads, which 
the darknefs of the night, and the folitarinefs of iheir 
fituation in this pathlefs defart, rendered horrid beyond 
imagination : the tone was hollow and deep, fo that 
the beafts, of whatever kind, were certainly large, and 
the poor fellows perceived that they drew nearer and 
nearer, as the found every minute became more loud. 
From this time fleep was renounced for the night, a 
large fire was immediately kindled, and a confl:ant blaze 
kept up : this prevented the beafts from invading the 
tents ; but they continued to prowl round it at a little 
diftance, with inceflant bowlings, till the day broke, 
and then, to the great comfort of the afi^righted failors, 
they difappeared. At this place, not far from where 
the fliip lay, there is a hill that has been cleared of 
wood, and we fuppofed this to be the fpot where 
the Spaniards formerly had a fettlement .* One 
of the men, as he was paflTing over this hill, perceived 
that, in a particular part, the ground returned the 
found of bis foot, as if it was hollow: he therefore 
'repaflfed it fevcral times, and finding the efl^cft ftlll the. 

• See fome account of this fettlement in the Voyage of 
Captain Wallis, chap. iii. p. 224. 


i76S' fame, he conceived a ftrong notion that fomething 
January. ^^^ buried there ; when became on board, he related 
what he had remarked to me, and I went myfeif to 
the fpot, with a fmall party, furniihed with fpades and 
pickaxes, and faw the fpot opened to a confiderabie 
depth, but we found nothing, nor did there appear 
to be any hollow or vault as was expeSed. As we 
were returning through the woods, we found two very 
large (kuUs, which, by the teeth, appeared to have be- 
longed to fome beafts of prey, but of what kind we 
could not guefs. 
Friday 4. Having contiilued here till Friday the 4th of Janu- 
ary, and completed the wood and water of both (hips, 
for which purpofel had entered the*Streight, I deter- 
mined to fleer back again in fearch of Falkland'slflands. 


The Courfe back from Port Famine to Falkland s IJlands, 
with fome Account of the Country, 

jBaturday 5, "\ X 7* E Weighed anchor at four o'clock in the morn- 
y V ing> ^^^ worked to windward out of the 
harbour: the wind continued contrary at N. N. E. 
till about one o'clock the next day, when it ftiifted toW. 
S. W. and blew a frefh gale. We fleered N. W. by N. 
four leagues, and then three leagues north, between 
Elizabeth and Bartholomew iflands : we then fleered 
from the iflands N. by E. three leagues, to the fecond 
Narrow ; and fleered through N. E. \ E. continuing 
the fame courfe from the fecond Narrow to the firfl, 
which was a run of eight leagues. As the wind ftill con- 
tinued to blow frefli, we fleered through the firfl Nar- 
row againfl the flood, in the direSion of N. N. E. 
but about ten o'clock at night, the wind dying away, 
the flood fet us back again into the entrance of the 
firfl Narrow, where we were obliged to anchor, in forty 
fathom, within two cables length of the fliore. 
The tide flows here, at the full and change of the 
moon, about two o'clock, and runs full fix knots an 

S\indaY 6j At one o'clock the next morning, we weighed, with 
a light northerly breeze j and about three, we pafled 



ihe firft Narrow a fecond time. Having now feen the' «7fi^ . 
fhip fafe through, and being quite exhaufted with fa- 1^^^ 
tigue> as I had been upon the deck all the preceding 
day, and all night, I went into my cabin to get fome 
refl. I lay down, and foon fell afleep ^ but in lefs 
than half an hour, I was awakened by the beating of 
the fhip upon a bank : I inflantly fiarted up, and 
ran upon the deck, where I foon found that we had 
grounded upon a hard fand. It was happy for us, that 
at this time it was flark calm ; and I immediately or- 
dered out the boats to carry an anchor a-ftern, where 
the water was deepeft : the anchor took the ground, 
but before we could work the capftern, in order to 
heave the (hipoflFtoit, (he went off, by the mere rifing 
of the tide. It happened fortunately tobejufllow 
water when (he went a-ground, and there was fifteen 
feet forward, and fix fathom a very little way a-(lem. 
The Mafter told me, that at the laft caft of the lead, 
before we were a-ground, he had thirteen fathom ; fo 
that the water (hoaled at once no lefs than (ixty-three feet. 
This bank, which has nQt been mentioned by any 
nrvigator who has paflTed the Streight, is extremely 
dangerous ; efpecially as it lies direSly in the fair way 
between Cape Virgin Mary and the firft Narrow, and 
juft in the middle between the fouth and north (hores. 
It is more than two leagues long, and full as broad ; 
in many places alfo it is very fteep. When we were 
upon it. Point PofleiTion bore N. E. diftant' three 
leagues ; and the entrance of the Narrow S. W. diftant 
two leagues. I afterwards faw many parts of it dry, 
and the fea breaking very high over other parts of it, 
where the water was (hallow. A (hip that (hould 
ground upon this (hoal in a gale of wind, would pro- 
bably be very foon beaten to pieces. 

About fix o'clock in the morning, we anchored in 
fifteen fathom, the (hoal bearing N. N. W. f W. at 
the diftance of about half a mile. At noon, we weigh- 
ed with a light breeze at N. E. and worked with the 
ebb tide till two, but finding the water (hoal, we an- 
chored again in fix fathom and an half, at abour the 
diftance of hsJf a mile from the fouth fide of the 
Ihoal. The AflTes Ears then bearing N. W by W. 
diftant four leagues, and the fouth point of the 
entrance of the firft Narrow W. S. W. diftant about 
Vol.. I, P iblt^ 


*7^i' three leagues. At this time the opening of the Nap- 
;[^^*^ row was fhut in, and upon fending out the boats 
to found, they difcovered a channel between the fhoal 
and the fouth (hore of the Streight. The Tamar in 
the mean time, as (he was endeavouring to cdme near 
us, was very near going jpn fhore, having once 
got into three fathom, but foon after came to an an- 
chor in thfc channel between the flioal and the north 

The next morning, about eight o'clock, we weighed, 
with little wind at W. S. W. and fleered about half a 
mile S. E. by E. when, having deepened our water to 
thirteen fathom, we fleered between the E. and E. N. 
E, along the fouth fide of the flioat, at the diftance of 
about feven miles from the fouth fliore, keeping two 
boats at fome diflance, one on each bow, to found. 
The depth of water was very irregular, varying conti- 
nually between nine and fifteen fathom ;. and upon 
hauling nearer to the fhoal, we had very foon no more 
than feven fathom : the boats went over a bank, upon 
which they had fix fathom and an half; it being then 
low water, but within the bank they had thirteen fa- 
thom. At noon, we were to the eafl ward of the fhoat, 
and as weliauled over to the north fhore, we foon deep- 
ened our water to twenty fathom. Point PoflTeffion at 
this time bore N. N. W; diftant between four and five 
leagues, the AfTes Ears W.N. W.diftant fix leagues, 
and Cape Virgin Mary N. E. f E. diftant about feven 
leagues. From this fituation we fleered N.E. by E. for 
the fbnth end of thefpit which runs to the fouthward 
of the Cape, and had no foundings with five and 
twenty fathom. At foijrln the afternoon. Cape Virgin 
Mary bore N. E. and the fouth end of the fptt N. E. 
Tuefd. 8. by E diftant three leagues. At eight the next morning, 
the Cape bore N. by W. diftunt two leagues. Ourla- 
titude vvas 510 50', and our foundings were eleven and 
twelve fathom. We novv brought to for the Tamar, 
who had come through the north channel, and was 
fome leagues a-ftern of us, and while we were waiting 
for her coming up, the officer of the watch informed me 
that the head of the main-maft was fprung : I inmiedi- 
ately went up to look at it myfelf, and found it 
fplit almoft: in a ftrait lioe perpendicularly (or a confi- 



deraUe lei^h, but I could not difcover exa6Hy hxm «7^s- 
far the fiflbrc went, for thecHeefcs that were upori the (^^!^^ 
mafl. We imagined this to have happened in the very 
hard gale that had overtaken us fome time before ; but 
as it was of more importance tocontrive how to repair 
the damage than to difcover how it happened, we im-- 
mediately put on a ftrong fifli, and wooided it fo wdl; 
that we had reafon to hope the maft would be as fer- 
viceable as ever. Cape Virgin Mary now bore S. 62 
W. diftant twenty-one leagues, and our latitude was 
510 50' S. longitude 690 56' W. the variation 20® E. 

On the 9th having failed S. 67 E. our latitude was^^jj, 
52<> 8' S. our longitude 6i^ ^i' W. and Cape Virgin * 
Mary bore S. S3 W. diftant thirty-three leagues. 

On the loth, there having been little wind for the'Thurf. lo. 
laft twenty-four hours, between the north and eaft, 
with thick fciggy weather, our courfe was N. 18 W. 
for thirty-nine miles. Our latitude was 510 31' S. lon- 
gitude 680 Ajff VV. variation 20° E. and Cape Virgin 
Mary bor^e S. 60 W. diftant thirty-thi'ee leagues. 

On the nth, we had ftrong gales at S. W. withj-^j ^^ 
a great fea : our courfe Was N. 87 E. for ninety-nine 
miles. Our latitude Was 510 24' S. longitude 660 lo' 
W. Cape Virgin Mary bore S. 730 8' W. diftant fixty- 
five leagues, and Cape Pairweather W. 2 S. diftant 
leventy leagues : the variation was now 190 E. About 
feven in the evenings I thought I faw land a-head of 
us, but the Tumar being fome leagues a-ftern, I wore 
tfiip, and made an eafy fail off : the next morning, at^*^* '** 
bre^of day, fftood in again, the wind having Ibifted 
in the night to N^ W. and about four o'clock, I reco- 
vered fightof the land a-head, which had the appear- 
ance of three iflands ; I imagined they might be 
theiflands of Sebald de Wert, but intended to ftand 
between them ; I found that the land which had 
appeared to be feparated, was joined by fome very 
low ground; which formed a deep bay. As food as I 
had made this diifcovery, I tacked and ftood out again, 
and at the fame time faw land a great way to the foiith-. 
ward, which I made no doubt was the fame that is 
tflentioned in the charts by the name of the New Iflands. 
As I was hauHilg out of this bay, I faw a long, low 
fhoalof rocks, ftretching dUt fpr more than a league to 

D 2i l\vc 


the northward of us, and another of the fame kind 
lying between that and what we had taken for the nor- 
tbermofl of De Wert's iflands. This land, except the 
low part, which is not feen till it is approached near, 
confifls of high, craggy, barren rocks, which in ap* 
pearance very much referable Staten Land. . When I 
had got fo near as to difcover the low land, I was quite 
embayed, and if it had blown hard at S. W. fo great a 
fea mufl: have rolled in here as would have rendered it 
almoft impof&ble to claw off the (hore ; all (hips, there- 
fore, that may hereafter navigate thefe parts, (hould 
avoid falling in with it. The feals and birds here are in- 
numerable ; we faw alfo many whales fpouting about 
us, feveral of which were of an enormous fize. Our 
latiitude now was 510 2 7.' S. longitude 630 54' W. the 
vaflatibh was 23** 30' E. In the evening we brought to, 

ihind. 13; ^ the next morning, ftood in for the 
north part of the ifland by the coaft of which we had 
been embayed : when we had got about four miles to 
the eaft ward, it fell calm, and rained with great vio- 
lence, during which there arofe fuch a fwell ^s I never 
remember to have feen : It came from the weft ward, 
and ran fo quick and fo high, that I expeSed every 
moment it would break : it fet us very faft towards 
the (hore, which is as dangerous as any in the worlds 
and I could fee the furge breaking at fomediftance from 
it, mountains high : happily for us a frefh gale fprung 
up at fouth eaft, with which, to our great joy, we 
were able to ftand off t and it behoves whoever (hall 
afterwards come this way, to give the north part of 
this ifland a good birth. After I had got to fome dif- 
tance, the weather being thick, and it raining very 
hard, I brought to. Our latitude was now 51© S. and 
longitude 630 22' W. 

Monday 14. Qn Monday the 14th, the weather having cleared 
up, and the wind fhiftcd to the S. S. W. we fleered 
along the fliore S. E. by E. four miles, and faw a low 
flat ifland full of high tufts of grafs refeihbling buflies, 
bearing fouth, at the diftance of two or three leagues, 
the horthermoft land at the fame time bearing weft, 
diftant about fix leagues : we had h^re thirty-eight fa- 
thom, with rocky ground. We continued our courfe 
along the fliore fix leagues farther, aud then faw a low 



rocky ifland bearing S. E. by E. diftant about five jaa^Jf. 
miles : here we brought to, and having founded, we ^^^^.^^ 
had forty fathom water, with a bottom of white fand. 
This ifland is about three leagues diflant trom the land 
we were coafting, which here forms a very deep bay, 
and bears E. by N. of the other ifland on which we 
had feen the long tufts ofgrafs : wefaw the fea break- 
ing at a good diftance from the ihore, and during the 
night flood off and on. The next morning at three 
o'clock we made fail, and flood in for the land to look • 
for a harbour. At fix, the eafl end of the rocky ifland" 
bore W. S. W. diftant about three miles, and our 
foundings then were fixteen fathom, with rocky ground, 
but when we got within the ifland we bad twenty fii- 
them, with fine white fand. The coaft from this rocky 
ifland lies E. by S. diftant about fevcn or eight leagues, 
where there are two low iflands, which mdce the eaf- 
termoft land in fight. At eight o'clock we faw an open- 
ing, which had the appearance of an harbour, bearing 
E. S. E. and being between two and three leagues, 
diflant. Upon this difcovery we brought to, and fent 
a boat from each of the fliips to examine the opening ; 
but it beginning to blow very hard foon after, and the 
weather growing thick, with heavy rain, we were oblig- 
ed to ftand out to fea with both the fliips, and it was 
not without great difficulty that we cleared the two 
rockyiflands which were to theeaftwardofus. We had 
now a great fea, and I began to be under much concern 
left we fliould be blown off, and our people in the boats 
left behind : however, about three in the afternoon, 
the weather clearing up, I tacked and ftood in again, 
and prefently after had the fatisfafitron to fee one of the 
boats, though it was a long way to leeward of us. I 
immediately bore down to her, and found her to be the 
Tamar's boat, with Mr. Hindman, the Second Lieu- 
tenant, on board, who having been on fliore in the 
opening, had ventured off, notwithftanding the great 
fea and bad weather, to inform me that he had found 
a fine harbour: we immediately ftocd in tor it, 
and found it equally beyond his report and our ex- 
pedations : the entrance is about a mile over, and 
every part of it is perfeSly fafe, the depth of water; 
clofe to the fliore, being from ten to (even fathom. 
Wc found this harbour to confift of two little bays 


I'^uarv ^^ ^^^ ftatboard fide, where (hi p may anchor in greal 
fafety, and in each of which there is a fine rivulet of 
frefb water. Soon after we entered an harbour of 
much greater extent, which I called PqrtEgmont, 
in honour of the earl, who was then Firft Lord of the 
Admiralty ; and I think it is one of the fjneft harbours 
in the world. The mouth of it is S. E. diftant feven 
leagues from the low rocky ifland, which is .a good 
mark to know it by : within the ifland, and at the dif- 
tance oi about two rniles from the ihore, there is be- 
tween feventeen and eighteen fathom water ; and about 
t^ree leagues to the weftward of the harbour, .^here is 
a remarkable white fgndy beach, off which a fliip mzy 
anchor till there is an opportunity to run in. In (land* 
ing in for this Tandy beach, the two low rocky jflands, 
which we found it difficult to clear when the weather 
obliged us to (l^nd off, . appear to the e^ftward, an4 
Pprt Egmont is about fixteen leagues from the north 
end of thefe iflaods. We moored in ten fathon;), with 
fine hok)ing .grqun^. The northermoft f>pint of the 
weftern (hore was diAant two miles ^nd an half, the 
watering-place on that fliore bore W. N. W. | W. 
and was diftant half a mile, and the iilands on the 
eaft fide bore E. by S. and were diftant four niiles.. 
The whole navy of England might ride here in perfeS 
fecurity from all winds. Soon ^ter the fhip came to 
^n anchor, the other boat which had remained on 
ihore when iVJr. Hindman put off, came on board. 
In the fouthermoft part of the harbour there are feve- 
ral iilands, but there is no paffage out for a (hip ; I 
went, however through in my boat, about, feven 
leagues diftant from where the (bip lay, and entered a 
large found, which is tQO n>uch expofed to a wefteriy 
wind for fhips to lie in it fafely ; and the mailer of the 
Tamar, who had been round in her boat, and entered 
this found from without, reported that many ihoals lay 
off it, fo that if the harbour was ever fo good, it would 
iK)t be prudent to attempt getting in. In every part of 
Port Egmont there is frefti water in the grcateft plenty, 
and geefe, ducks, fnipes, and other birds are fo nume- 
rous that our ptoplegrew tired of thcni : it was a com- 
mon thing for a boat to bring off fixty or feventy fine 
geefc, vvithcut expeni.1ing a fingle charge of powder and 


ROUND THE W051U0. 41 

(hot, for the men knocked down as many as they pleafed ^f^S- 
with ftones : wood, however, is wanting here, except ^„,J2j 
a little that is found a-drift along the fticre, u hich I 
imagined came from the Streight of Magellan. Among 
other refreftiments, which arc in the higheft degree 
ialutary to thofe who have comrafted fcorbuticdiforders, 
during a long voyage, here are wild celery and wood 
forrel, in the greateft abundance ; nor is tliere any want 
ofmufcles, clams, cockles, and limpets :• the icah and 
pengiiins are innumerable, fb Uhat it isirtipoiTible t6 
walk on the beach without firft driving tiem away : 
and the coaft abounds with fea lions, many «ff' which 
arc of an enormous fi^e. We found tHis-anirtiklvery 
formidable ; I was once attacked by one (if thehl very 
unexpeftcdly, and it was with the utmoft ' drfficidlty 
that I could difengage my fdf from him : at t^her times 
we had many battles with theh), and it ha^ ibmetimet 
afforded -a do^en of us an hour's work t6^^tl][>itch one 
of ihem ; I had with rtic a very fine mafftifeFdi^land d 
bite of brie of thefe creatures almoft to'r^^HiyttS'pietes. 
Nor were thefe the only dangctous animals that we 
found here ; for the Mailer having been Tent out ont 
diy to found the coaft upon tlie fouth fliorc; rfepotted, 
at his return, that four creatures of great frercenefs, 
refembling wolves, ran up to their bellies iti the water 
to attack the people in his bOat, and that is they hap- 
pened toliave no fire-arms with them, they Had imme- 
diately put the boat off into deep water. The next 
morning after this happened, I went upon the fouthern 
(hore myfelf, where we found one of the largeft fea 
lions I had ever feen : as the boatVcrew wcrenow well 
armed, they immediately engaged him, and during 
the conteft one of the other animals was feen running 
towards ue: he was fired at before he came up, and 
was prefently killed, though I afterwards wiftied that 
we had endeavoured to take him alive, which, if we 
had been aware of his attack, I dare fay might eafily 
have been done. When any of thefe creatures got 
fight of our people, though at ever fo great a diftance, 
they ran direflly at them ; and no lefs than five of 
ihem were killed this day. They were always called 
wolves by the (hip's company, but except in their fize, 
sutd the (hapc of the tail, I think they bore a greater 



^T^S* refemblance to a fox. They are as big as a middle 
^*?^^ fixed maftiff, and their fangs arc remarkably long and 
(harp. There are great numbers of them upon this 
coaft, though it is not perhaps eafy to guefs how they 
fird came hither^ for t he fei fiends are at leaftone huor 
dred leagues diftant from the main : they burrow in 
the ground like a fox, and we have frequently feen 
pieces of feal which they have mangled, and the {kins 
of penguins, lie fcattered about, the mouth of their 
holes. Ta g^l rid of^thefe creatures, our people fet 
(ire to thegrafs, fo that the country was in a blaze as 
far as the eye could reach, for feveral daysj and we 
could fpe them running in great numbers to feek other 
quarters. I dug holes in many places, about two feet 
dieep, to examine the foil, which I .found firft a black 
mouldy and then a light clay* While we lay here, 
we fet ay) th^ armourer's forge on (hore, and com« 
pleted|i..great deal of iron work that was much wanted. 
Our people had every morning an excellent breakf aft 
made of portable foup, and wild celery, thickened 
with o^t meal : neither was Our attention con(ined 
wholly to. ourfelves, for the Surgeon of the Tamar 
furrounded a piece of ground near the watering place 
with a fence of turf, and planted it with many efcu- 
lent vegetables as a garden, for the benefit of thofe 
who might hereafter come to this place. Of this har- 
bour, and all the neighbouring iflands, I took poflTefSon 
for his Majefly King George the Third of Great Bri- 
tain, by the name of Falkland's Islands, and 
there is I think little reafon to doubt that they are the 
fame land to which CoAvley gave the name of Pepys* 

In the printed account of Cowley's voyage, he fays, 
^* We held our courfe S. W. till we came into the lati- 
'* tude offorty-feven degrees, where we faw land, the 
'* fame being an ifland, not before known, laying to 
" the wejlward of us : it was not inhabited, and I 
** gave it the name of Pepys' Island. We found 
it a very commodious place for (hips to water at, and 
take in wood^ and it has a very good harbour, where 
a thoiifand fail of Jhips may fafely ride. Here \s great 
^' plenty of fowls, and, we judge, abundance of fifti, 

if by 



•* by reafon of the grounds being nothing but rocks 
« andfands." 

To this account there is annexed a reprefentatton of 
Pepy's Ifland, in which names are given to feveral 
points and head-lands, and the harbour is called Admi- 
ralty-bay ; yet it appears that Cowley had only a dif- 
tant view of it ; for he immediately adds, ** The wind 
** being fo extraordinary high that we could not get 
** into it to water, we flood to the fouthward> (haping 
** our courfe S. S. W. till we came into the latitude of 
" 53>'* ^"^ though he fays that *^ it was commodious 
** to take in wood," and it is known that there is no 
wood on Falkland's Iflands, Pepys' Ifland and Falk- 
land's Iflands may notwithftanding be the fame; for 
upon Falkland's Iflands there are immenfe quantities 
of flags with narrow leaves, reeds and ruflies which 
grow in clufters, fo as to form buflies about three feet 
high, and then flioot about fix or feven feet higher : 
thefe at adiftance have greatly the' appearance of wood» 
and were taken for wood by the French, who landed 
there, in the year 1 764,- as appears by Pcrnctty*s ac- 
count of their voyage. It has been fuggefted that the 
latitude of Pepys' Ifland might, in the M. S. from 
which the account of Cowley's voyage was printed, 
be exprefled in figures, which, if ill made, might 
equally refemble forty-feven, and fifty-one ; and there- 
fore as there is no ifland in thefe feas in latitude forty - 
feven, and as Falkland's Iflands lie nearly in fifty-one, 
that fifty-one might reafonably be concluded to be the 
number for which the figures were intended to ftand : 
recourfe therefore was had to the Britifli Mufaeum, and 
a manufcript journal of Cowley's was there found. 
In this manufcript no mention is made of an ifland 
not before known, to which he gave the name of Pe- 
pys' Ifland, but land is mentioned in latitude forty- 
feven degrees, forty minutes, exprefled in words at 
length, which exactly anfwers to the defcription of 
what is called Pepys' Ifland in the printed account, 
and which here, he fays, he fuppofed to be the iflands 
of Sebald de Wert. This part of the manuf<?ript is 
in the following words : *' January 1683. This 
" month wee were in the hiitudc of firty-feaven de^ 
** grefs and forty minnetts, where wee efpied an ifland 

*' bearing 



bearing wefi from us ; wee having the wind at call 
north-eaft, wee bore away for it, it being too late 
for us to g«>c on (hoare, we lay bye ail night. The 
iiland feemed very pleafant to the eye, with manf 
** woods, I may as well fay the whole land was woods. 
" There being a rock lying above water to the eaft- 
** ward of it, where an innumerable company offowUSf 
*• being of the bigneiTe of a fmall goofe, which fowles 
'^ would ftrike at our men as they were aloft : fome of 
** them were killed and eat : they feemed to us very 
** goody only tafted fomewhat fiftily. I failed along 
'* thjJt ifland to the fouthward, and about the foutK 
** weft fide of the ifland there feemed to me to be a 
*^ good place for ftiipps to ride: I would have had the 
** boat out to have gone into the harbour, but the 
** wind blew frefti, and they would not agree to go In 
^* with ft. Sailing a little further, keeping the lead, and 
'^ having fix and twenty, and feaven and twenty fathoms 
^f water, untHl wee came to a place whei^e wee faw the 
** weeds ride> having the lead againe^ found but fea*- 
*' vcn fathoms water. Fearing danger went about 
** fhe fhipp there, were then fearfull to flay by fhe 
'* land any longer, it being all rocky ground, but th4 
*' harbour feemed to be a good place for Jhipps to ride 
** there ; in the ifland feeming likewife to have water 
*' enough, there feenfied to me to be harbour y^ry?i;^ 
*' hundred falU of fhipps. The going in but narrow 
" and the north fide of the entrance fliallow water 
** that I could fee, but I verily believe that there is 
*^ water enough for any fliipp to goe in on the foiith 
** fide, for there cannot be fo great a lack of water, but 
** muft needs fcowre a channell away at the ebbe deepe 
•* enough for (hipping to goe in. I would have had 
*' tbcm flood upon a wind all night, but they told me 
** they were not con^ out to go upon difcovery. We 
•' faw likewife another ifland by this that night, which 
•* itiade me thinke them to be the Sibble D* wards. 
The fame night we fleered our courfe againe weft 
fouthwcjiy which was but our fouth-weft, thecom- 
pafle having two and twenty degrees variation eaft- 
wardly, keeping that courfe till wee came in the lati- 
^ tude of three and fifty degrees.'^ 




in.both tbeprinted and maau(cript account, this land .^^ 
isfaid to lie in Ifttiiude foFty-fcven, to be fituated to the {^|||^!!^ 
weft ward of the (hip when .firft difcovered, to appear 
wQody^ to have an harbopr where a great number of 
(hips might ride in fafety, and to be frequented by in- 
numerable birds. It appears alfo, by both accounts^ 
that the weather prevented his going on ihorCy and 
that he (leered from ft W. S. W. till he came into 
latitude fifty-three : there can therefore be little doubt 
b.ut that Cowley gave the name of Pepy's Ifland af- 
ter be came home, to v^hat he really fuppofed to be 
the .Iflan4 of Sebald de Wert, for which it is not diffi- 
cult to ailign feveral reafons ; and though the fuppofi^ 
tion of a miftake of the figures does not appear to be 
well grovinded, yet, there being no land in forty-feven, 
the evidence tb»t what Cowley faw was Falkland's 
Iflands, is very firong. The deicriptipn of the coun- 
try agrees in alippft every particular, and even the map 
i% of the fame general figure, with a ftreight running up 
the midcUe. The chart of Falkland'^ Iflands that accom- 
panies this narrative, was laid down from the journals 
and drawings of captain Macbride, who was difpatched 
thither after my return, and circumnavigated the whole 
coaft : the two principal Iflands were probably called 
Falkland's Iflands by Strong, about the year 1689, 
as he is known to have given the name of Falkland's 
Sound to part of the flreight which divides them. 
The Journal of this navigator is ftill unprinted in the 
Brittfli Mufasum. The firft who faw thefe iflands is 
fuppofed to be Captain Davies, the aflbciate of Ca- 
ifendifli, in 1 592. In 1 594, Sir Richard Hawkins faw 
land, fuppofed to be the fame, and in honour of his 
miftrefs, Qyetn Elizabeth, called them Hawkins's 
Maiden Land. Long afterwards, they were feen 
liy fomc French ftiips from Saint Maloes, aftd 
Frez.lcr, probably, for that reafon, called them the 
Malouins, a namfe which h:is been lince adopted by 
the Spaniards. 

Having continued in the harbour which I had called 
Fort Egraont, till Sunday the 27th of January, wCg , 
failed again at eight o'clock in the morning with the 
wind at S. S. W. but we were fcarcely got out of the 
port before it began to blow very hard,and the weather 


_.../t trot" ^* 

a (rot" ^'^ 

i tVic nortB 
.' anii ™^ ,1 fo 



»7*5« became fo thick that we could not fee the rocky iflan^s* 
\^i^^^ I now moft heartily wifticd myTelf again at anchor in 

I the harbour we had quitted ; but in a fhort time we 

had the fatisfaftion to fee the weather become clear^^ 
though it continued to blow very hard the whole day. 
At nine the entrance of Port Egmont harbour bore E. 
S. E. diftant two leagues ; the two low iflands to the 
northward E; by N. diftant between three or four 
miles; and the rocky iiland W. 4 N. diftant four 
leagues. At i^x\ the two low iflands bore S. S. E. 
diftant four or five miles ; and we then (leered along 
the fhore eaft by the compafs, and after having run 
about five leagues, we faw a remarkable head-land, 
with a rock at a little diftance from it, bearing E. S.E. 
\ E. diftant three leagues. This head-land I called 
Cap£ Tamar. Having continued the fame courfe 
five leagues farther, we faw a rock about five miles 
from the tnain bearing N. E. at the diftance of four 
or- five kagues: this rock I called the Edistgne, 
and theii (leered between it and a remarkable head-lai^d 
whichi called CapeDolphik, in the direftion of E. 
N. E. five leagues farther. From Cape Tamar to 
Cape Dolphin, a diftance of about eight leagues, the 
land forms, what I thought, a deep found, and called 
Carlisle Sound, but what has fince appeared to be 
the northern entrance of the ftreight between the two 
principal iflands. In the part that I fuppofed to be the 
bottom of the found, we faw an opening, which had 
the appearance of a harbour. From Cape Dolphin we 
fleered along the (hore E ^ N fix teen leagues, to a low 
flat cape or head-land, and then brought to. In thi» 
day's run the land, for the moft part, refembled the eaft 
fide of the coaft of Patagonia, not having fo much as a 

, fingle tree, or even a bufti, being all downs, with here 

and there a few of the high tufts of grafs that we had 
fcen at Port Egmont ; and in this account I am fure I 
am not miftaken, for I frequently failed within two 
miles of the ihorc ; fo that if there had been a ihrub 
as big as a goofe-berry bufti, I (hould have feen it. 
During the night we had forty fathom water with 
rocky ground. 

Mottday 2S. The next morning, at four o'clock, we made fail, 
the low flat cape then bearing S. E. by E. diftant five 

leagues : 

-ft O U N D T H E W O R L D. 47 

leagues ; at half an hour after five it bore S. S. E. dif- 
tant two leagues : and we then (leered from it E. S. E. 
five leagues, to three low rocky iflands which lie about 
two miles from the main. From thefe iflands we (leered 
S. S. E. four leagues, to two other low iflands, which lie 
at the diftance of about one mile from the main. Be- 
tween thefe iflands the land forms a very deep found, 
which I called Berkeley's Sound. In the fouth 
part of this found there is an opening, which has the 
appearance of a harbour ; and about three or four 
miles to the fouthward of the fouth point of it, at the 
diftance of about (our miles from the main, fome rocks 
appear above the water, upon which the fea breaks very 
high, there being here a great fwellfrom the fouth waitl. 
When we were a-breaft of thefe breakers, we fleered 
S. W. by S. about two leagues, when the fouthermoft 
land in fight, which I took to be the fouthermoft part 
of Falkland's Iflands, bore W. S. W. diftant five 
leagues. The coaft now began to be very dangerous, 
there being, in all dire3ions, rocks and breakers at a 
great diftance from the fhore. The country alfo 
inland had a more rude and defolate appearance ; the 
high ground, as far as we could fee, being all barren, 
craggy rocks, very much refembling that part of Terra 
del Fuego which lies near Cape Horn. As the fea now 
rofe every moment, I was afraid of being caught here 
upon a lee (hore, in which cafe there would have been 
very little chance of my getting off, and therefore I 
talked and flood to the northward ; the latitude of 
the fouthermoft point in fight being about 52© 3' S. 
As we had now run no lefs than feventy leagues along 
the coaft of this ifland it niuft certainly be of very con* 
fideraWe extent. It has been faid by fome former na- 
vigators to be about two hundred miles in circum- 
ference, but I made no doubt of its being nearer feven. 
Having hauled the wind, 1 ftood to the northward 
about noon ; the entrance of Berkeley's Sound at three 
o'clock bore S. W, by W. diftant about fix leagues. 
At eight in the evening, the wind (hifting to the S.W. 
ire ftood to the weftward. 






The Pajfage through the Str eights of Magellan as far as 
Cape Monday^ with a Defcription offeveral Bays and 
Harbours^ farmed by the Coajl on each Sidf, 

s 1765' 



E continued to niakc fail for Port Dcfire till 
Wcdnefday the 6th day of February, when 

Wcdn. 6. about one o'clock in the afternoon we faw land, and 
flood in for the Port. During the run from Falkland's 
Iflands to this place, the number of whales about thtf 
(hip was fo great as to rendfer the navigation dangerous ; 
we were very near ftrikihg upon one, and anothierblew 
the water in upon the quarter deck : they were much 
Targer than any we had feen. As we were ftanding in 
for Port Defire, we faw the Florida, a ftore-fhip that 
we expeSed from England ; and at four we came to 
art anchor oflF the harbour's mouth. ' 

Thurf. 7. Th^ P^^^ morning, Mr. Dean, the mafter of the 
ftore-fliip, came on board ;. and finding from his re- 
port that his foremaft was fprung, and his fhip little 
bfetter than a wreck, I determined to go into the har- 
bour, and try to unload her there, although the narrow- 
nefs of the place, and the rapidity of the tides, rendered 
it a very dangerous fituation. We got in in the even- 
ing, but it blowing very hard in the night, both the 
Tamar and the ftofefliip made fignals of diftrefs; I 
immediately fent my boats to their affiftance, who 
found that notwithftandin^ they were moored, they had 
been driven up the harbour, and were in the greateft 
danger of being on fliore. They were got oflF, not 
without great difficulty, and the very fiext night they 
drove again, and were again faved by the fame eflfbrts, 
from the fame danjger. As I now found that the 
ftorefhip was continually driving about the harbour, and 
every moment in danger of being loft, I gave up, with 
whatever reluftaqce, my defign of taking the prbvifi- 
ons out of hef, and fent all our carpenters on board, to 
fifli the maft, and make fuch other repairs as they could. 
I alfo lent her my forge to complete fuch iron work as 
they waited, and determined, the moment fhe was in a 
condition to put to fea, to take her with us into theStreight 



of Magellan, and unload her there. While this was ^ »7<^ 
doing. Captain Mouat, who commanded the Tamar, 
informed me that his rudder was fprung, and that he 
had reafon to fear it would in a ftiort time become wholly 
unferviceable. Upon this I ordered the Carpenter of 
the Dolphin on board the Tamar, to examine the rud- 
der, and he reported it to be fo bad, that in his opinion 
the veffel could not proceed in her voyage without a new 
one. A new one however it was not in our power to 
procure at this place, and I therefore defired Captain 
Mouat to get his forge on fhore, and fecure his rudder 
with iron clamps in the beft manner he could, hoping 
that in the Streight a piece of timber might be found 
which would furnifli him with a better. 

On Wednefday the 13th, the ftore-fliip being ready We4ji«f. 13 . 
for feaj I put on board her one of my petty officers, 
who was well acquainted with the Streight, and three 
or four of my fcamen to aflift in navigating her ; I alfo 
lent her two of my boats, and took thofe belonging to 
her, which were ftaved, on board to get them repaired, 
and then t ordered her Matter, to put to fea dire£J:ly, 
and make the beft of his way to Port Famine ; though 
I did not doubt but that 1 fhould come up with her 
long before fhe got thither, as I intended to follow her 
as foon as the Tamar was ready, and Captain Mouat 
had toW me, that the rudder having been patched toge* 
ther by the joint labour and (kill of the carpenter and 
imith, he (hould be in a condition to proceed with me 
the next morning. 

The next morning we accordingly put to fea, and Thurfl. 14. 
a few hours afterwards, being a-breaft of Penguin 
Ifland, we faw the ftore-fliip a long way to the caft- 
ward. - •. 

On Saturday the i6ih, about iix o'clock in thesatotiil* 
morning, we faw Cape Fairweather bearing W. S. W. 
at the diftance of five or fix leagues ; and at nine, 
we faw a ftrange fail to the N. W. {landing after us. 

On the 17th, at fix in the morning, Cape Virgin Sunday 17. 
Mary bearing fouth, diftant five miles, we hauled 
in for the Streight, and the ftrange ftiip ftill followed 

On the 1 8th, we pafled the firft Narrow, and as I 
perceived the ftrange fllip to have fliapcd the fame 


1765. courfe that we had, from. the time fhe had iirft feen usf . 
^FebruMry. {}^ortening or making fail as we did, fhe became the 
Monday la. fubjed of much fpeculation ; and as I was obliged, 
after I had got through the firft Narrow, to bring to 
for the ftore-ihip, which was a great way a-ftern, I ima- 
gined (he would fpeak with us, and therefore I put the 
ihip into the bed order I could. As foon as he had 
paffed the Narrow, and faw me lying to, he did the 
fame about four miles to windward of me. In this fitu- 
ation we remained till night came on, and the tide fet- 
ting us over to the fouth fhore, we came to an anchor; 
the wind however fhifted us before morning, and at day 
break I faw our fatellite at anchor about three leagues 
to leeward of us. As it was then tide of flood, I 
thought of working through the fecond Narrow ; but 
feeing the ftranger get under way, and work up to- 
wards us, I ran direSly over into Gregory Bay, and 
brought the fliip to an anchor, with a fpring upon our 
cable : I alfo got eight of our guns, which were all 
we could get at, out of the hold, and brought them 
over on one fide. In the mean time the fliip continued 
to work up towards us, and various were our conjec- 
tures about her, for fhe fhewed no colours, neither did 
we. It happened about this time that the ftore-fhip, as 
fhe was endeavouring to come to an anchor near us, ran 
a- ground ; upon which the ftranger came to an anchor 
a little way a-ftern, at the fame time hoifting French co- 
lours, and fending his launch, and another boat, with an 
anchor to aflift her. Still however I (hewed no colours, 
but fent my own boats, and a boat of the Tamar's to 
afiift the ftore-(hip, giving orders at the fame time to 
the officers, not to fuffer the French boats to come on 
board her, but to thank them in polite terms for the 
affiftance they intended. Thefe orders were punflually 
obeyed, and with the affiftance of cur own boats only, 
the ftdre-fhip was foon after got off: my people re- 
ported that the French (hip was full of men, and feem- 
ed to have a great number ot offipers on aboard. 

At fix o'clock in the evening, I made the (ignal and 
weighed ; we worked through the fecond Narrow, and 
at ten o'clock pafTed the weft end of it : at eleven, we 
anchored in feven fathom off Elizabeth's Ifland ; and 
the French fhip at the fame time anchored in a bad 



fituanon, to the fouthwird of Saint Bartholomew's ^7^s 
Ifland, which convinced me that Ibe wai not acquaint- |[^**f^' 
ed with the channel. 

At fix o'clock the next morning, I weighed andTaer.19. 
failed between Elizabeth and Bartholomew Iflands, 
with the wind at N. W. and after fteefing S. S. W, 
five or fii: miles, we crofled a bank, where among the 
weeds we had feven fathom water. This bank lies 
W. S. W. five or fix miles from the middle of 
George's Ifland, and it is faid in fome former accounts, 
that in many places there is not three fathom water 
upon it : the danger here therefore is confiderable, and 
to avoid it, it is neceflarytokeepnear Elizabeth's Ifland 
till the weftem fliore is but at a fltort diftance, and thea 
a fouthem courfe may be fleered with great (afety, till 
the reef, which lies about four miles to the northward 
of Saint Anne's Point, is in iight. At noon this day, 
the north point of Frefli Water bay bore W. by N. 
and Saint Anne's Point S. by £ f E. The French (hip 
fiill fl:eered after us, and we imagined that flie was 
either from Falkland's Iflands, where the French had 
then a fettlem^t, to get wood, or upon a furvey of 
the S treight. The remaining part of this day, and the Wc4a. aou 
next morning, we had variable wind with calms ; in 
the afternoon therefore I hoifted out the boats, and 
towed round Saint Anne's Point into Port Famine : at 
fix in the evening we anchored* and foon after the 
French fliip pafled by us to the fouthward. 

Here we continued till Monday the 2 5th, when both Monday 15. 
the Dolphin and Tamar having taken out of the ftore* r 
{hip as much provifions as they could flow, I gav« the 
Mafter of her orders to return to England as foon as 
he could get ready, and with the Tamar failed from 
Port Famine, intending to pufli throi^h the Streight 
before the feafon fl^ould be too far advanced. At nooo^ 
we were three leagues diftant from Saint Anne's Point, 
which bore N. W. and three or four miles diftant from 
Point Shutup, which bore S. S. W. Point Shutup 
bears from Saint Anne's Point S* f E. by the compafs, 
and they are about four or five le^^ues afunder. Be- 
tween thofe two Points there is a fiat fhoal, which runs 
fixMn Port Famine before Sedger river, and three or 
four miles to the fouthward. 

Vol. I. E We 


1J65. We fteered S. S. W. with little wind, along the 

/J[]**]^ (hore from Point Shutup towards Cape, Forward ; and 

about three o'clock in the afternoon we paflTed by the 
French (hip, which we fa w in a little cove, about two 
leagues to the fouthward of Point Shutup. She had 
hauled her ftern clofe into the woods, and we could 
fee large piles of the wood which fhe had cut down, 
lying on each fide of her ; fo that I made no doubt of 
her having been fent out to procure that neceffary for 
their new fettlement, though I could not conceive why 
they ftiould have come fo far into the Streight for that 
purpofe. After my return to England, I learnt that 
this velTel was the Eagle, commanded by M. Bougain- 
ville, and that her bufinefs in the Streight was, as I 
coDJedured, to cut wood, for the French fettlement in 
Falkland's Iflands. From Cape Shutup to Cape For- 
ward the courfe by the compafs is S. W. by S. and the 
diftance is feven leagues. At eight o'clock in the 
cvenbg. Cape Forward bore N. W.f W. and was 
diftant about a mile, and we brought to for the night. 
This part of the Streight is about eight miles over, and 
off the Cape we had forty fathom within half a cable's 

Tuef. a6. length of the fliore. About four o'clock in the morn- 
ing we made fail ; and at eight, having had light airs al- 
moft quite round the compafs. Cape Forward bore N. 
E. by E. diftant about four miles ; and Cape Holland 
W. N. W. f W. diftant about five leagues. At ten 
we had frefli gales at W. N. W. and at intervals fud- 
den fqualls, fo violent as to oblige us to clew all up 
every time they came on. We kept however working 
to windward, and looking out for an anchoring -place, 
endeavouring at the fame time to reach a bay about 
two leagues to the weft ward of Cape Forward. At five 
o'clock I fent a boat with an officer into this bay to 
found, who finding it fit for our purpofe, we entered 
it, and about fix o'clock anchored in nine fathom : Cape 
Forward bore E. f S. diftant five miles ; a fmall ifland 
which lies in the middle of the bay, and is about a 
mile diftant from the fhore, W. by S. diftant about 
half a mile; and a rivulet of frefli water N. W. by W. 
diftant three quarters of a mile. 

Wcdn. a;. ^^ ^*^ o'clock the next morning, we weighed and 
continued our courfe through the Streight: from 

^ Cape 


Cape Holland to Cape Gallant^ which are diftant about < 7^5' 
eight leagues, the coaft lies W. | S. by the compafs : ^^J|[]I^' 
Cape Gallant is very high and fteep, and between this 
and Cape Holland lies a reach about three leagues over, 
called Englifh Reach. Above five miles fouthofCape 
Gallant lies a large ifland, called Charles's Ifland, 
which it is ncceffary to keep to the northward of: we 
failed along the North fhore of it, at about two miles 
diftance, and fometimes much lefs. A little to the 
eaftward of Cape Holland is a fair fandy bay, called 
Wood's Bay, in which there is good anchoring. The 
mountains on each fide the Streight are, I think, higher, 
and of a more defolate appearance, than any other in 
the world ; except perhaps the Cordeliers, both being 
rude, craggy and fteep, and covered with fnow from 
the top to the bottom. 

From Cape Gallant to Paflage Point, which are dif- 
tant about three leagues, the coaft lies W. by N. by the 
compafs. FafTage Point is the eaft point of Elizabeth's 
bay, and is low land, with a rock ly'mg off it. Be- 
tween this and Cape Gallant there are feveral iflands, 
feme of them are very fmall : but the eaftermoft, 
which is Charles's Ifland, that has been jufl: mention- 
ed, is two leagues long ; the next is called Monmouth's 
Ifland, and the weftermoft, Rupert's Ifland : Ru- 
pert's Ifland lies S. by E. of Point PafTage. Thefe 
iflands make the Streight narrow; between Point 
PafTage and Rupert's Ifland it is not more than two 
miles over, and it is neceffary to go to the northward 
of them all, keeping the North fhore on board : we 
failed within two cables length of it, and had no ground 
within forty tathom. At fix in the evening the wind 
(hi f ted to the weft ward, upon which we ftood in for 
Elizabeth's Bay, and anchored *m ten fathom with very 
good ground ; the beft anchoring however is in thir- 
teen fathom, for there was but three or four fathom 
about a cable's length within us. In this Bay there is 
a good rivulet of frefh water We found the flood here 
fet very ftrong to the eaftward ; and according to our 
calculation, it flows at the full and change of the moon 
about twelve o'clock. We found the variation two 
points cafterly. 

E2 Ajt 


'7^5* At two o'clock in the afternoon of Thursday the 
J[^J™^' a8th, the wind being between the N. W. and W. 
Thurf. %Z' with frefli gales and fqualls, we made the fignal to 
weigh, and juft as we had got the (hip over the andior^ 
a violent guft brought it home ; the (hip immediately 
drove into a fhoal water, within two cables length of 
the (hore, upon which we let go the (mall bower in 
four fathom, and had but three fathom under our 
ftern : the fiream anchor was carried out with all pofli-* 
ble expedition, and by applying a purchafe to the 
capflern, the (hip was drawn towards it : we then 
heaved up both the bower anchors, flipt the ftream 
cable, and with the gibb and ftay-^fails ran out into ten 
fathom, and anchored with the beft bower exaSly ia 
the fituation from which we had been driven. 
March. At five o'clock the next morning, the wind being 
Friday i. northerly, and the weather moderate, we weighed 
''^'^ ' again, and at feven pafled Mufcle Bay, which lies on 
the fouthem fliore, about a league to the weftward of 
Elizabeth's Say. At eight, we were a^breaft of Bache- 
lor's River, which is on the north fhore, about two 
leagues W. by N. from Elizabeth's Bay. At nine, we 
pafled St. Jerom's Sound, the entrance of which is 
about a league from Bachelor's River : when St. Je- 
rom's Sound was open, it bore N. W. We then fleer- 
ed W. S. W. by the compafs for Cape Quod, which 
is three leagues diftant from the fouthermoft point of 
the Sound. Between Elizabeth's Bay, and Cape Quod, 
is a reach about four miles over, called Crooked Reach. 
At the entrance of Jerom's Sound, on the north fide, 
we faw three or four fires, and, foon afterwards, per- 
ceived two or three canoes paddling after us. At noon. 
Cape Quod bore W. S. W. | W. diftant four or five 
miles, and foon after, having light airs and calms, we 
drove to the eaflward with the flood tide ; in the mean 
time the canoes came up, and after having paddled 
about us fome time, one of them had the resolution 
to come on board. The canoe was of bark, very ill 
made, and the people on board, which were four men, 
two women, and a boy, were the poorefl wretches I 
had ever feen. They were all naked, except a ftinking 
feal (kin that was thrown loofely over their fhoulders ; 
they were armed, however, with bows and arrows, 



♦rhich they readil j gave mc hi rcttifn for a few beads, Jg|5^ 
and other trifles. The «tow5 were made of a reed, and 
pointed with a green flooe : they w^re about two feet 
long; and the h6W9 were three feet ; the cord of the 
bow was the dried gut of fonie animal. In the even* 
ing, we anchored a-breaft of Bachelor's River, in four- 
teen fathom. The entrance of the River bore N. by E. 
dtftant one mile^ and the ndrthemioft point of &iint 
Jcrom's Sound W. N. W. diftaot three miles. About 
three quarters of a mile eaftward of Bachelor's River^ 
is a ihoal, upon which there is not more than itx feet 
water when the tide is out : it is diftant about half a 
mile from the (hore> and may be known by the weed» 
that are upon it. The tide flows here at the full and 
change of the moon^ about one o'clock. Soon after 
we were at anchor, feveral Indians came on board us, 
and I made them all prefents of beads, ribands, and 
other trifles, with which they appeared to be greatly 
delighted. This viiit I reti(irn^ by going oti fliore 
among them, taking only a few people with me in my 
jolly boat, that I might not alarm them by mmibers* 
Tliy received as with great cxpreflions of kindnefs, 
and to make us Welcome, they brought us fome berries 
which they had gathered for that purpofe, and which, 
with a few nnifcles, feem to be a principal part, if not 
the whole of their fubfiftence. 

At five o'clock, in the morning of the ad, we weigh- Saturd. t» 
ti and towed with the tide^ but at ten, having no wind, 
and finding that we drove s^in to the eaftward, we 
anchored, with the ftream ati<:hor in fifteen fathom, 
upon a bank which lies about half a mile from the 
north (hore : after veering about jt wo- thirds of a cable, 
we had five and forty fathom along-fide, and ftill deeper * 
vrater at a little diftance. The fouth point of Saint Je- 
rom's Sound bore N. N. E. diftant two miles, and 
Cape Qaod W. S. W. diftant about eight miles. From 
the fouth potntof Saint Jerom's Sound, to Cape Quod, 
is three leagues, in the direSion of S. W. by W. 
The tides in this reach are exceedingly ftrong, though 
very irregular : We found them fet to the eaftward 
from nine o'clock in the morning till five o'clock the 
next morning, and the other four hours, from five to 
nine, they fet to the weftward. At twelve o'clock at 



>7^5- night, it began to blow very hard at W- N. W. and 
*^ ' at two in the morning, the fhip drove off the bank : 

Sunday 3. we immediately hove the anchor up, and found both 
the flukes broken off : till three o'clock we had no 
ground, and then we drove into fixteen fathom, at 
the entrance of Saint Jerom's Sojiind ; as it ftill blew 
a ftorm, we immediately let go the heft bower, and 
veered to half a cable. The anchor brought the fhip 
up atfo critical a moment, that we had but five iathom, 
and even that depth was among breakers. We let go 
the fmall bower under foot, and at five, finding the 
tide fet to the weflward, and the weather more mode- 
rate, we got up both the anchors, and kept working to 
windward. At ten, we found the tide fetting again 
flrongly to the eaftward, and therefore fent the boat 
back to feek for an anchoring place, which (he found in 
a bay oh the north fhore, about four miles to the eaft- 
ward of Cape Quod, and a little way within fome 
fmall iflands : we endeavoured to get into this bay, 
but the tide rufhed ^ut of it with fuch violence, that 
we found it impoflible, and at noon bore away for 
York Road, at the entrance of Bachelor's River, where 
we anchored about an hour afterwards. 

Mond. 4. At fix o'clock the next morning, we weighed, and 
worked with the tide, which fet the fame as the day 
before, but we could not gain an anchoring-place, fo 
that at noon we bore away for York Road again. I 
took this opportunity to go up Bachelor^s River in my 
jolly boat, as high as I could, which was about four 
miles : in fome places I found it very wide and deep, 
and the water was good, but near the mouth it is fo 
ihallow at low water, that even a fmall boat cannot 
get into it. 

Taefd, 5. At fix o'clock on the 5th, we weighed again, and 
at eight it being ftark calm, we fent the boats a-head 
to tow ; at eleven, however, the tide fet fo ftrong from 
the weftward, that we could not gain the bay on the 
north fhore, which th^ boat had found for us on the 
4th, and which was an excellent harbour, fit to receive 
five or fix fail ; we were therefore obliged to anchor 
upon a bank, in forty-five fathom, with the ftream 
anchor. Cape Quod bearing W. IS. W. diftant five or 
/7x miles, the foiith point of the ifland that li^s to the 


eaft of the Cape, being juft in one with the pitch of it, i7^5- 
and a remarkable done patch on the north fliore bear- /^*^^ 
ing N. f W. diftant half a mile. Clofe to the fliore 
here, the depth of water was feventy-five fathom. As 
foon as we were at anchor, I fent an officer to the 
weftward to took out for a harbour, but he did not 
fucceed. It was calm the reft of the day, and all night, 
the tide fetting to the eaft ward from the time we an- 
chored till fix o'clock the next morning, when we^^^^^^ g 
weighed, and were towed by the boats to the weftward. 
At eight a frefli breeze fprung up at W. S. W. and 
W. and at noon, Cape Quod bore E. by S. at the dif- 
tance of about five miles. In this fituation I fent the 
boats out again to look for an anchor in g-place, and 
about noon by their direction, we anchored in a little 
bay on the fouth ftiore, oppofite to Cape Quod, in five 
and twenty fathom, with very good ground. A fmall 
rocky ifland bore W. by N. at the diftance of about 
two cables length, the eaftermoft point E. | S. and 
Cape Quod N. E. by N. diftant about three miles : in 
this place we hadfliell- fifli of various kinds in great plen- 
ty. The Tamar not being able to work up to us, an- 
chored about two o'clock in the bay on the north fliore, 
about fix miles to the eaft ward of Cape Quod, which 
has been mentioned already. During the night, it was 
ftark calm, but in the morning, having little airs of wind Thurf. 7. 
wefterly, I weighed about eight o'clock, and worked 
with the tide. At noon. Cape Quod bore E. by S. dif- 
tant between two and three leagues, and Cape Monday, 
which is the weftermpft land in fight of the fouth ftiore, 
W. by N. diftant about ten or eleven leagues. This 
part of the Streight lies W. N. W.f W. by the com- 
pafs, and is but four miles over ; fo that the craggy 
mountains, which bound it on each fide, towering 
above the clouds, and covered with everlafting fnow, 
give it the moft dreary and defolate appearance that can 
be imagined. The tides here are not very ftrong ; the 
ebb fets to the weftward, but with an irregularity for 
which it is very difficult to account. About one o'clock, 
the Tamar anchored in the bay on the fouth ftiore, op- 
pofite to Cape Quod, which we had juft left, and we 
continued working to windward till feven in the even-^ 
ing, when we anchored in a fmall bay on the north fliore, 



■^- about five leagues to the weft ward of Cape Qyod> with 
very good ground. This bay may be known by two large 
rocks that appear above water> and a low point which 
makes the eaft part of the bay. The anchoring-place 
is between the two rock^^ the jeaftermoft bearing N. £. 
f E. diftant about two cables length, and the wefter- 
inoft, which is near the point, W. N. W. | W. at 
about the fame diftance : thertf is aifo a fmall rock 
which (hews itfelf among the weeds at low water, and 
bears E. f N. diftant about two cables length. If there 
are more fhips than one, they may anchor farther out 
in deeper water. During the night it was calm, and 
the weather became very foggy ; but about ten in the 

Friday 8. moming it cleared up, and I went on (hore. I found 
abundance of Ihell-fiih, but faw no traces of pe<^le. 
In the afternoon while the peaple were filling water, 
I went up'a deep htgoon, which lies juft round the 
weftermoft rock : at the head of it I found a very fine fall 
of water, and on the eaft fide feveral little coves, where 
(hips of the greateft draft may lie in perfed. fecurity« 
We few nothing elfe worthy of notice, and therefore^ 
having filled our boat with very large mufcles, we re* 

Saturd. 9. At feven o'clock the next morning, we weighed and 
towed out of the bay, and at eight faw the Tamar very 
hr a-flern, fteering i^ter us. At noon, we had little 
wind at E. N. E. but at five o'clock, it fhifted to W». 
N. W. and blew frelh. At fix we were a-breaft. of 

Sund. 10. ^*P^ Monday, aiid at fix the next morning. Cape Up- 
ri^ bore E. by S. diftant three leagues. From Cape 
Monday to Gipe Upright, which are both on the fouth 
fhore, and diftant from each other about five leagues, 
the courfe is W. by N. by the compafs : the ftiore on 
each fide is rocky, with broken ground. At about half 
an hour after feven, we had a very hard fquall, and the 
weather being then exceedingly thick, we fuddenly per- 
ceived a reef of rocks clofe under our lee bow, upon 
which the fea broke very high : we had but juft time to 
tack clear of them, and if the ihip had miffed flays, every 
loul on board muft inevitably have periftked. Thefe 
. rocks lie a at great diftance from the fouth ftiore,- and 
are about three leagues to the north of Cape Upright. 
At nine the weather cleared a Uule, arvd we (aw the en- 


trance of Long Reach, upon which we bore away, keep- ^7^^: 
ing neareft the fouthihore, in hopes of finding an an- . ^ ' ^ 
choring-place. At ten we had ftrong gales and thick 
weather, with hard rain, and at noon, we were again 
fl-brea(t of Cape Monday, but could find no anchor- 
ing-place, which, however we continued to feek, flill 
(leering along the Ibuth ihore, and were foon after 
joined by the Tamar, who had been fix or feven leagues 
to the eaftward of us all night. At fix in the evening, 
we anchored in a deep bay, about three leagues to the 
eaftward of Cape Monday : we let go the anchor in five 
and twenty fathom, near an ifland in the bottom of 
the bay ; but before we could bring. up the (hip, we 
were driven off, and the anchor took the ground in 
about fifty fathom. The extream points of the bay bore 
from N. W. to N. E. by E. and the ifland W. | S. 
we veered to a whole cable, and the anchor was about 
a cable's length from the neareft fhore. In the night, 
we had frefli gales weflerly, with fudden fqualls and 
hard r^n ; but in the morning the weather became ^<>nd. 11. 
more moderate^ though it was ftill thick, and the rain 
continued. As a great fwell fet into this place, and broke 
very high upon the rocks, near which we lay, I got 
up the anchor, and warped the (hip to a bank where 
the Tamar was riding : we let go our anchor in four- 
teen fathom, and moored with the ft ream anchor to 
the eaftward, in forty five fathpm. In the bottom of 
this bay there is a bafon, at the entrance of which there 
is but three fathom and a half at low water, but with- 
in there is ten fathom^ and room enough for fix or feven 
fail to lie where no wind can hurt them. 

We continued here till Friday the 1 5th, and during 
ill that time had one continued ftorm, with impene- 
trable fogs, and incefTant rain. On the 12th, I fent^ ,. 
out the boat, with an officer, to look for harbours on 
the fouthern lliore : the boat was abfcnt till the i4th,Thurf. 14. 
and then returned, with an account that there were 
five bays between the fhip's ftation and Cupe Upright, 
where wc might anchor in great fafety. The officer 
told me, that near Cape Upright he had fallen in with 
a few Indians, who had given him a dog, and that one 
of the women had oflfered him a child which was fuck- 
'wg at her hreaH. It is fcarcely neceffary to iay tVxaVYv^ 


^7^S' rtfiifed it, but the offer feems to degrade thefe poor for- 
. "^ ' lorn favages more than any thing in their appearance or 
manner of life : it muft be a flrange depravity of na- 
ture that leaves them deftitute of affe&ion for their ofF- 
fpringy or a mod deplorable fituation that imprefles 
neceffittes upon them by which if is furmounted. Some 
bills, which, when we firft came to this place, had no 
fnow upon them, were now covered, and the winter 
of this dreary and inhofpitable region feemed to have 
fct in at Once : the poor feamen not only fuffered much 
by the cold, but had fcarcely ever a dry thread about 
them : I therefore diftributed among the crews of both 
the (hips, not excepting the officers, two bales of a 
thick woollen fluff, called Fearnought, which is pro- 
vided by the government, fo that every body on board 
had now a warm jacket, which at this time was found 
both comfortable and falutary. 
Iriday 15. ^^ eight o'clock in the morning on the 1 5 th, we 
weighed and made fail, and at three o'clock in the af- 
ternoon; wc were once more a-breaft of Cape Monday, 
and' at five, we anchored in a bay on theeafl fide of it. 
The pitch of the Cape bore N. W. diftant half a mile, 
and the extream points of the bay from E. to N. by 
W. We lay at about half a cable's length from the 
nearefl (bore, which was a low ifland between the fhip 
and the Cape. 
Satnr. i6. At fix o'clock the next morning, we weighed, and 
found that the palm was gone from the fmall bower 
anchor. The wind was at W. N. W. with hard rain : 
at eight o'clock, we found a ftrong current fetting us 
to the eaftward, and at noon, Cape Monday bore W. 
N. W. diftant two miles. TheTamar being to wind- 
ward of us, fetched into the bay and anchored again: 
We continued to lofe ground upon every tack, and 
therefore, at two o'clock, anchored upon the fouthern 
(hore in fixteen fathom, about five miles to the eaft- 
ward of Cape Monday. At three, however, I weigh- 
ed again, for the boat having founded round the (hip, 
found the ground rocky. The wind was N. W. 
with hard rain, and we continued working all the 
reft of the day, and all night every man on board 
being upon deck the whole time, and every one 



wet to the (kin, for the rain, or rather (beets of water «7*5' 
that came down, did not ccafe a moment. t^^" ^^j 

In the morning, we had again the mortification to Sunday 17. 
find that, notwithftanding all our labour, we had loft 
ground upon every tack, in confequence of the current, 
which continued to fet with great force to the eaftward. 
At eight o'clock, we bore away, and at nine anchored 
in the fame bay from which we failed on the 1 5th. 

The wind continued W. and W. N. W. without 
ally Vide to the weftward, all the i8th and 19th, and ^^^^J^J J?] 
the weather was exceedingly bad, with hard fqualls and 
heavy rain. In the mean time I had fent an officer 
with a boat to found a bay on the north ftiore, but he 
found no anchorage in it. On the 20th, at fix o'clock Wedncf. ao. 
in the morning, a hard fquall coming on, the (hip 
drove, and brought the anchor off the bank into forty 
fathom, but by heaving up the bower, and carrying 
out the kedge anchor, wc got the (hip on the bank 
again. At eight, the day following, though the wind i^jjuyfj^ j,^ 
was from W. N, W. to &. W. we weighed, and once 
more flood out of the bay ; the current ft ill fet very 
ftrongly to the eaftward, but at noon, we found that 
we had gained about a mile and a half in a contrary 
direftion. The wind now became variable, from S. 
W. to N. W. and at five in the afternoon, the (hip had 
gained about four miles to the weftward ; but not being 
able to find an anchoring-place, and the wind dying 
away, we drove again very faft to the eaftward with the 
current. At fix, however, we anchored in forty fathom, 
with very good ground, in a bay about two miles to 
the weftward of that from which we failed in the morn- 
ing. A fwell rolled in here all night, fo that our fitu- 
ation was by nomeansdef!rable,and therefore, although 
the wind was ftill at W. S. W. we weighed and made 
fail about eight o'clock the next day : we had ftill in- Friday tt. 
ceffant rain, fo that the people were continually wet, 
which was a great aggravation of their fatigue ; yet 
they were ftill cheerful, and, what was yet lefs to be 
expefted, ftill healthy. This day, to our great joy, 
we found the current fetting to the weftward, and we 
gained ground very faft. Af fix in the evening, we 
anchored in the bay on the caft lldc of Cape Mon- 


day, where the Tatnar lay in eighteen fathom^ the 
pitch of the Cape bearing W* by N. diftant half a miic# 
We found this place very fafe^ the ground being excel- 
lent^ and there being room enough for two or three 
fliips of the line to moor. 


Tbi Pajpnge from Cape Monday , in the Streight of 
Magellan, into the South Seas ; with fome general re-' 
marks on the Navigation of that Streight* 

AT eight the next morning we weighed, and foon 
' *^* JLjL ^f'cr wc mad^ fail opened the South Sea, from 
which fuch a fwell rolled in upon us as I have feldom 
feen. At four o'clock in the afternoon, we anchored 
in a very good bay, with a deep found at the bottom, 
by which it may be known, about a league to the eaft- 
Ward of Cape Upright, in fourteen fathom. The ex- 
trenrie point of the bay bore from N. W. to N. E. by 
E. and Cape Upright W. N. W, about a cable'a 
length to tlie eaflward of a low ifland which makes 
the bay. 

Sunday 24. At three o'clock in the morning of the 24th, I fent 
a boat, with an officer from each fhip, to look for an- 
choring- pi aces, to the wedward ; but at four in the 
afternoon they returned, without having been able to 
get round Cape Upright. 

The next morning I fent the boats again to the weft- 
°" ^^ ^5* ward, and about fix in the evening they returned, hav- 
ing been about four leagues, and found two ancho- 
ring places, but neither of them were very good. Wc 

TueW. i6. made fail, however, about eight in the forenoon of 
the next day, and at three. Cape Upright bore E. S. 
E. diilant about three leagues, a remarkable cape on 
the north Ihore at the fame time bearing N. E. diftant 
four or five miles. This Cape, which is very lofty 
and fteep, lies N. N. W. by the compafs from Cape 
Upright, at the diftance of about three leagues. The 
fouth ihore in this place had a very bad appearance, 
many funken rocks lying about it to a confiderable 
diflance, upon which the fea breaks very high. At 
foi r the weather became very thick, and in lefs than 



half an hour we faw the fouth ihore at the diftance of 1765. 
about a mile, but could get no anchoring place : we ^* *^^' 
therefore tacked, and (lood over to the north (here. ' ^ 
At half an hour after fix I made the Tanfiar's fignal to 
come under our ftern, and ordered her to keep a-head 
of us all night, and to (hew lights, and fire a gun 
every time (he changed her tack. At feven, it cleared 
up for a moment juft to (hew us the north (hore, bear- 
ing W. by N, we tacked immediately, and at eight 
the wind (hifted from N, N. W. to W. N. W. and 
blew with great violence. Our fiiuation was now very 
alarming ; the (lorm increafed every minute, the 
weather was extremely thick, the rain Teemed to threat- 
en another deluge, we had a long dark night before us, 
we were in a narrow channel, and furrounded on every 
lidc by rock^ and breakers. We attempted to clew up 
the mizen-topfail, but before this fervice could be done 
it was blown all to rags : we then brought to, with , 
the main and fore-topfail clofe reefed, and upon the 
cap, keeping the (hip's head to the fouth-wcft ; but 
there being a prodigious fea, it broke over us fo often 
that the whole deck was almoft continually under wa- 
ter. At nine, by an accidental breaking of the fog, 
we faw the high Cape on the north (hore that has been 
jud mentioned bearing eaft, at about a mile didance, 
but had entirely loft fight of the Tamar. At half an ^ 
hour after three in the morning, we fuddenly perceived Wedn«f. »^. 
ourfelves clofe to a high land on the fouth fliore, upon 
which we wore, and brought fo to the northward. 
The gale ftill continued, if poilible, with increafing 
violence, and the rain poured down in torrents, fo 
that we were, in a manner, immerfed in water, and 
cxpeSed every moment to be among the breakers. 
The long wiflied-for day at length broke, but the wea- 
ther was ftill fo thick that no land was to be feen, 
though we knew it could not be far diftant, till after 
fix, when we faw the fouth (hore at about the diftance 
of two miles ; and foon after, to our great fatisfaftion 
we faw the Tamar : at this time Cape Monday bore 
S. E. diftant about four miles, and the violence of 
the gale not abating, we bore away. About feven, 
both (hips came to an anchor in the bay which lies to 
the eaftward of Cape Monday, notwithftanding the 


iZfJi, ^^^ ^^^^ rolled in ; for we were glad to get anchorage 
any where. We had now been twice within four 
leagues of Tuefday's Bay, at the weftern entrance of 
the Streight, and had been twice driven back ten or 
twelve leagues by fuch ftorms as we had now juft expe- 
rienced. When the feafon is fo far advanced as it 
was when we attempted the paffage of this Streight, it 
is a mod: difficult and dangerous undertaking,as it blows 
a hurricane inceflantly night and day> and the rain is 
as violent and conftant as the wind, with fuch fogs as 
often render it impoffible to difcover any objefl: at the 
diftance of twice the (hip's length. This day our beft 
bower cable being quite rubbed to pieces, we cut it into 
junk, and bent a new one, which we rounded with 
old rigging eight fathom from the anchor. 
Thurf. aS. jjj jj^^ afternoon of the day following, the Tamar 
parted a new beft bower cable, it being cut by the rock, 
and drove over to the eaft fide of the bay, where (he 
was brought up at a very little diftance from fome 
rocks, againft which fhe muft otherwife have been 
dafhed to pieces. 
Friday ag. ^^ feven o'clock in the morning of the 29th, we 
weighed ^nd ' found our fmall bower cable very much 
rubbed by the foul ground, fo that we were obliged to 
cut no lefs than fix and twenty fathom of it off, and 
bend it again. In about half an hour the Tamar, 
being very near the rocks, and not being able to pur- 
chafe her anchor, made fignals of diftrefs. I was 
therefore obliged toKland into the bay again, and ha- 
ving anchored, I fent hawfers on board the Tamar, 
and heaved her up while ftie purchafed her anchor, 
after which we heaved her to windward, and at noon, 
being got into a proper birth, (he anchored again. 
We continued in our ftation all night, and the next 
Saturd. 30. morning a gale came on at W. N. W which was 
ftill more violent than any that had preceded it ; the 
water was torn up all round us, and carried much 
higher than the mafts heads, a dreadful Tea at the fame 
time rolling in ; fo that, knowing the ground to be 
foul, we were in conftant apprehenfion of parting our 
cables, in which cafe we muft have been almoft in- 
ftantly daflied to atoms againft the rocks that were juft 
to leev^ard of us, and upon which the fea broke with 



inconceivable fury, and a noife not lefs loud than thun<^ 17^5* 
der. Wc lowered all the main and fore yards, let go ^'^ 
the fmall bower^ veered a cable and an half on the bed 
bower, and having bent the (heet cable, flood by the 
anchor all the reft of the day, and till midnight, the 
iea often breaking half-way up our main flirouds. 
About one in the morning, the weather became fome- Sand&y 31. 
what more moderate, but continued to be very dark, 
rainy and tempeduous, till midnight, when the wind 
(hifted to the S. W. and foon afterwards it became 
comparatively calm and clear. 

The next morning, which was the firft of April, we ^.^ji 
had a ftark calm, with now and then fome light airs Monday i. 
from the eaftward ; but the weather was again thick 
with hard rain, and we found a current fetting ftrongly 
to the eaftward. At four o'clock we got up the lower 
yards, unbent the fheet cable, and weighed the fmall 
bower ; at eight we weighed the bed bower, and 
found the cable very much rubbed in feveral places, 
which we coniidered as a great misfortune, it being a 
fine new cable which never had been wet before. 

At eleven, we hove (hort on the ftream anchor; but 
foon after^ it being calm, and a thick fog coming on 
withJhiM'd rain, we veered away the dream cable, and 
with a warp to the Tamar, heaved the ftxip upon the 
bank again, and let go the fmall bower in two and 
twenty fathom. 

At fix in the evening, wc had drong gales at W, 
N, W. with violent fqualls and much rain, and con- ) 

tinued in our dation till the morning of the 3d, when Wcdncf. 3. 
I fent the Tamar*s boat, with an officer from each 
fhip to the wedward, in fearch of anchoring- places 
on the fouth (hore; and at thefame time I fent my own 
cutter with an officer to feek anchoring-places on the 
north fliore. 

The cutter returned the next morning at fix o'clock, Thund. 4. 
having been about fix leagues to the wedward upon 
the north fliore, and found two anchoring-pl^ces. 
The officer reported, that having been on fliore, he 
fell in with fome Indians, who had with them a canoe 
of a condruQion very different from any that he had 
foen in the Streight before ; this vefTel confided of 
planks fewed together, but all the others were nothing 



1765. more than the bark of large trees tied.together at the 
^f^ ^ ends, and kept open by ftiort pieces of wood, which 
were thruft in tranfverfely between the two fides, like 
the boats which children make of a bean (hell. The 
,people, he faid, were the neareft to brutes in their 
manner and appearance of any he had feen: they were 
like fome which he had met with before^ quite naked, 
notwithftanding the feverity of the weather, except 
part of a feal-flcin which was thrown over their ihoul- 
ders ; and they eat their food, which was fuch as no 
other animal but a hog would touch, without any dref- 
fing: they had with them a large piece of whale blub- 
ber, which ftunk intolerably, and one of them tore it 
to pieces with his teeth, and gave it about to the reft, 
who devoured it with the voracity of a wild beaft. 
They did not however look upon what they faw in 
the poffeffion of our people with indiflference ; for while 
one of them was afleep, they cut off the hinder part of 
his jacket with a (harp flint which they ufe as a knife. 
^ About eight o'clock, we made fail, and found little 
or no current. At noon. Cape Upright bore W. S. 
W. diftant three leagues ; and at fix in the evening, 
we anchored in the bay, on the fouthern fhore, which 
lies about a league to the eaftward of the Cslj0^ and 
had fifteen fathom water. 

While we were lying here, and taking in wood and 
water, feven or eight Indians in a canoe came round 
the weftern point of the bay, and having landed oppo- 
fite to the (hip, made a fire. We invited them to come 
on board by all the figns we could devife, but without 
fuccefs ; I therefore took the jolly boat, and went on 
fhore to them. I introduced myfelf by making them 
prefents of feveral trifles, with which they feemed to 
be much gratified, and we became very intimate in a 
few minutes : after we had fpent fome time together, 
I fent away my people, in the boat for fome bread, and 
remained on fhore with them alone. When the boat 
returned with the bread, I divided it among them, and 
I remarked with equal pleafure and furprife, that if a 
bit of the bifcuit happened to fall, not one of them of- 
fered toteuch it till I gave my confent. In the mean 
time fome of my people were cutting a little grafs for 


two or three iheep which I had ftill left on boardj ^d ^7^^ 
at length the Indians^ perceiving what they were do- m ^^j^t % 
ing, ran immediately^ and tearing up all the weeds, ^^^^^^ 
they could get, carried them to the boat> which in a 
very ihort time was filled almoft up to her gunwale. 
I was much gratified by this token of their good-will, 
and I could perceive that they were pleaied with the 
pleafure that I expreflSsd upon the oceaiton : they had 
indeed taken fuch a fancy to us, that when I returned 
on board the boat, they all got into their canoe, and 
followed me. When we came near the Ihip, howe-» 
ver^ they ftopped, and gazed at her as if held in fur- 
pri^e by a mixture of aftonifliment and terror ; but at 
lad, though not without feme difficulty, I prevailed 
upon four or five of them to venture on board. As 
foon as they entered the ihip I made them feveral pre- 
fents, and in a very tittle time they appeared to be 
perfedly at eafe. As I was very defirous to entertain 
them, one of the midfhipRien played upon the violin, 
and fome of my people danced ; at this they were fo 
much delighted, and fo impatient to (hew their grati- 
tude, that one of them went over the fhip's fide into 
the canoe, and fetched up a fcal Ikin bag of red paint, 
and immediately (meafed the fidler's- face all ovef 
with it : he was very defirous to pay mc the fame com- 
pliment, which however I thought fit to decline ; but he 
made many very vigorous efforts to get the better of my 
modefiy, and it was not without fome difficulty that I 
defended myfelf from receiving the honour he defigned 
me in my own defpight. After having diverted and 
entertained them feveral hours, I intunated that it 
would be proper for them to go on {hore ; but their 
attachment was fuch, that it was by no means an eafy 
matter to get them out of the (hip. Their canoe wa« 
not of bark, but of planks fewed together. 

On Sunday the 7 th, at fix o'clock in the morning, Sunday 7. 
we weighed, with a moderate breeze at E. N, E. and 
fine weather. At feven, we were a-breaft of Cape 
Upright : and at noon, it bore E. S. E. diftant four 
leagues : foon after we tried the current, and found it 
fet to the eafiward at the rate of a knot and an Jialf an 
hour. At three it fell calm, and the current driving 
us to the eaftward very firfl, we dropped feti ^wdafiftv 

Vol, L F v;\u9^ 


1765. '^hich before it took the ground was. in one hundred 
^^^^' ,and twenty fathom. 

This day, and not before, the Tamar's boat re- 
turned frorn the weftward': (he had been within two 
or three leagues of Cape Pillar, and had found feveral 
very good anchor ing-places on the fouth fliore. 

Monday 8. At one o'clock the next morning, having a frefti gale, 
at weft, We weighed, notwithftanding the weather was 
thick, and made fail ; at eleven it blew very hard, 
with violent rain and .a great fea, and as we perceived 
that we rather loft than gained ground, we ftood in 
for a bay on the fouth fliore, about four leagues to the 
weftward of Cape Upright, and anchored in twenty 
fathom : the ground was not good, but in other ref- 
pefls this was one of the beft harbours that we had 
met with in the Streight, for it was impoffible that any 
wind ftiould hurt us. There being lefs wind in the 
afternoon, and it inclinbg a little towards the fouth, 
we unmoored at two, and at four, the wind having 
then come round to the S. S. E. and being a mode- 
rate breeze, we weighed and fleered to the weftward : 
we made about two leagues and an half, but night then 
coming on, we anchored, not without great difficulty, 
in a very good bay on the fouth fliore in twenty fathom. 
As very violent gufts came from the land, we were ve- 
ry near being driven off before we could let go an an- 
chor, and if we had not at laft fucceeded we muft have 
pafled a dreadful night in the Streight ; for it blew a 
hurricane from the time we came to an anchor till the 
morning, with violent rain, which was fometimcs in- 
termingled with fnowi 

Ticfday 9. At fix o'clock, the wind being ftill frefli andfqually 
at S. Si E. we weighed and fleered W. by N along 
the fouth fliore. ~ At eleven, we were abreaft of Cape 
Pillar, which by the compafs is about fourteen leagues 
W. i N. from Cape Upright. Cape Pillar may be 
known by a large gap upon the top, and when it bears 
W. S. W. an ifland appears off^ it which has an ap- 
pearance fome what like a hay-flack, and about which 
lie feveral rocks. The Streight to the eaflward of the 
Cape is between fcven and eight leagues over : the 
land on each fide is of a moderate height, but it is 
loweft on the north.ihore, the fouth fliore being ntuch 
• . . the 


the boldeft, though both are craggy and broken. Weft- '7^lj^ 
minfter Ifland is nearer to the north than th6 fouth . ^^\ 
Ihore ; and by the compafs, lies N. E. from Cape 
Pillar. The land on the north fhore, near the weft 
end of the Streight, makes i^ many iflands and rocks, 
upon which the fea breaks in a tremendous manner. 
The land about Cape ViSory is diftant from Cape 
Pillar about ten or eleven leagues, in the dire3ion of 
N. W. by N. From the Cape weftward, the cdaft 
tends S. S. W. J W. to Cape Defeada, a low point, 
off which lie innumerable rocks and breakers. About 
four leagues W. S. W. from Cape Defeada lie fome 
dangerous rocks, called by Sir John Narborough the 
Judges, upon which a mountainous furf always breaks 
with inconceivable fury. Four fmall iflands, called 
the Iflands of DireQion, are diftant from Cape Pillar 
about eight leagues, in the direSion of N. W. by W. 
When we were off this Cape it was ftark calm ; but I 
never faw fuch a fwell as rolled in here, nor fuch a . 
furge as broke on each fliore. 1 expe6ied every mo- 
ment that the wind would fpring up from its ufual 
quarter, and that the beft which could happen to us 
would be to be driven many leagues up the Streight 
again. Contrary, however to all expeSation, a fine ftea- 
dy galefprung up at Si E. to which I fpread all the fail 
that it was poflible for the ftiip to bear, and ran ofF 
from this frightful and defolate coaft at the rate of nine 
miles an hour ; fo that by eight o'clock in the evening 
we had left it twenty leagues behind us. And now to 
make the fliip as ftiff as poflible, I knocked down our 
after bulk-head, and got two of the boats under the 
half-deck ; I alfo placed my twelve-oarcd cutter under 
the boom ; fo that we had nothing upon the fluids but 
the jolly boat ; and the alteration which this made in 
the veflel is inconceivable ; for the weight of the 
boats upon the flcids made her crank, and in a great 
fea they were alfo in danger of being loft. 

It is probable, that whoever fliall read this account 
of the difficulties and dangers which attended our paf- 
fage through the Streight of Magellan, will conclude, 
that it ought never to be attempted again ; but that 
all ftiips which ftiall hereafter fail a weftern cpurfe from' 
Europe into the South Seas ought to go rowid Cape 

F 2 HortT . 


'765- Horn. I, however, who have been twice round Cape 
^^J!^^ Horn, arh of a different opinion. 1 think that at a 
proper feafon of the y6ar, rtot only a fingle veffel, but a 
large fquadron might pkfs the Streight in lefs than three 
^Veeks ; and I think, to take the proper feafon, they 
(hould be at the eaftern etttrance fome time in the month 
of December. One great advantage of this paffage, 
is the facility with which fith is almoft every where to 
be procured, with wild celery, fcurvy-grafs, berries, 
Und many other vegetables in great abundance ; for to 
this I impute the healthincfs of my (hip's company, 
not a fingk man being affeSed with the fcurvy in the 
flighted degree, nor upon the fick lift for any other dif- 
order, notwithftanding the hardfhip and labour which 
they endured in the paflage, which coft us feven weeks 
and two days, as we entered the Streight on Sunday the 
1 7th of February, and quitted it on Tuefday the 9th 
of April. Wood and water are alfo to be procured al- 
moft at everyanchoring-placcbeyondFrclh Water Bay. 
Oui* fufferings I imputed wholly to our paffing the 
Streight juft as the fun approached the equinox, when 
in this high latitude, the wbrft weather was to be ex- 
pected : and indeed the weather we had was dreadful 
beyond ^11 defcription. 

CHAP. vm. 

The Run from the Weflern Entrance of the Streight of 
Magellan J to the Ijlands of Difappointment, 


A V I N G cleared the Streight, we purfued 
our courfc to the weft ward, as appears by the 
FruUy 16. track in the chart, till Friday, April the 26th, when wo 
difcovered the ifland of Mafafuero bearing W. N. 
W. \: W, diftant about fixteen leagues ; but as to 
the northward it was hazy, the ifland of Don Juan 
Femandes, was not in fight. During this run the va- 
riation had gradually decreafed from 22^ to 9^ 36' E. 
We bore away for Mafafuero, and at fun-fet, being 
within about feven leagues of it, we brought to, and 
Saiurd. 27. afterwards kept the wind all night. At day-break the 
next day, we bore away again for the ifland, at the 
fame tittiQ fending an officer, with a boat from each 


Ihip, to found the eaftern fide of it. About noon, the 
middle of the ifland bore W. diftant about three miles, 
and as I faw the boats rqn along the (hore, without 
being able to land any where for the furf, I bore down 
to the north part of the ifland^ off which a reef runs 
for the diftance of about two piiles, and lay by for them. 
This ifland is very high, and the greater part of it is 
covered with wood ; but towards the north end, where 
I lay, fome fpois feerned to have been cleared, upon 
Avhich great numbers of goats were feeding, and they 
had a green and pleafant appearance. When the boat's 
returned, the officer informed, pie that he had fouf^d ^ 
bank, on the eafl fide of the ifland neareft to the fouth 
point, at a confiderable diftance from the fliore, where 
we might anchor, and oppofite to whicji there was a 
fine fall of frefl\ water ; but near the north point, he 
faid, he could find no anchorage. The boats brought 
off a great quantity of very fine fi(b, which they had 
caught with hook and line near the fliore ; and as • 
ioon as we had taken then) on boards which was late 
in the afternoon, we madip fail, *n^ worked to wind- 
ward in the night. 

At feven o'clock in the morning, we anchored witb^^'^.^^y *^ 
the fmall bower, on the bank which the boats haddif- 
covered, in twenty-four fathom, with black fandy 
ground. The extream points bore from S. to N. W. 
and the fall of water bore S. S. W. diftant about a 
mile from the fliip's ftation. This part of the ifland 
lies north and fouth, and is about four tniles long : 
the foundings are very regular, Trpm twenty to fifteen 
fathom, within two cables length of the fliore. Soon 
after we were come to an anchor, I fent out tlie boats to 
endeavour to get fome wood and water, but as I ob- 
ferved the flaorc tp be rocky, and a furf to break with 
great violence upon it, I ordered all the men to put 
on cork jackets, which had been fent with us to be 
made ufe of upon fuch occafions. )By the help of 
thefe jackets, which not only aflifted the men in fwim- 
ming, but prevented their being bruifed agaip.ft the 
rocks, we got off a confiderable quantity of wa.t^r a,nd 
wood, which, without fuch afliftance, wc could not 
have done : there was, however, another fpccics of 
danger here, againft which cork jackets afforded ivo 

F 3 AdciTvte% 


176^- defence ; for the fea abounded with fharks of an enor^ 
^^^^J* mous fize, which, when they faw a man in the water, 
would dart into the very furf to feize him : our people, 
however, happily efcaped them, though they were ma- 
ny times very near r one of them, which was upwards 
of twenty feet long, came clofe to one of the boats 
that was watering, and hiving feized a large feal, in- 
ft^ntlydjsvoured it. at one mouthful ; and I myfelf faw 
^nother, of nearly the fame fize, do the fame thing un^ 
der the'lhip's ilern. Our people killed and fent off fe-, 
Veral of th? goats, which we thought as goocl as the 
l)efl;venifoh in England ; and I obferved that one of 
them appeared to have been caught and marked, its 
right ear bebg Hit ^ a manner that could not have 
jhappened by accident. We had alfo fifh in fuch plen- 
ty, that one boat would, with hooks and lines, catch, 
in a few hours, as piuch as would ferve a large {hip*s 
company twp days : they were of various forts, all 
• excellent in their kin^, ind many of them weighed 
from twenty to thirty pounds. 

This evening, the furf running very high, the 
jgunner and one of the feamen, who were on fhore with 
the waterers, were afraid to venture off, and the boat 
therefore, when fhe can^e pn board the laft time, left 
them behind her. 

Monday 10 ^^^^ "^^^ ^^V ^^ found a more convenient watering 
place, about a mile and a half to the northward of the 
ihip, and about the middle-way between the north and 
iouth points of the ifland, there being at this place lefs 
furf than where the boats firft went on fliore. The tide 
here fet twelve hours to the northward, and twelve to 
the fouthward, which we found very convenient, for 
as the wind W2(s foutherly, with a great fwell, the boats 
cfOuld not otherwiie have got on board with their water. 
We got oflF ten tons of water from the new watering- 

f)lacethis day, and, in the afternoon, I fent a boat to 
etch off the gunner and feamen, who' had been left on 
fhore at the old watering-place the night before ; but 
the furf was ftill fo great, that the f^aman, who could 
not fwim, was afraid to venture : he was therefore 
again left behind, and the gunner (laid with him. 

A3 foon as this was reported to me, I fent another 
boat to inform them that as, by the appearance of the 


» • ■ ■ 

weather, there was reafon to believe it wouW foonblow 
hard, I was afraid I might be driven ofFthe bank in 
the night, the confequence of which would be that' 
they muft be left behind upon the ifland. When the 
boat came to the furf, the people on board delivered 
my meffage ; upon which the gunner fwam through 
the furf, and got on board her ; but the feaman, 
though he had a cork jacket on, faid he was fure he 
fliould be drowned if he att^enfipted to getofFto the boat, 
and that, chufing rather tojdie a natural death, he was 
deterrriined at all events- to* remain upon the ifland : 
he then took an afFeSionatfe leave of the people, wifli- 
ing them all happinefs, and the people onboard re- 
turned his good wilhes. • One of the lAidfhipmen^ 
however, juft as the boat was about to return, took 
the end of a rope in his handy juthp^d into the fea, 
and fwam through the furf 'to the beadh, where poor 
John ftill continued rumih'iitirig upon his fituation, in 
a de]e8:ed attitude, and with a moft difconfolate length 
of countenance. The mitlfliipman began to expof- 
tulate with him upon the ftr^nge resolution he had ta* 
ken, and in themean time having made a running knot 
in his rope, he dexteroufly contrived to throw it round 
his body, calling out to his companions in the boat, 
who had hold of the other end of it, to haul away ; 
they inftantly took the hint, and the poor feceder was 
very foon dragged through the furf into the boat ; he 
had, however, fwallo wed fo great a quantity of water, 
that he was to all app^arahce dead, but being held up 
by the heels, he fbon reco\?ered his fpeech and motion, 
and was perfeQly well the next day. In the evening, 
I removed Captain Mouat from the Tamar, and ap- 
pointed him Captain of the Dolphin, under me : Mr. 
Gumming, my firfl Lieutenant, I appointed Captain 
of the Tamar, tiaking Mr. Carteret, her firft Lieute- 
nant, on board in- his room, and gave Mr. Kendal, 
one of the mates of the Dolphin, a commifTion as 
Second Lieiitenant of the Tamar. 

On the 30th, at (even o*clock in the morning, we Tueiu. 30. 
•weighed and (leered to th^ northward, along the eaft 
and north eaft fide of the ifland, but could iind no an- 
choring-place ': we bore away, therefore^ with a frefli 
gale at S. E, and hazy weather, and at ivoov\> x\\c 

F 4 tv\\A^\^ 


n^S' middle of the ifland was diftant eight leagues, in the- 
r^jUl. direa of S. S. E. I continued to ftecr N. 30 W. the 
Wedn. X. tiext day, and at noon, on the ad of May, I changed 
Thurf. t. niy courfci and (leered W. intending, if poffible, to 
make the land, which is called Davis's Land in the 
charts, and is laid down in latitude 2 7^ 30' S. and 
about five hundred leagues weft of Copiapo in Chili ; 
Thurf. 9. but on the 9th, finding little profpeS of getting to the 
weftward, in the latitude which I at firfl propofed, 
being then in latitude %(fi 46'. S. longitude 940 45' W. 
and having a great run to make, I determined to (leer 
a iK)rth-weil courfe till I got the true trade-wind, and 
then to (land to the weAward till I ihould fall in with 
Solomon's Iflands, if ^^ny fuch ther^ were, or make 
fomc new difcovery. 
Friday xo« On th^ lOtby we faw fevetal dolphins, andbonet* 
^atur. xxf tas about the (hip, and the next day fome draggling 
birds which were brown on the back and the upper 
* part of their wings, and white on/ the red of the body, 
vrith a (hort beak, and a ihort pointed t$iil. The va^ 
nation was now decreafed to ^ 45' E. our latitude 
vf^%7,str^ yi S, our longitude 9 70 45 W. 
Tucf. 14. On the 1 4th, we faw feveral grampufes, and more 
of the birds which have juft been defcribcd, fo that, 
imagining we might be near fome land, we kept a 
good look-out, but faw nothing. In latitude 23° 2'S. 
longitude loi** 28' W, the variation, by azimuth, 
was 3® 20' E. 
Thurfd. 16. ^" ^^ morning of the i6th, we faw two very re- 
markable birds ; they flew very high, were as large 
as geefe, and all over as white as fnow, except their 
legs, which were black : I now began to imagine that 
I had pafled fome land, or idands, which lay to the 
fouthward of us ; for the lad night we obferved, that, 
although we had generally a great (well from that 
quarter, the water became quifte frAooth for a few 
' hours, after which the fwell returned. 
Wedn. 2s. On the 22d, being in latitude 20^ 52' S. longitude 
1 1 5® 38' W, with a faint breeze at E. S. E. we had fo 
great a fwell from the fouthward, that we were ih per* 
pctual danger of our mads rolling over the (hip's fide, 
fo that I was obliged to haul more to -the "northward, 
a*i weH to eafc the (hip, as in hopes of gtftting the true 


trade- wind, which we had not yet ; and now to my JJ^s- 
great concern fome of my bell men began to complain ,___*, 
of the fcurvy. This day, for the firft lime, we caught 
two bonettas ; we alfo faw feveral tropic birds about 
the (hip, and obferved that they were larger than any 
we had feen before ; their whole plumage was white, 
and they had two long feathers in the tail. The varia^ 
tion now .had changed its direfiion, and was 19^ W. 

On the 26th, we faw two large birds about the (hip, Sai^d. if 
which were all black| except the neck and the beak, 
which were white ; thiey had long wings, and long 
feathers in their tail, y^t we obferved that they flew 
heavily, and therefore imagined that they were of 4 
fpecies which did not ufually fly far from the (hoi'e. I 
had flattered myfelf, that, before we had run fix de« 
grees to the northward of Mafafuero, wc fliould have 
found a fettled trade-wind to the S. E. but the winds 
flill continued to the north, though we had s^ moun* 
tainous fwell from the S. W, Our latitude was now 
i6« 55' S. longitude 12 70 55'W. and here theneedjof 
at this time had no variation. 

On the aSth, we faw two fine large birds about Tuef. 48, 
the fhip, one of which was brown and white, and the 
other black and white; th^y wanted much to fettle 
upon the yards, but the working of the fhip frighted 

On the 31ft, th« wind Ihifted from N. by W. to N. rrid^y 31. 
W. by W. and the number of birds that were now 
about the fhip was very great ; from thefe circumftan- 
ces, and our having loft the great fouth-weft fwell, I 
imagined fome land to be near, and we looked out for 
it with great diligence, for our people began now to fall 
down with the fcurvy very fafi. 

We faw no land however till one o'clock in the Un^ 
morning of Friday the 7 th of June, when we were in Fri««y 7- 
lat. 1 40 5' S. long. i44<> 58' W. and obferved the 
variation to be 40 30' E. After making the land, I 
hauled upon a wind under an €afy fail till the morning, 
and then a low fmall ifland bore from us W. S. W, 
at the diftance of about two leagues. In a very fhort 
time we faw another ifland to windward of us, beard- 
ing E. S. E. diftant between three and four leagues : 
this appeared to bcnjuch larger thax\ th^t v^VikVi >we 


'765- firft difcovered, and we muft have paffed very near it 

June. • ^i_ • 1 

•^ > in the night. 

I flood for the fmall ifland, which as we drew near 
it had ^ moft beautiful appearance; it was furround- 
ed by a beach of the fineft white fand, and within, it 
was covered with tall trees, which extended their fhadc 
to a great diftance, and formed the moft delightful 
groves that can be imagine^ without underwood. We 
judged this ifland to be about five miles in circumfer- 
ence, and from each end of it we faw a fpit running out 
into the fea, upon which the furge broke with great 
fury ; there was alfo a great furf all round it. We 
foon perceived that it was inhabited ; for many of the 
natives appeared upon the beach, with fpears in their 
hands that were at leaft fixteen feet long. They pre- 
fently made fcveral large fires, which we fuppofed to 
be a fignal ; for we immediately perceived feveral 
fii-es upon the larger ifland that was to windward of 
ITS, by which we knew that alfo to be inhabited. I 
fent the boat with an officer to look for an anchoring 
place, who, to our great regret and difappointment, 
returned with an account that he had been all round 
the ifland, and that no bottom could be found within 
lefs than a cable's length of the fliore, which was fur- 
rounded clofe to the beach with a fteep coral rock. 
The fcurvy by this time had made dreadful havock 
among us,, many of my beft men being now confined 
to their hammocks ; the poor wretches who were able 
to crawl upon the deck, flood gazing at this little 
Paradife which Nature had forbidden them to enter, 
with fenfations which cannot eaflly be conceived ; 
they faw cocoa-nuts in great abundance, the milk of 
which is perhaps the moft powerful tintifcorbutic in the 
world : they had reafon to fuppofe that there were 
limes, bananas, and other fruits which are generally 
found between the tropics ; and to increafe their mor- 
tification they faw the flielis of many turtles fcattered 
about the ftiore. Thefe refrefhments, indeed, for want 
of which they were languifliing to death, were aseffiec- 
tually beyond their reach as if there had been half the 
circumference of the world between them ; yet their 
being in fight, was no confiderable increafe of the 
diftrefs, which they fuifered by the want of them. 



Their fituation in ilfelf indeed was no worfe than it h^s- 
would have been if the obftacle to their wifties had , •^""^' 
been diftance, and not a reef of rocks ; and both being 
alike infuperable, a being wholly under the influence 
of reafon, would, by both, have been equally afieft- 
ed; but this is a fituation, among many others, that 
may be remarked by a diligent obferver, in which 
reafon cannot preferve mankind from the power which 
fancy is perpetually exertingto aggravate the calamities 
of life^ When I knew the foundings, I could not 
forbear (landing clofe round the ifland with the (hip, 
though I alfo knew it was impoffible to procure any 
of the refreihments which it produced. The natives 
ran along the ihore a-breaft of the fhip, (houting 
and dancing ; they alfo frequently brandifhed their 
long fpears, and then threw themfelves backward, 
and lay a few minutes motionlefs, as if thev had been 
dead : this we underftood as a menace that they woiild 
kill us, if we ventured to go on fhore. As we were 
failing along the coaft^ we took notice that in' one 
place the natives had fixed upright in the fand two 
Ipears, to the top of which they had fattened feveral 
things that fluttered in the air, and that fome of them 
were every i:ioment kneeling down before them, as 
we fuppofed, invoking the afii (lance of fome invifible 
Being to defend them againft us. While I was thus 
circuniHavigating the ifland with the (hip, I fent the 
boats out again to found, and when they came near 
the fhore, the Indians fet up one of the mod hideous 
yells I had ever heard, pointing at the fame time to 
their fpears, and poifing in their hands large ftones 
which they took up from the beach. Our men on the 
contrary made all the figns of amity and good-will that 
they could devife, and at the fame time threw them 
bread and many other things, none of which they 
vouchfafed fo much as to touch, but with great expedi- 
tion hauled five or fix large canoes, which we faw ly- 
ing upon the beach, up into the wood. When this was 
done, they waded into the water, and feemed to watch 
for an opportunity of laying hold of the boat, that they 
might drag her on fhore : the people on board her, 
apprehending that this was their defign, and that if 
they got thein on fhore they would certainly put 



^765. them to death, were very impatient to be before-hand 
jttpe. ^ ^j^j^ them, and would fain have fired upon them ; 
but the officer on board, having no permifTion from 
me to commit any hoftilities, reftrained them. I 
Ihould indeed have thought myfelf at liberty to have 
obtained by force the refrefhments, for want of which 
our people were dying, if it had been poffible to have 
come to an anchor, fuppofing we could not have made 
thefe poor favages our friends ; but nothing could 
juftify the taking away their lives for a mere imaginary 
or intentional injury, without procuring the Icaft ad- 
vantage to ourfelves. They were of a deep copper 
colour, exceedingly (lout and welUIimbed, and remark- 
^ly^mnitJte and aftive, for I never faw men run fo 
fatf in my life. This ifland lies in latitude 140 5' S. 
longitude 145^4' W. from the meridian of London. 
As the boats reported a fecond time that there was no 
anchoring ground about this ifland, I determined to 
work up to the other, which was accordingly done all 
the reft of the day and the following night. 
Satur. X. At fix o'clock in the morning of the 8th, we 
brought to on the weft fide of it, at the diftance of 
about three quarters of a mile from the fhore, but we 
had no foundings with one hundred an^ forty fathom 
of line* We now perceived fcveral other low iflands, 
or rather pcninfulas, moft of them being joined one to 
the other by a neck of land, very narrow, and almoft 
level with the furface of the water, which breaks high 
over it. In approaching thcfe iflands the cocoa-nut trees 
ure firft difcovered, as they are higher than any part of 
the furface. I fent a boat with an officer from each fliip 
to found the lee-fide of thefe iflands for an anchoring 
place ; and as foon as they left the ftiip, I faw the In- 
dians run down to the beach in great numbers, armed 
with long fpears and clubs : tliey kept a-brcaft of the 
boats as they went founding along tlie fliore, and ufed 
many threatening geftures to prevent their landing. I 
therefore fired a nine pound flwt from thefliipover their 
heads, upon which they ran into the woods with great 
precipitation. At ten o'*clock tlie boats returned, but 
could get no foundings clofe in with the furf, which 
broke very high upon the fliore. The middle of 
this clufter of iflands lies in latitude 14^ 10' S. longi- 


gitudc I44« 5 a' W. Ae variation of the compafs was »7^S- 

here 4« 30' E. 'u ^ \ 

At half an hour after ten, we bore away and made 
fail to the wcftward, finding it impoflible to procure at 
thcfe iflands any refrcfhmcnt for our fick, whofe (itu- 
ation was becoming more deplorable every hour, and 
Ithcrefore called them thelsLANDs OF Disappoint- 


C H A R IX. 

The Difcovery of King George* s IflandSf with a defcrip- 
tion of tbewiy and an Account of fever al Incidents that 
happened there. 

AT half an hour after five o^clock in the afternoon 
of the 9th, we faw land again bearing W. S. Sand. 9. 
W. at thediftance of fix or feven leagues ; and at fe- 
ven we brought to for the night. In the morning, Mond, \m. 
being within three miles oftheftiore, we difcovered it 
to be a long low iflandj with a white beach, of a plea- 
fant appearance, fiill of cocoa-nut and other trees, 
and fur rounded with a rock of red coral. We flood 
along the north eaft fide of it, within half a mile of 
the fliore ; and the favages, as foon as they faw us, 
made great fires, as we fuppofed, to alarm the diftant 
inhabitants of the ifland, and ran along the beac2;i, 
a-.breaft of the fliip, in great numbers, armed in the 
fame manner as the natives of the Iflands of Difap- 
pointment. Over the land on this fide of the ifland we 
could fee a large lake of fait water, or lagoon, which 
appeared to be two or three leagues wide, and to reach 
within a fmall diflance of the oppofite fliore. Into this 
lagoon we faw a fmall inlet about a league from the 
fouth-weft point, off which we brought to. At this 
place the natives have built a little town, under the 
ihade of a fine grove of cocoarnut trees. I immediately 
fent ofi^ the boats, with an officer in each, to found ; 
but they could find no anchorage, the fliore being every 
where as fteep as a wall, except at the very mouth of 
the inlet, which was fcarcely a fliip's length wide, and 
there they had thirteen fathom, with a bottom of coral 



176J. rock. We flood clofe in with the fhips, and fawhun* 
•'_ _1 , dreds of the favages, ranged in very good order, and 
ftanding up to their waifts in water ; they were all arm- 
ed in the fame manner as thofe that we had feen at the 
other iflands, and one of them carried a piece of mat 
fattened to the top of a pole, which we imagined was 
an enfign. They made a moft hideous and inceflant 
noife, and in a (hort time many large canoes came 
down the lake to.join them. Our boats were ftiil out, 
and the people on board them made all the figns of 
friendfhip that they could invent, upon which fome of 
the canoes came through the inlet and drew near them. 
We now began to hope that a friendly intercourfe 
might be eftablifhed ; but we foon difcovered that the 
Indians had no other defign than to haul the boats on 
Ihore : many of them leaped off the rocks, and fwam 
to them ; and one of them got into that which belong- 
ed to the Tam^r, and in the twinkling of an eye feizecl 
a fcaman's jacket, and jumping over board with it, 
never once appeared above water till he was clofe in 
(hore among his companions. Another of them got hold 
of a midihipman's hat, but not knowing how to take 
it off, he pulled it downward inftead t)f lifting it up ; 
fo that the owner had time to prevent its being taken 
away, otherwife it would probably have difappeared as 
fuddenly as the jacket ; our men bore all this with 
much patience, and the Indians feemed to triumph in 
their impunity. 

About noon, finding there was no anchorage here, 
I bore away and (leered along the (hore to the weftcr- 
moft point of the ifland : the boats immediately follow- 
ed us, and kept founding clofe to the beach, but could 
get no ground. 

When we came to the weftermoft point of this ifland, 
we faw another, bearing S. W. by W. about four 
leagues diftant. We were at this time about a league 
beyond the inlet where we had left the natives, but they 
were not fatisfied with having got rid of us quietly ; 
for I now perceived two large double canoes failing 
after the (hip, with about thirty men in each, all arm- 
ed after the manner of their country. The boats 
were a good way to the leeward of us, and the canoes, 
paffing between the (hip and the (hore, feemed very 



eagerly to give them chace. Upon this I made the '7^5' 
fignal for thte boats to fpeak with the canoes, and as ^j!^ 
foon as they perceived it, they turned, and made to- 
wards the Indians, who feeing this, were feizcd with 
a fudden panic, and immediately hauling down their 
fails, paddled back again at a furprizing rate. Our boats 
however came up with them; but notwithftandingthe 
dpeadful furf that broke upon the (here, the canoes 
puftied through it, and the Indians immediately hauled 
them up upon the beach. Our boats followed them, 
and * the Indians, dreading an invafion of their coaft, 
prepared to defend it withclubs and ftones, upon which 
our men fired, and killed two or three of them : one of 
them received three balls which went quite through 
his body ; yet he afterwards took up a large (lone, 
and died in the aSion of throwing it againft his enemy. 
This man fell clofe to our boats, fo that the Indians 
who remained unhurt did not dare to attempt the 
carrying off his body, which gave us an opportunity 
to examine it ; but they carried off the reft of their 
dead, and made the beft of their way back to their 
companions at the inlet. Our boats then returned, and 
brought off the two canoes which they had purfued. 
One of them was thirty two feet long, and the other 
fomewhat lefs, but they were both of a very curious 
conftru£ii6n, and muft have coft thofe who made them 
infinite labour. They confifted of planks exceedingly 
well wrought, and in many places adorned with carv- 
ing ; thefe planks were fewed together, and over every 
feam there was a ftrip of tortoife-fliell, very artificially 
faftened, to keep out the weather : their bottoms were 
as (harp as a wedge, and they were very narrow ; 
and therefore two of them were joined laterally toge- 
ther by a couple of ftrong fpars, fo that there was a 
fpace of about fix or eight feet between them : a maft. 
was hoifted in each of them, and the fail was fpread 
between the mafts : the fail which I preferved, and 
which is now in my poffeilion, is made of matting, 
and is as neat a piece of work as ever I faw : their 
paddles were very curious, and their cordage was as 
good and as well laid as any in England, though it 
appeared to be made of the outer covering of the 



1765. cocoa-nut. When thefe veffels fail, feveral men lit 
J" "^ upon the fpars which hold the canoes together. 
^ —^ As the furf> which broke very high upon the (hore, 
rendered it impoflible to procure refrefhments for the 
fick in this part of the ifland, I hauled the wind, and 
worked back to the inlbt, being determined to try once 
more what could be done there. 

I recovered that ftation in the afternoon, and imme- 
diately fent th^ boats to found the inlet again, but they 
confirmed the account which had been made before, 
that it afforded no anchorage for a (hip. While the 
boats were abfent, I obferved a great number of the 
natives upon the point near thfe fpot where we had left 
them in the morning, and they feemed to be very bufy 
in loading a great number of large canoes which lay 
clofe to the beach. As I, thought they might be trou-» 
blefome, and was unwilling that ihey (hould fuffer by 
another unequal conteft with our people, I fired a (hot 
over their heads, which produced the effeft I intended, 
for they all difappeared in a mottient. 

Juft before the evening clofed in, our boats landed, 
and got a few cocoa-nuts which they brought off, but 
faw none of the inhabitants. In the night, during 
which we had rain and hard fqualls, I flood off and on 
Tiicflayn.^i^h the (hips, and at feven o'clock in the morning 
brought to off the inlet. I immediately fent the boats 
on fhore in fearch of refrefhments, and made' all the 
men who wiere not fo ill of the fcurvy as to be laid up, 
go in them ; I alfo went on fhore myfelf, and conti- 
nued there the whole day* We faw many houfes or 
wigwams of the natives, but they were totally deferted, 
except by the dogs, who kept an inceflfant howling, 
from the time we came on (bore till we returned to the 
Ihlp : they were low mean hovels, thatched with co- 
coa-nut branches ; but they were moft delightfully (1* 
tuated in a fine grove of (lately trees, many of which 
were the cocoa-nut, and many fuch as we were utterly 
unacquainted with. The cocoa-nut trees feem to 
furnifh them with almoft all the ncceflaries of lifej 
particularly food, fails, cordage, timber, and veffels to 
hold water ; fo that probably thefe people always fix 
their habitations where thefe trees abound. We ob- 
ferved the (hore to be covered with coral, and the 



diells of very large pearl ^^ers ; fo that I make no 176$. 
doubt but that as profitable a pearl fifliery might ht , j!*^ 
eftabllfhed here as any in the world. We faw but 
little of the people, except at a diftance ; we could 
however perceive that the women had a piece of cloth 
of fome kind, probably fabricated of the fame (lu£F 2$ 
their fail, hanging from the waift as low as the knee ; 
the men were naked. 

Our people, in rununaging fome of the huts, found 
the carved head of a rudder, which had manifeftly 
belonged to a Dutch long-boat, and was very old and 
worm-eaten. They found alfo a piece of hamnoered- 
iron, a piece of brafs, and fome fmall irot^.took^ 
which the anceftors of the prefent inhabitants of this 
place probably obtained from the Dutch ihip to whicb 
the long-boat had belonged, all which I brought away 
with me. Whether thefe people found means tp cut 
off the (hip, or whether ihe was toft upon the iflsmd or 
after (he left it, cannot be known; but there is reafon toi 
believe that (he never return^ to Europe, bec^ufe 
jio account of her voyage, or of any difcoveries that 
ihe made, is extant. If the ihip failed from this place 
in fafety, it is not perhaps eafy to account for her 
leaving the rudder of her long-boat behind her; and 
if (he was cutoff by the natives, there muft be much 
more confide^able remains of her iii the ifland, efpeci- 
ally of her iron^-work, upon which all Indian nations^ 
who have no metal, let the higheft value ; we had no 
opportunities however to examine this matter farther. 
The hamniered-iron, brafs, and iron tools, I brought 
away with me ; but we found a tool exafilly in the 
form of a carpenter's adze, the blade of which was a 
pearl oyfter-(hell ; poflibly this might have been made 
^n imitation of an adze which had belonged to the car- 
penter of the Dutch Ship ; for among the tools that 
I brought away there was one which feemed to be the 
remains of fuch an implement, though it was worr\ 
away almoft to nothing: 

Clofe to the houfes of thefe people, we faw build- 
ings of another kind, which appeared to be burying- 
places, and from which we judged that they had great 
veneration for their dead. They were fituated un4er 
lofty trees, that gave a thick (hade ; the (ides and tops 

Vol. I. G were 

>-- — 


y^S* were of ftbne ; ahd.iritheir figure they foraewhat re- 
j^^^ fcttiblcd the fquard tombs, with a flat top, which are 
always to be found in our country church-yards. Near 
thcfebuildings we found many neat boxes full of hu- 
man bones, and upon the branches of the trees which 
(haded them, hiing a *great number of the heads and 
bones of turtle, and 'a variety of fifli, inclofed in a 
kind of bafket-work of reeds : fome of the fifli we 
took down, and- found that nothing remained but the 
fkin and teeth : thebon«es andenti'ails feemed to have 
becnextraSed, and themiifcular flefli dried away. 

We fent off feveral boat-loads of cocoa-nuts, and n 
grcat^ quantity of fcurvy-grafs, with which the ifland" 
fefcovered ; refreftimems. which were of infinite fervice 
to us, as by thix time I believe th^re was not a man 
among us wholly untouched by the fcurvyi. 

The frefli water here b very good; but it is fcarce; 
the tvells which fupply the natives arc fo. fmall, that? 
wh^n two or three cocoa-nut fhells* have been filled 
from them, they are dry. for a few miuutes ; but as 
they prefcntly fill again, if a little. pains were taken 
to enlarge them, they would . abundantly Tupply.any 
fhip with waten ■ • 

We few no venemous creature here ;. but the flies 
were an intolerable torment, they covered us from 
head to foot, and filled not only the boat, but the fliips. 
We faw great numbers of parrots and parrbquets, and 
feveral other birds, which were altogether unknown to 
us ; We faw alfo a beautiful kind of dove, fo tame that 
fome of them frequently came clofe to us, and even 
followed us into the Indian huts. 

All this day the natives :kcpt themfelves clofely con- 
cealed, and did not even make a fmoke upon any part 
of the iflands as far as. we. could fee ; probably fear- 
ing that a fmoke might difcover the place of their re- 
treat; ^In the evening, we- all returned on board the 

This part of the ifland lies in latitude 1 4© 29' S. 
longitude 1480 50' W. and after I got on board, I 
hatiled a little way? farther from the fhore, intending 
to vifit the other ifland in the morning, which had 
been feeri to the weftward of that before which the ftiip 
lay, and which is diftant. about fixtyrnine leagnes from 


RdUNlJ TttlE T^ORLD. 8$ 

the Iflandi of Difappointmcnt, in the dircQion of 17^S\ 

w. xs. ja^^ 

The next mornirig, at fix o'clock, I made fair for Wednef.ia- 
the ifland whicfi I intended to vifit, and when I reached 
it, I fleered S. W. by W. clofe along the nor(h-eaft fide 
of it, but could get no foundings : this fide is about fix 
or feven leagues long, iand rhe whole msdces much the 
fame appearance as the other, having a large fait, 
water lake in the middle of it. As foon as thelhip' 
came in fight, the natives ran down to the beach iri 
great numbers : they were armed in the Hmc nianrier 
as thofe we had feen upon the other ifland, and kept 
a-breaft of the ftiip for feveral leagues. As the heat 
of this climate is very great, they feemed' to fiiffcr 
much by running fo far in the fun^ for they "fometfrties 
plunged into the fea, and fometimes fell flat upon the 
(and, that the furf might break over them, after which 
they renewed thei face with gt'cat vigour. Our boats 
were at this time founding* along the fiiorc, as ufual,' 
but I had giveffftfiS orders to=tfie 'officers who com- 
manded thern never to mdleft' the natives, except it 
fliould become ttbfolutelyjdecfeflapy for ^ their own de- 
fence, but to try all poflible'incans to obtainthcii' con- 
fidence and godd'-tvill : Otif pfe^ple ' therefore went as 
near to the ihore as they durft for the furf, irid made 
iigns that they wanted water'; the Indians readHy un- 
derftood them, and direSed them to run down farther 
along thefliore, which they did, till they came a-breaft 
of fuch a dufter of houfes'as we had juft left upon the 
other ifland ; to this place the Indians ftill follo>Ved 
them, and were there joined by -many others ; ' the 
^boats immediately hauled clofe into the furf, and we 
brought to, with th^'ftiijw^ -ftt a little diftance from 
the fhore, upon which a Ho^it old man, with a long 
■white beard, that gave hi tn a vefy venerable appear- 
' ance, came down from the houfes to the beach. He 
-w%s attended by a young man, and appeared to have 
the authority of a Chief or King : the reft of the In- 
dians, at a fighal which he made, retired to a little 
diflance, and he then advanced quite to the water's 
edge ; in one hand he held a green branch of a tree, 
and in the other he grafped his beard, which he prefled 
to his bofom ; in this attitude he made a long oration, 

C 7 or 


or rather fong, for it had a muficdt. cadence, which 
was by no means disagreeable. We regretted infi- 
nitely that we could not underftand what he faid to us» 
and not lefs that he could not under (land any. thing 
which we ihould fay to him ; to (hew odr good* will, 
however, we threw him fpme trifling prefents, while 
he was yet (peaking, but he would neither touch them 
htmfelf, npr fuflFer them, to be touched by others till he 
had done : he then walked into the water^. and threw 
our people the green branch, after which he took up 
the thing^.^fhich had been thrown from the bosfts. 
Every thing now having a friendly appearance, our 
peoplt^ 9|iule figns that they ihould lay down their arms» 
and sioSk of them having complied, one of the Qiid- 
fhuaiilien, encouraged by this tefiimony of confidence 
aiptiriendihip, leaped out of the boat with his clothes 
on, and (warn through the furf to. the (hore. The 
Indians immediately gathered round him, and began 
to examine his clothes with great curipfity ; they Teem- 
ed particularly to admire his waiftcoat, and being 
willing to gratify his new friends, he. took it off", and 
prefented it to them ; this courtefy, however, produc- 
ed a difagreeable efied, fo^' he had no fooner given 
away his waificoat, than one of the Indians very in- 
genioufly untied his. craVat, and ,the next moment 
fnatchcd it from his neck,, and ran away with it. Our 
adventurer, therefore^ tp prevent his being (tripped by 
piece-meal, made the bigft of his way back again to 
the boat ; ftill, however, we were upon good terms, 
and feveral of the Indians fwam q(F to our people j fomc 
of them bringing a cocoa-nut, and others a little fre(h 
water in a cocoa-nut (hell. But the principal objefl: 
of our boats, was to obtain fome pearis ; and men, to 
aflift them in explaining their meaning, had taken with 
them fome of the pearl oyfter (hells which they had 
found in great numbers upon the coaft ; but all their 
endeavours were ineflfeSual, for they could not, even 
. with this afliftance, at all m^e themfelves underflood. 
. It is indeed probable that we ihould have fucceeded 
better, if an intercourfe of any kind could have been 
eftabliihed between us, but it was our misfortune that 
no anchorage could be found for the (hips. As all In- 
dtaos are fond of beads, it can (carcely be fuppofed that 




the pearls, which the oyfters at this place contained, 'T^S* 
were overlooked by the natives, and it is mere than -L""^' 
probable that if we could have continued here a few 
weeks, we might have obtained fome of great value 9 
in exchange for nails, hatchets, and bill-hooks, upon 
which the natives, with more reaibn, fet a much high- 
er value. We obferved, that in the lake, or lagoon^ 
there were two or three very large veflels, one of 
which had two mads, and fome cordage aloft to fup- 
port them. 

To thefe two iflands^ I gave the name of King King ^ 
pEORGE*s Islands^ in honour of his Majefly. JJj^ * 
That which- we laft vifited^ lies in latitude 14? 41' S. 
longitude i/^g^ 15' W. the variation of thecompais 
here was 50 E. 


The Run from King Giorgis Ijlands io the Ijlands df 
Saypan^ Union, andAigtdgan\ with an Account of 
fever al Ijlands that were dtfcovered in that Track* 

WE purfued our courfe to the weftward theTlmria,t3. 
fame day, and the next^ about three o'clock 
in the afternoon, we faw land again, bearing S. S. W. 
i^iftant about fix leagues. We immediately fiood for 
it^ and found it to be a low and very narrow ifland^ 
lying eaft and weft : we ran along the fouth (ide of it, 
which had a green and pleafant appearance, but a 
dreadful furf breaks upon tw^xy part of it, with foul 
ground at fome diftance, and many rocks and fmall 
iilands fcattered at about three leagues from the (hore. 
We found it about twenty leagues in length, and it 
appeared to abound with inhabitants, though we 
could get only a tranfient glance of them as we pafled 
along. To this place I gave the name of Prince of Prince oi" 
Wales's Island. It lies in latitude 1 50 S. and the J^^J"*'' 
weftermoft end of it in longitude 151° 53' W. It is 
diftant from King George's Iflands about eight and 
forty leagues, in the direSion of S. 80 W. the.vari- 
ation here was 50 30' E» : . ! • 

From the weftem extremity of this iflaiid,. we 
• Ag^red N. 8a W. anid at noon on the L6th, were in 



1.765-. latitude 140 2S' S. longitude 156® 23' W; the^variar 
..^_^ ^ ^ j tion being 7^ 40' E. The wind was now eafterly, and 
Sunday i6. we had again the fame mountainous fwell from the 
fouthward that we had before we made the Iflands of 
Direftion, and which, from that time to this day we 
had loft : when we loft that fwell, and for fome days 
before, we faw vaft flocks of birds, which wc obfef ved 
always took their flight to ,the fouthward when even- 
ing was coming on. Thefe appearances perfuaded 
me that there was land in the fame direSion, and t 
km of opinion, that if the winds had not failed me in 
the higher latitudes, I fliould bav^ fallen in with it : 
I would indeed at this time h^ve hauled away to the 
fouthwai'd, and attempted the difcovery, if our people 
had been healthy; for having obferved that all the 
iflands we had fe^n wer^ ful} of inhabitants, I was ftiil 
more confirmed in my opinion; as I could account 
. for their being peopled only by fuppofing a chain of 
iflands reaching to a continent ; but the ficknefs of 
the crews, in both fliips, was an infuperable impedi- 
Monday 17. The next day, we again faw many birds of various 
forts about the ftiip, and therefore fuppofed that fome 
other ifland was not far diftant, for the fwell continu- 
ing, T concluded that the land was not of very great 
extent : I proceeded, however, with caution ; for the 
iflands in this part of the ocean render the navigation 
very dangerous, they begin fo low that a fliipmay be 
clofe in with them before they are feenl We faw 
Tuefd. 18. pothing, however, on the i8th, the 19th, nor the 
yredncf 19, 20th, during which we continued to fteer the fame 
Thurfd. so. courfe, though the birds ftill continued about the veflel 
in great numbers. Our latitude was now 12** 33' S. 
longitude 167° 47' W. The Prince of Wales's Ifland 
was diftant three hundred and thirteen leagues, and the 
Friday 21. Variation of the needle was 9® 1 5' E. The next morn- 
ing, about feven o'clock, we difcovered a moft dan- 
gerous reef of breakers, bearing S. S. W. and not far- 
ther diftant than a fingle league. In about half an 
hour afterwards, land was feen from the maft-head, 
bearing W. N. W. and diftant about eight leagues : 
it had the appearance of three iflands, with rocks and 
broken ground between them. The fouth-eaft fide of 
• thefe 


thefe iflands lies N/E, by N, and S..W. by S.-and is 
about three league^ in lei^h between the extreme 
points, from both which a reef runs out, upon which 
the fea breaks to a tremend^tfs height. We failed 
round the north end, and upon the north-weft aikl 
weft fide, faw innumerable rocks and ftioals, whi^h 
ftretched near two leagues into the Tea, and were ex- 
tremely dangerous. The iflan^ themfelves had a 
more fertile and beautiful appeai^ance than any we had 
feen before, and, like the reft, fwarmed with people, 
whofe habitations we faw ftanding in clufters all along 
the coaft. We faw alfo a large Vcffel under fail, at a 
little diftance from the ihore; but to our unTpeakaUe 
regret we were obliged to leave the place without 
farther examination^ for it was furrounded in every 
direSion by rocks and breakers, which rendered the 
hazard more than equivalent to* every advantage we 
might procure. At this tinie, I took thefe for part 
of the iflands called Solomon's Iflands, and was in 
hopes that I fliould fall in with others of them, if^ 
fome of which we might find art harbour. 

The reef of rocks which we firft faw as we ap-p 
preached thefe iflands, lies in latitude io<^ 15' S. lon- 
gitude 1690 a8' W. and it bears from the Prince of 
Wales's Ifland N. 76^48' W. diftant 352 leagues. 
The iflands bear from the reef W. N. W. diftant nine 
leagues: I called them the Islands of Danger, 
and fleered from themN. W. by W. allowing for the 

After having feen the breakers foon after it was light 
rn the morning, I told my officers that I apprehended 
•we fliould have freqiient alarms in the night ; at night, 
therefore, every body was upon the watch, which a- 
very hard fquall of wind, with rain, rendered the 
more neceflary. About nine o'clock,' having jiift gone 
down into my cabin> J heard a great noifc above, an^ 
when i enquired what ^as the matter, I was told that 
thcTamar, who w^s a-head, had fifed a gun, and 
that our people faw breakers to leeward : I ran inftantly 
' «pon deck, and foon perceived that what had been 
- taken for breakers was nothing more than the unduiat- 
kig refledion' of the moon, which was going down, 
jtfidfhone /aintlyfrom behind a cloud in the horizon ; 


'7^5' we therefore bore away after the Tamar^ but did not 
. "L f get fight of tier till an hour afterwards, 
)(fojiday 24. Nothing worthy of notice happened till Monday^ 
the 24tb> wheoy about ten o'clock in the morning> 
we difcovered another ifland^ beating S. S. W diftant 
about feven or eight leagues : we (leered for it, and 
found it to be low, but covered with wood,- among 
which were cofX>a-^ut trees in great abundance. It 
had a pleafant appearance, and a large lake in the mid- 
fjlle, like King George's Ifland : it is near thirty miles 
in circumferenf^e, a dr^ful fea breaks upon almoft 
^very part of the coaft,^ and a great deal of foul ground 
lies about it. We failed quite round it, and when we 
W(^re on the lee*fide^ fent out boats to found, in hopes 
pf finci^ng anchorage : no foundings, however, were 
t<> be got near the ihore, but [ fent the boats out a 
■ f<^cond time^ with orders to land, if it were poflible, 
and procure fome refrefliment for the fick: they 
landed with great difficulty, and brought off about 
two hundred cocoarnuts, which, to perfons in our 
circuinftances, were an ineflimable treafure. The 
people who were on fliore reported, hat there wiwe 
no figns of its having ever been inhabited, but that 
they found thoufands of fea fowl fitting upon their 
nefts^ which were built in high trees : thefe birds 
were fp tame that they fuifered themfelves to be knock- 
ed down without leaving their nefts : the ground was 
covered with land crabs, but our people faw no other 
animal. At firft I was inclined to believe that this ifland 
W4S the fame that in the Neptune Fmnfois is called 
Maluita^ and laid down about a degree to the eaft- 
ward of the great Ifland of Saint Elizabeth, which is 
the principal of the Solomon's Iflands ; but being 
afterwards convinced of the contrary, I called it the 
puke of DukK of Yqrk's Is|.and, in honour of bis late 
iflajid^ Royal Highnefs, and I am of opinion that we were the 
. firft human beings who ever faw it. There is indeed 
great reafon to. believe that there is no good authority 
for laying down Solomon's Iflands in the fituation that 
is afligned to them by the French : the only perfon who 
his pretended to have feen them is Qiiiros, and I doubt 
i|¥hether he left behind him any account of them by 
which they might be found by futqre navigators. 

^ We 


We condoned oar cooHe till the loth, in the tnck ^^' 
of thefe ULuids, aod ixuc then tec de^grees to the ^**^ . 
weftward of their fitojtioB in the chart, wi- hout hiv- s«E«td. tf. 
ing feen any thinp of them, I haoled to the northv-ard, 
in order to cro& the eqaiooxial, and itterwirds ihipc 
my courfe for the Ladraoe Iflands, which* though a 
long run, I hoped to accooqrfiih hetbre I ihooM be 
diftreffed for water, nocwithflooding it now bcein to 
fall ihort. Our latitude, thTs day, was 8" 13^ ^c* 
gitude 1 76® 20' E. and the variation was 10^ 10 F. 

On Taeidaj the 2d of July, we again law many juir. 
birds about the iliip, and at four o'clock in the after- 1'««'^7 2- 
noon, difcovered an iiland bearing north, and diflant 
about fix le^ues : we ftood for it till fun-let, when it 
was diftant about four leagues, and then kept oflf and 
on for the night. In the morning, we found it a low wc^nef. 5, ' 
flat iiland, of a mod ddightfol appearance and full 
of wood, among which the cocoa-nut tree was very 
confpicuous : we faw, however, to our great regret, 
much foul ground about it, upon which the fea broke 
with a dregful fiuf. We fleered along the fouth-weft 
fide of it^ which we judged to be about four leagues in 
length, and foon perceived not only that it was inha- 
bited, but very populous ; for prefently after the fhip 
came in fight, we faw at leafl a thoufand of the natives 
afTembled upon the beach, and in a very ihort time 
more than fixty canoes, or rather proas, put ofiF from 
the (hore, and made towards us. We lay by to receive 
them, and they were very foon ranged in a circle 
round us, Thefe vefTels were very neatly made, and 
fo clean that they appeared to be quite new : none of 
them had fewer than three perfons on board, nor any 
of them more than fix. After thefe Indians had gazed 
at us fome time, one of them fuddenly jumped out of 
his proa, fwam to the fhip, and ran up the fi'de like a 
cat : as loon as he had ftepped over the gunwale, he 
fat down upon it, and buril into a violent fit of laugh- 
ter, then flarted up, and ran all over the ihip attempt- 
ing to fteal whatever he could lay his hands upon, but 
without fiiccefs, for being ftark naked, it was impoill- 
Ue to conceal his booty tor a moment. Our feamen 
put on him a jacket and trowfers, which produced 
great merriment^ tor he had all the gcftures of a 



'tJs- monkey newly dreffed : we alfo gave him bread, 
> which he eat with a voracious appetite^ and after 
having played a thoufand antic tricks, he leaped over- 
board, jacket and trowfers and all, and fwam back 
again to his proa ; after this feveral others fwam to 
the fhip, ran up the fide to the gun-room ports, and 
having crept in, fnatched up whatever lay in their 
reach, and immediately leaped again into the fea, and 
fwam away at a great rate, though fome of them, 
having both hands full, held up their arms quite out 
of the water, to prevent their plunder from being 
fpoiled. Thefe people are tall, well proportioned, and 
clean-limbed : their (kin is a bright copper colour, 
their features are extremely good, and there i? a mix- 
ture of intrepidity and cheerfulnefs in their counte- 
nances that is very ftriking. They havB long black 
hair, which fome of them wore tied up behind in a 
great bunch, others in three knots : fome of them had 
long beards, fome only whilkers, and fome nothing 
more than a fmall tuft at the point of the chin. They 
were all of them ftark naked, except their ornaments, 
which confifted of fhells, very prettily difpofed and 
ftrung together, and were worn round their necks, 
wriils, and waifts : all their ears were bored, but they 
had no ornaments in them when we faw them : fuch 
ornaments as they wear, when they wear any, are 
probably very heavy, for their- ears hang down almoft 
to their (boulders, and fome of them were quite fplit 
through. One of thefe men, who appeared to be a 
perfon of fome confequence, had a firing of human 
teeth about his waift, which was probably a trophy 
of his military prowefs, for he would not part with it 
in exchange for any thing that I could offer him. 
Some of them were unarmed, but others had one of 
the moft dangerous weapons I had ever feen : it was a 
kind of fpear, very broad at the end, and ftuck full of 
fliark's teeth, which are as (harp as a lancet, at the fides, 
for about three feet of its length. We (hewed them 
fome cocoa-nuts, and made figns that we wanted n^dre ; 
but inftead of giving any intimation that they could fup- 
ply us, they endeavoured to take away thofe we had. 

I fent out the boats to found after we brought to off 
the ifland, and when they came back, they *e^orted 



ihat there was ground at the depth of thirty fathom, 
within two cables length of the Ihore ; but as the bot- 
tom was coral rock, and the foundings much too near 
the breakers for a (hip to lie in fafetv, I was obliged 
again to make fail, without procuring any refreih- 
ments tor the fick. This ifland, to which my officers Bjoa^s 
gaye the name of Byron's Islaxd, lies in latitude •'**^ 
i^ 18' S: longitude i^y* 46' E. the variation of th^ 
compafs here, was one point E. 

In our courfe from this place, we faw, for feveral 
days, abundance of fifh, but we could take only (harks, 
which were become a good difh even at my own table. 
Many of the people fiow began to fall down with 
fluxes, which the Surgeon imputed to the exCeffive 
heat, and almoft perpetual nuns. 

By the 21ft, all our cocoa-nuts being expended, our Sond^ a|. 
people began to fall down again with the fcurvy. The 
effed of thefe nuts alone, in checking this difeafe^ is 
aftonifliing : many whofe limbs were become as black 
as ink, who could not move without the aififlance of 
two men, and who, beiides total debility, fuffered ex- 
cruciating pain, were in a few days, by eating thefe 
nuts^ although at fea, fo far recovered as to do their 
duty, and could even go aloft as well as they did be- 
fore the diflemper feized them. For feveral days, 
about this time, we had only faint breezes, with fitiooth 
water, fo that we made but little way, and a? we were 
ifow not far from the Ladrone I(knds, where we hoped 
fome refrefhments might be procured, we moft ar- 
dently wiCbed for a freih gale, efpecially as the heat 
was ftill intolerable, the glafs for a long time having 
never been lower than eighty-one, but often up to 
eighty-four; and I am of opinion that this is the hot- 
teft, the longed, and moft dangerous run that ever 
was made. 

On the 1 8th, we were in latitude 1 3^ 9' N. longi- 
tude 1 58*^ 50' E. and on the 22d, in latitude i V* 2 5' N. Monday *». 
longitude i53<> 11' E. during which time we had ^ 
northerly current. Being now nearly in the latitude 
of Tinian, I fhaped my courfe for that iQand* 





C H A p. XI. 

Thi Arrival of the Dolphin and Tamar at Tinian, m 
Defcription of the prefent Condition of that Ijland^ 
and an Account of the TranfaSfions then. 

Sona.28. /^N the 28th, we few a great number of birds 
Tiicf. 30. v-/ about the fhip, which continued till the 30th, 
when about two o'clock in the afternoon we faw land, 
bearijg W. f N. which proved to be the iflands Say- 
pan, Tinian^ and Aiguigan. At funfet^ the extremes 
of them bore from N. W. f N. weftward to S. W. 
and the three iilands had the appearance of one. At 
f^ven, we hauled the wind, and ftood off and on all 
Wcdii. 31. night ; and at (ix the next morning the extremes of 
the iflands, which flill made in one, bore from N. W. 
by N. to S. W. by S. diftant five leagues. The eaft 
fide of thefe ifiands lies N. E. by N. and S. W. by S. 
Saypan is the northernmoft ; and from the north-eaft 
point of that ifland to the fouth-weft point of Aigui- 
gan the didance is about feventeen leagties. Thefe 
three ifiands are between two and three leagues diflant 
from each other ; Saypan is the largeft, and Aiguigan, 
which is high and round, the fmalleft. We fleered 
along the eafl fide of them, and at noon hauled round 
the fouth point of Tinian, between that ifland and 
Aiguigan, and anchored at the fouth-wefl end of it, 
in fixteen fathom water, with a bottom of hard 
fand and coral rock, oppofite to a white fandy bay, 
about a mile and a quarter from the fhore, and about 
three quarters of a mile from a reef of rocks that 
lies at a good diflance from the fhore, in the very 
fpot where Lord Anfon lay in the Centurion. The 
water at this place is fo very clear that the bottom is 
"plainly to be fcen at the depth of four and twenty 
fathom, which is no lefs than one hundred and fortyr 
four feet. 

As foon as the fhip was fecured, I went on fhore, 

to fix upon a place where tents might be erefied for 

the fick, which were now very numerous ; not a 

fingle man being wholly free from the fcurvy, and 

• ' m^ny 


many in the laft ftage of it. We found feveral httt9 >7^5- 
which had been left by the Spaniards and Indians the . ^ ^' 
year before ; for this year none of them had as yet ' 
been at the place, nor was it probable that they (hould 
come for fome months, the fun being now aimed ver*^ 
tkal^ and the rainy feafon fet in. After I had fixed 
upon a fpot for the tents, fix or feven of us endeavour* 
ed to pufli through the woods, that we might come at. 
the beautiful lawns and meadows of which there is fo 
luxuriant a defer! ption in the account of Lord Anfon's 
Voyage, and if pofiible kill fome cattle. The tree* 
flood fo thick, and the place was fo overgrown with 
underwood, that we could not fee three yards'before. 
us, we therefore were obliged to keep continually bal* 
looing to each other, to prevent our being feparately 
loft in this tracklefs wildemefs* As the weather was 
intolerably hot, we had nothing oa befidcs our fhoei^ 
except our (hirts and trowfers, and thefe were in a 
very fhort time torn all to rags by the buihes and 
brambles ; at laft, however, with incredible difficulty 
and labour, we got through ; but, to our great fur^ 
prife and difappointment, we found the country vtrf 
different from the account we had read of it: thcf 
lawns were entirely overgrown with a ftubbom kind 
of reed or brufh, in many places higher than our 
heads, and no where lower than our middles, which 
continually entangled our legs, and cut us like whip* 
cord ; our ftockings perhaps might have ftill fufFered 
^ more, but we wore none. During this march we wcr« 
aKo covered with flies from head, to foot, and whenr 
ever we offered to fpeak we were fure of leaving a 
mouthful, many of which never failed to get down our 
throats. After we had walked about three or four milest 
we got fight of a bull, which we killed, and a little be- 
fore night got back to the beach, as wet as if we had 
been dipt in water, and fo fatigued that we wei^ 
fcarcely able to.ftand. We immediately fent out a party 
to fetch the bull, and found that during our excurfioh 
fome tents had been got up, and the fick brought on fhore. 

The next day our people were employed in fetting Aoguft. 
up more tents, getting the water-cafks on fhore> and Thur/d. s. 
clearing the well at which they were to be filled. 
This well I imagined to be the fame that the Centurion 



17^5* was very ill-tafted, and fuch was the heat of the climate^ 
^^^ that within an hour after they were killed it was as 
green as grafs> and fwaroied with maggots. Otir prin^ 
cipal refource for frefh meat, was the wild hog, with 
which the ifland abounds. Thefe creatur^ are very 
fierce, and fome of them fo large that a carcafs fre« 
quently weighed two hundred pounds. We killed 
them without much difficulty ^ but a Black belonging 
to the Tamar contrived a method to fnare theno, fo 
that we took great numbers of them alive^ which was^ 
an unfpeakable advantage ; for it not only enfured our 
eating the flefh while it was fweet, but enabled us to 
fend a good number of them on board as fea-ftores. 

In the mean time we were very defirous of procuring 
fome beef in an eatable ftate, with lefs rifk and labour ; 
and Mr. Gore, one of our Mates, at laft difcoyered 
a pleafant fpot upon the north- weft part of the ifland^ 
whiere cattle were in great plenty, and whence they 
might be brought to the tents by fea. To this place 
therefore I difpatched a party, with a tent for their 
ticcommodatton, and fent the boats every day to fetch 
what they (hould kill ; fometimes however there broke 
fuch a fea upon the rocks that it was impoflible to ap- 
proach them, and the Tamar's boat unhappily lofl: 
three of her beft men by attempting it. We were 
now, upon the whole, pretty well fupplied with pro- 
viiions, efpecially as we baked frefti bread every day 
for the fick ; and the fatigue of our people being lefs, 
there were fewer ill with the fever: but feveral of them 
were fo much difordered by eating of a very fine look- 
ing fifli which we caught here, that their recovery was 
for a long time doubtful. The author of the account 
of Lord Anfon's Voyage fays, that the people on 
board the Centurion thought it prudent to abflaln 
from fifh, as the few which they caught at their firft 
arrival furfeited thofe who eat of them. But not at- 
tending fufficiently to this caution, and too haftily 
taking the word furfeit in its literal and common ac- 
ce^ptation, we imagined that thofe who tafted the fifli 
w^en Lord Anfon firft came hither, were made fick 
merely by eating too much ; whereas, if that had 
been the cafe, there would have bee;i no reafon for 



totally abftaining afterwards, but only eating tempe-^ ^765* 
. rately. We however bought our knowledge by expe- ^ ^ ' ^ 
rience^ which we might have had cheaper ; for though 
all our people, who tailed this fifli, eat fparingly, they 
were all foon afterwards dangeroufly ill. 

Befides the fruit that has been mentioned already, 
this ifland produces cotton and indigo in abundance, 
and would certainly be of great value if it was fituated 
in the Weft- Indies. The Surgeon of the Tamar cn- 
clofed a lai^e fpot of ground here, and made a very 
pretty garden ; but we did not ftay long enough to 
derive any advantage from it. 

While we lay here, I fent the Tamar to examine 
the ifland of Saypan, which is much larger than Ti- 
nian, rifes higher, and, in my opinion, has a much 
pleafanter appearance. She anchored to the leeward 
of it, at the diftance of a mile from the (hore, and in 
about ten fathom water, with much the fame kind of 
ground as we had in the road of Tinian. Her people 
landed upon a fine fandy beach, which is iix or feven 
miles long, and walked up into the woods, where they 
faw many trees which were very fit for top-mafts. They 
faw no fowls, nor any trades of cattle ; but of hogs 
and guanicoes there was plenty. They found no frefh^ 
water liear the beach, but faw a large pond inland, 
which they did not examine. They faw large heaps 
of pearl oyfter fliells thrown up together, and other 
figns of people having been there not long before : pof- 
fibly the Spaniards may go thither at fome feafons of 
the year, and carry on a pearl fifliery. They alfo faw 
many of thofe fquare pyramidal pillars which are to be 
found at Tinian, and which are particularly defcribed 
in the account of Lord Anfon's Voyage. 

On Monday, thje 30th of September, having now Septcmb. 
been here nine weeks, and our fick being pretty well **" ' ^^* 
recovered, I ordered the tents to be ilruck, and with 
the forge and oven carried back to the (hip ; I alfo laid 
in about two thoufand cocoa-nuts, which I had expe- 
rienced to be fo powerful a remedy for the fcurvy, and Oftober. 
the next day I weighed, hoping that before we (hould " " ** 
get the lengch pf the Ba{h6 Iflands, the N. E. raon- 
foon would be fet in. I flood along the fhore to take 
in the beef-hunters j but we had very little wind this 

VpL. I. » " * '^ day 




Wedn. 2. 
Thurf. 3. 

Thurf. 10. 

Fnd. 18. 

Tucfd. 12. 


• - 

day and the next till the evening, when it came to the 
weftward and blew frefh : I then ftood to the north- 
ward till the morning of the ,^69 when we made Ana- 
tacan, an ifland that is ren^aijcable high, and the fame 
that was firft fallen in with by Lord Anfon. 


The Run from Tinian tp PuloTimoan, with firm Account 
of that Ifland^ its Inhabitants and Productions^ and 
thence to Batavia. 

WE continued our couHe till Thurfday the loth^ 
when being in latitude 1 8® 33' N. longitude 
1 360 50' E. we found the fhip two and twenty miles to 
the fouthward of her account, which muft have been 
the effeS of a ftrong current in that diredion. The 
variation here was 50 10' E. and for fome time wc 
found it regularly decreafing, fo that on the I9th9 be- 
ing in latitude 21* 10' N. longitude 124® 17'E. the 
needle pointed due north. 

On the 1 8 th, we had found the (hip eighteen miles 
to the northward of her account, and faw feveral land 
birds about the fliip, which appeared to be very much 
tired : we caught one as it was refting upon the boomSf 
and found it very remarkable. It was about as big as 
a goofe, and ^11 over as white as fnow, except the legs 
and b^ak, which were black ; the beak was curved, 
and of fo great a length and thicknefs, that it is not 
eafy to conceive how the mufcles of the neck, which 
was about a foot long, and as fmall as that of a crane, 
could fupport it. We kept it about four months on 
bifcuit and water, but it then died, apparently for want 
of nourifhment, being almoft as light as a bladder. It 
was very different from every fpecies of the Toucan 
that is reprefented by Edwards, and I believe has never 
been defcribed. Thefe birds appeared to have been 
blown off fome ifland to the northward of us, that is 
not laid down in the charts. 

The needle continued to point due north till the 2 2d, 
when at fix o'clock in the morning, Grafton's Ifland, 
the northermoft of the Baflie Iflands, bore fouth, 
diflant fix leagues. As I had defigned to touch at 



thefe iflands^ I ftood for that in fight ; but as the na- y^5* 
vigation frwn hence to the Strcight of Banca is very ^ -j T' i 
dangerous, and we had now both a fine morning, and 
a fine gale, I thought it bed to proceed on our way, 
and therefore (leered weftward again. The principal 
of thefe iflands are five in number, and by a good ob-p 
fervation Grafton's Ifland lies in latitude 21*^ 8' N. 
longitude 118^ 1 4' E. The variation of the compafs 
was now 1 ** 20' W. 

On the 24th, being in latitude 16° 59' N, longitude Thurfd. ^4. 
113** 1' E. we kept a good look-out for the Triangles, 
which lie without the north-end of the Prafil, and 
form a moft dangerous (hoal. . On the 30th, wefiw Wedncf.3#. 
feveral trees and large bamboos floating about the ihip, 
and upon founding had three and twenty fathom, with 
dark brown fand, and fmall pieces of fhells. Our lati- 
tude was now 70 17' N. longitude 104° 21' E.; the*^*^"'^* Si- 
variation' was 30' W. The next day we found the (hip 
thirteen miles to the northward of her account, which 
we judged to be the effedof a current ; and on the 2d Novemb. 
of November, we found her thirty-eight miles to the Satuid. a. 
fouthward of her account. Our latitude by obfervation 
was 3° 54' N. longitude 103® 20' E. We had here 
foundings at forty-two and forty-three fathom, with 
foft mud. 

At feven o'clock the next morning, we faw the Sunday 3. 
ifland of Timoan, bearing S. W. by W. diftant about 
twelve leagues. As Dampier has mentioned Pulo Ti- 
moan as a place where fome refre(hments are to be 
procured, I endeavoured to touch there, having lived 
upon fait provifions, which were now become bad ever 
fincewe were atTinian ; but light airs, calms, and a 
foutherly current, prevented our coming to an anchor 
till late in the evening of the 5th.' We had fixteenTuefday 5. 
fathom at about the diflance of two miles from the 
fliore, in a bay on the eaft fide of the ifland. 

The next day 1 landed to fee what was to be got, Wcdncf. 6. 
and found the inhabitants, who are Malays, a furly in- 
folent fet of people. As foon as they faw us approach- 
ing the fliore, they came down to the beach in great; 
numbers, having a long knife in one hand, a fpear 
headed with iron in the other, and a creflit or dagger by 
th^ir fide, We went on fhore, however, notwithftand- 


17^5- ing thefe hoftile appearances, and a treaty foon com- 
Kovon er.^ menced between us ; but all we could procure, was 
about a dozen of fowls, and a goat and kid. We had 
offered them knives, hatchets, bill-hooks, and other 
things of the fame kind ; but thefe they refufed with 
great contempt, and demanded rupees: as we had no 
rupees, we were firft much at a lofs how to pay for 
our purchafes ; but at laft we bethought ourfelves of 
fome pocket handkerchiefs, and thefe they vouchfafed 
to accept, though they would take only the beft. 

1 hefe people are of a fmall ftature, but extremely 
well made, and of a dark copper colour. We faw 
among them one old man who was dreffed Tome what 
in the manner of the Perfians ; but all the reft were 
naked, except a handkerchief, whidh they wore as a 
kind of turban upon their heads, and fome pieces of 
cloth which were fattened with a filver plate or clafp 
round their middles. We faw none of their women, 
and probably fome care was taken to keep them out of 
our fight. The habitations are' very neatly built of flit 
bamboo, and are raifed upon pofts about eight feet 
from the ground. Their boats are alfo well made, and 
we faw fome of a large fize, in which we fuppofed 
that they carried on a trade to Malacca. 

The ifland is mountainous and woody, but we found 
it pleafant when we were a-ftiore; it produces the cab- 
bage and cocoa-nut tree in great plenty, but the natives 
did not chufe to let us have any of the fruit. We faw 
alfo fome rice grounds, but what other vegetable pro- 
duftions nature has favoured them with, we had no 
opportunity to learn, as we ftaid here but two nights 
and one day. In the bay where the (hips rode there 
is excellent filhing, though the furf runs very high : 
we hauled our feine with great fuccefs, but could eafily 
perceive that it gave umbrage to the inhabitants, who 
confider all the fifh about thefe iflands as their own. 
There are two fine rivers that run into this bay, 
and the water is excellent : it was indeed fo much 
better than what we had on board, that I filled as 
many calks with it as loaded the boak twice. Whik 
we lay here fome of the natives brought down an ani- 
mal, which had the body of a hare, and the legs of a 



deer ; one of our officers bought it, and we (hould ^ '^^^L 
have been glad to have kept it alive, but it was im* 
poflible for us to procure for it fuch food as it would 
eat ; it was therefore kill«d, and wt found it ver} good 
food. All the while we lay here, we had the moft 
violent thunder, liglitning and rain., that I • had ever 
known; and finding that nothing more was to be pro- 
cured, we failed again on Thursday morning, with aT**"*^* 7* 
fine breeze off the land. In the afternoon, we tried 
the current, and found it let S. E. at the rate of a* mile 
Sin hour. The variation here was 38' W. We cer- 
tainly made this paffage at an Improper feafon of the 
year; for after we came into the latitude of Pulo 
Condore, we had nothing but light airs, calms and 
tornados, with violent rain, thunder and lightning. 

At feven o'clock in the morning of Sunday the ioth, Sunday to* 
we faw the eaft end of the ifland of Lingen, bearing 
S. W, by W. diftant eleven or twelve leagues. The 
current fet E. S. S. at the rate of a mile an hour. At 
noon, it fell calm, and I anchored with the kedge ia 
twenty fathom. At one o'clock, the weather having 
cleared up, we faw a fmali iiland bearing S. W. f S. 
diftant ten or eleven leagues. 

At one o'clock the next mornings we weighed and^o«<**y ^« 
made fail ; and at fix, the fmall ifland bore W. S. W, 
diftant about feven leagues, and fome very fmall iflands, 
which we fuppofed to be the Domines iflands, W. f N. 
diflant about feven or eight leagues, a remarkable 
double peak on the ifland of Lingen bearing at the fame 
time W. by N. diftant about ten or twelve leagues. 
Our latitude by obfervation was now 1 8' S. The La- 
titude of the eaft end of Lingen is 10' S. longitude 
105^ 1$' E. Pulo Taya bears from it nearly S. by 
W. and is diftant about twelve leagues. 

At ten o'clock in the morning of Tuefday the 12th, T^efd. u. 
we faw a fmall Chinefe junk to the north-eaft; and at 
feven the next morning a fmall ifland called Pulo 
Tote, bearing S. E. by E. diftant about twelve leagues. 
A little to the northward of Pulo Taya is a very (mall 
ifland, called Pulo Toupoa. 

The next day, at four in the afternoon, there being Wedncf. ij, 
no wyid, we came to an anchor, in fourteen fathom 
with foft ground, Pulo Taya bearing N. W. A\ft.2Liv\. 


/ ■ 

J76<- about feven leagues. We tried the current, and found 
November^ .^ ^^^ g ^^ g ^^ ^j^^ ^^^^ ^j ^^^ ^^^^^ ^^^ fathom an 

hour* We faw a floop at anchor about four miles 
from us, which hoifted Dutch colours. In the night, 
we had violent rain, with hard fiqualls, during one of 
which we parted the ftream cable', and therefore let go 

Thutfd. 14. the fmall bower. At eight in the morning, the wind 
became moderate and variable, from N. N. W. to 
W. S. W. We got out our long-boat and weighed the 
ftream anchor, and at nine made fail. We found 
the current ftill very ftrong to the eaftward ; and at 
two, we anchored again in fourteen fathom, Pulo 
Taya bearing N. W, f N. diftant between feven and 
eight leagues. The veffel which we had feen the 
day before under Dutch colours, ftill lying at anchor 
in the fame place, I fent a boat with an officer to fpeak 
with her : the officer was received on board with 
great civility ; but was extremely furprifed to find 
that he could not make himfelf underftood, for the 
people on board were Malays, without a fingle white 
man among them : they made tea for our men imme- 
diately, and behaved with great chcarfulnefs and hof- 
pitality. The veflel was of a very fingular conftruc- 
tion ; her deck was of flit bamboo, and ftie was fleered, 
not by a rudder, but by two large pieces of timber, 
one upon each quarter. 

Friday 15. 'The next morning at fix o'clock, wc weighed and 
made fail : at two, Monopin Hill bore S. by E. diftant 
about ten or eleven leagues, and had the appearance 
of a fmall ifland. It bears S. by W. from the feven 
iflands, and is diftant from them about twelve leagues : 
its latitude is tP South. From the feven iflands we 
fleered S. W. by S. and had regular foundings from 
twelve to feven fathom, and foon after faw the coaft of 
Sumatra, bearing from W. S. W. to W. by N. at the 
diftance of about feven leagues. In the evening, we 
anchored in feven fathom ; and the next morning at 

Saturd. 16. four, we made fail again, and continued our courfe S. 
by E. till the peak of Monopin Hill bore eaft, and 
Batacarang Point, on the Sumatra ftiore, S. W. to 
avoid a ftioal, called Frederick Hendrick, which is 
about mid- way between the Banca and Sumatra ^lore : 
the foundings wpre thirteen and fourteen fathom. 



We then fleered E. S. E. md kept mid-chisnel to '^^ 
avoid the banks of Pilambam River, and that which 
lies off the Wcftcnnoft point of Banca. When we 
were a-breaft off P^ambann River, we re^larlv ihoil- 
ed our water from fourteen to feven fathom ; and 
when we had pafled it, we deepened it j^ain to (itreen 
and fixtecn fathom. We continued to fteer E. S. E, 
between the Third and Fourth Points of Sumatra, 
which are about ten leagues diftant from each other : 
the foundings, neareft to the Sumatra fhore, were all 
along from eleven to thirteen fathom ; and the high 
land of Qyeda Banca appeared over the Third Point 
of Sumatra, bearif^E. S. E From the Third Point 
to the Second, the courfe is S. E. by S. at the diftance 
of about eleven or twelve leagues. The high land of 
Qjieda Banca, and the Second Point of Sumatra bear 
E. N. E. and W. S. W. of each other. The Streight 
is about five leagues over, and in the mid- channel 
there is twenty-four fathom. At fix o'clock in the 
evening, we anchored in thirteen fathom ; Monopin 
Hill bearing N. f W. and the Third Point of Sumatra, 
S. E. by E. diftant between two and three leagues. 
Many fmall vefTels were in fight, and moft of them 
hoifted Dutch colours. In the night we had frefh 
gales and fqualls, with thunder and lightning, and 
hard rain ; but, as our cables were good, we were in 
no danger, for in this place the anchor is buried in a 
fliff clay. 

In the morning the current or tide fet to the S. E. at Sunday 17. 
the rate of three knots ; at five we weighed, with a 
moderate gale at weft and hazy weather, and in the 
night the tide lhifted,and ran as ftrongly to the N. W. 
fo that it ebbs and flows here twelve hours. 

On the 19th, we fpoke with an Englifli fnovv, be Tucfd. 19. 
longing to the Eaft India Company, which was bound 
from Bencoolen to Malacca and Bengal. We had 
now nothing to eat but the fhip's provifions, which 
were become very bad, for all our beef and pork ftunk 
intolerably, and our bread was rotten and full of 
worms ; but as foon as the Mafter of this fnow learnt 
our fituation, he generoufly fent me a fheep, a dozen 
fowls, and a turtle, which I verily believe v/as half his 
ftock, befides two gallons of arrack, and would accept 



17J55. nothing but our thanks in return. It is with great ple^ 
November. ^^^^ ^^^^ j p^^y ^j^jg tribute to his liberality, and am 

*''''^^''"*^ very forry that I cannot recolleft his name, or the 
name of his vefleL In the afternoon, we worked 
round the Firft Point of Sumatra, and our foundings 
on the north-fide, at the diftance of about a mile and' 
a half from the ftiore, were fourteen fathom. At half 
^n hour after three we anchored, and fent a boat to 
found for the ftioals which lie to the northward of the 
iflatid called Lafjpara, which bore from us S. E. by S. 
diflant about fix leagues. Little wind, and a flrong 
tide of flood to the northward, prevented our work- 
ing between the (hoals and the coaft of Sumatra^till the 

Wedaef. lo, afternoon of the twentieth : the foundings were very 
regular, being nine or ten fathom as we flood over to 
the ifland, and five or fix when we flood over to Su- 
matra. As this Streight has been often navigated, and 
is well Icnown, ii is not neceflary to infert all the par- 
ticulars of our paflage through it ; I fliall therefore only 
fey, that at fix o'clock in the evening of Tuefday the 

Tocf. zj. 27th, we fleered between the iflands Edam and Horn, 
and entered the road of Batavia. At eight, we an- 
chored without the (hips, Onruft bearing W. N. W. 
fdiflapt five or fix mifo. 


Tranf^^ions at Batavia, and Departure from that 
' Place. 

Wednef.28. nr^HE niextday, whichbyour account was the 28 th, 
X but by the account of the Dutch at this place, 
was the 29th, we having loft a day by having fleered 
weflward a year, we anchored fiearer to the town, and 
faluted the water fort with eleven guns; which were 
returned. We found here above a hundred fail great 
and fmall, and among others, a large Englifli fliip be- 
lorging to Bombay, which faluted us with thirteen 

There is always lying here a Dutch Commodore 
belonging to the Company, who, among hrs country- 
inen, is a perfon of very great confequence. This 
gentleman thought fit to fend hi> boat 00 board of me, 



withonly the cockfwain in her, who was a very dirty »7^5» 
ra^d fellow : as foon as he was brought to me, he *''"^'^* 
alked whence I came, whither I was bound, and m|iny 
other queftions which I thought equally impertinent, 
at the fame time puDing out a book, anid pen and ink, 
that he might fet down the anfwers ; but as I was im- 
patient tofave him this trouble, he was defired imme- 
diately to walk over the (hip's fide, and put off 
his boat, with which he was gracioufly pleafed to 

When we came to this place, we had not one man 
fick in either of the fliips ; but as I knew it to be more 
unhealthy than any other part of the Eaft Indies, as 
the rainy feafon was at hand, and arrack was to be 
procured in great plenty, I determined to make my (lay 
here as fhort as poflible. I went on (hore to wait upon 
the Dutch Governor, but was told that he was at his 
country houfe, about four miles diftant from the town: 
I met however with an officer, called a (hebander, who 
is a kind of mafter of th6 ceremonies, and he acquainted 
me, that if Lchofetogoto the Governor immediately, 
rather than wait for his coming to town, he would at- 
tend me; I accepted his offer, and we fet out together 
in his chariot. The Governor received me with great 
politenefs, and told me, that I might either take a 
houfe in any part of the city that I (hould like, or be 
provided with lodgings at the hotel. This hotel is a 
licenfed lodging houfe, the only one in the place, and 
kept by a Frenchman, an artful fellow, who is put in 
by the Governor himfelf. It has indeed more the ap- 
pearance of a palace than a houfe of entertainment, 
being the moft magnificent building in Batavia ; nor 
would a fmall edifice anfwer the purpofe, for as there 
-is a penalty of five hundred dollars upon any perfon in 
the city who (hall fuffer a firanger to fleep a fingle night 
at his houfe, the ftrangers who make it their refidence 
are never few : all the houfes indeed have a (lately ap» 
pearance on the outi^de, and are elegantly fitted up 
within, and we are told that the Chinefe, of whom 
there are great numbers at this place, were the archi- 
teQs. The city is large, and the (Ireets well laid out, 
but they have greatly the appearance of thofe in the 
cities of Holland, for a canal runs through mod of 



iT^S- them, with a row of trees planted on each fide.: this is 
November. ^QnYenient for the merchants, who have every thing 

brought up to their own doors by water, but it proba^ 
bly contributes to the unheakhinefs of the place ; the 
canal, indeed, as the. dty is built in a fwamp, migiit 
beneceflary as a^drain, but the trees, though they have 
a pleafant appearance, nnuft certainly prevent the noxi- 
ous vapours that are perpetually arifing, from being 
difperfed, by obftruding the circulation of the air. 

The number of people here is incredible, and they 
are of almoA every nation in the \^orld, Dutch, Por- 
tuguefe^ Chinefe, Perfians, Moors, Malays^ Java- 
nefe, and many others : the Chinefe, however, have 
a large town to themfelves, without the walls, and 
carry on a confiderable trade, for they have annually 
ten or twelve large junka frona China ; and to thefe 
the opulence of the Dutch at fiatavia is in a great mea- 
fure owing. The beef- here is bad, and the mutton 
fcarce, but the poultry and fiih are excellent and in 
great plenty. Here are alfo the greateft variety and 
abundance of the fineft fruit in the world, but the muf- 
quitos, centipieds, fcorpions, and other noxious ver- 
min, which are innumerable, prevent all enjoyments, 
and even reft, as well by night as by day. The roads, 
for many miles about the city, are as good as any in 
England : they are very broad, and by the fides of 
them runs a canal, (haded by tall trees, which is na- 
vigable for veffels of a very large (ize : on the other 
fide of the canal are gardens, of a very pleafant appear- 
ance, and country houfei of the citizens, where they 
fpend as much of their time as poflible, the fituation 
being lefs unwholefome than the city : and there are 
fo few of them who do not keep a carriage, that it is 
almoft a difgrace to be feen on foot. 
December. ^^ ^^^^ place I continued from the 28th of Novem- 
Monday 10. ber to the loth of December, when having procured 
what refrefhments I could for my people, and taken on 
board a fufficient quantity of rice and arrack, toferve 
for the reft of the voyage, I weighed anchor and made 
fail. The fort faluted me with eleven guns, and the 
Dutch Commodore with thirteen, which I returned ; 
we were faluted alfo by the Englifti fhip. We worked 
down to Prince's Ifland, in the Streight of Sunda, and 



came to an anchor tbere on the 14th. In this pafTage, 1765. 
the boats came oflF to us from the Java fhore, and fup- ^ f^^' 
plied us with turtle in fuch plenty, that neither of the FridjwTju 
ihips companies eat any thing elfe. We lay at Prince's 
Ifland till the 19th, and during all that time we fub- WedAcC 19. 
iified wholly upon the fame food, which was procured 
from the inhabitants at a very reafonable rate. Having 
now taken on board as much wood and water as we 
could flow, we weighed, and got without Java Head 
before night : but by this time a dangerous putrid 
fever had broke out among us ; three of my peo- 
ple had died, and many others now lay in fo dange- 
rous a condition that there were little hopes of their 
recovery : we did not, however, bury one at Batavia, 
which, notwithftanding our ftay was fo (hort, was 
thought to be a very extraordinary inftance of good 
fortune ; and our (ick gradually recovered after we had 
been a week or two at fea. 


J'he pajfagt fretn Batavia to the Cape of Good Hope^ 
and from thence to England. 

XT TX continued our courfe, without any event 1766. 
V V worthy of notice, except that one of my beft ^«*>"»nr- 
men unhappily fell overboard and was drowned, till 
Monday the loth of February, when at fix o'clock Monday 
in the morning, we faw the coaft of Africa, bearing 
from N. N. W. to N. E. diftant about feven leagues : 
it made in feveral high hills, and white fandy cliffs, 
and its latitude was 340 15' S. longitude.210 45' E. the 
variation here was 220 W. and our depth of water 
fifty-three fathom, with a bottom of coarfe brown 

1 flood in for the land, and when I was within 
about two leagues of it, I faw a great fmoke rifing 
from a fandy beach. I imagined the fmoke to be made 
by the Hottentots ; yet I was 'aftoniflied at their chu- 
fing this part of the coaft for their refidence, for it 
confifted of nothing but fand banks as far as we could 
fee without the leaft buih or fingle blade of verdure, 




>7^* and fo heavy a fea broke upon the coaft^ that it was 
^J^™^' impoflible to catch any filh. 

WniseCis. On Wednefday the I2th, at three o'clock in the afp 
ternooH) we were a-breaft of Cape Laguilas, from 
which the coaft lies W. N. W. to the Cape of Good 
Hope, which is diftant about thirty leagues. The 
Thorf. !}» next day, we pafled between Penguin Ifland and Green 
Point, and worked into Table Bay with our top-faik 
clofe reefed, there being a ftrong gale, with hard fqualls 
at S. S. E. At three o'clock in the afternoon we an- 
chored, and faluted the fort, which was returned. 
The Dutch told me, that none of their ihips could 
have worked in, in fuch a gale of wind, and that we 
feemed to come in fafter than they were generally able 
to do when the wind was fair. 
Yiidiy 14. The next morning, I waited upon the Governor, 
who had fent his coach and fix to the water fide for me. 
He is an old man, but is a favourite with all ranks of 
people : he received me with the greateft politenefs, 
and not only offered me the Company's houfe in the 
garden for my refidence while I fhould continue at the 
Cape, but his coach whenever I (h&uld think fit to 
ufe it. As I was one day at dinner with him, and 
feme other gentlemen, I took occafion to mention 
the fmoke that I had feen upon one of the fandy 
beaches on a defolate part of the coaft, and the fur- 
prife with which it had ftruck me : they then fold me 
that another (hip, fome time before, had fallen in 
with that part of thecoaft, and had feen large fmokes 
as I had done, although the place was uninhabited, 
and fuppofed to be an ifland: to account for the fmokes, 
however, they told me alfo, that two Dutch Eaft- 
Indiamen had, about two years before, failed from Ba- 
taviafor the Cape, and had never afterwards been heard 
of ; and it was fuppofed that one or both of them had 
been fliipwrecked there, and that the fmokes which had 
been feen, were made by fome of the unfortunate crew ; 
they added, that (hey had more than once fent out 
veffels to look for them, but that there broke fo dread- 
ful a fea upon the coaft, that they were obliged to return 
without attempting togoonfliore. When I heard this 
melancholy account, I could only regret that I had 
not known it before, for I would then certainly 



have made every effort in my power to have found «7^*- 
thefe unhappy wretches, and taken them from a place ^^^^^II^ 
where now, in all probability, they muft miferably 

The Cape IS certainly a mod excellent place forihips 
to touch at ; it is a healthy climate, a fine country, 
and abounds with refirefhments of every kind. The 
Company's garden, is a delightful fpot, and at theend 
of it there is a paddock belonging to the Governor, in 
which are kept a great number of rare and curiout 
animals, and among others, when I was there, were 
three fine oftriches, and four zebras pf an uncommoa 
fize. I gave all the people leave to go on fiiore by 
turns, and they always contrived to get very drunk 
with Cape wine before they came back. Many (hips 
came in while we lay here ; fome were Dutch, 
fome French, fome Danes, but all were outward 

Having continued here three weeks, and during that 
time refreihed our men, and Completed our water, I 
took leave of the good old Governor, on the 6th of tjJJJ?^ 
March, and on. the ytb, failed out of the bay with apriiiayy. 
fine breeze at S. E. 

On Sunday the 1 6th, at fix in the morning we faw Sand. i$, 
the ifland of Saint Helena, bearing W. by N. at the 
diftance of about fixteen leagues, and about noon, » 
large ftiip which (hewed French colours. We purfued 
our courfe, and a few days afterwards, as we were fail- 
ing with a fine gale, and at a great diftance from land, 
the fhip fuddenly received a rude (hock, as if (he had 
firuck the ground : this inftantly brought all who were 
below upon the deck in great confternation, and upon 
looking out we faw the water, to a very large extent^ 
tinged with blood ; this put an end to our fears, and 
we concluded that we muft have ftruck either a whale 
or a grampus from which the (hip was not likely to 
receive much damage, nor in fa6: did (he receive any. 
About this time alio we had the misfortune tp bury our 
carpenter's mate, a very ingenious and diligent young 
man, who had never been well after our leaving Batavia. 

On the 25th, we crofTed the equator, in longitude Yucfjay 2^ 
17® 10' W. and the next morning, Captain Gumming 
QfOiiQ On board, and informed me that the Tamar's 




Tuefd.' t. 

Thurf. 7. 

Satur. 9. 

three lower rudder braces on the ftem were broken 
off, which rendered the rudder unferviceable. I imme- 
diately fent the carpenter on board, who found the 
condition of the braces even worfe than had been re- 
ported, fo that the rudder could not poffibly be new 
hung ; he therefore went to work upon a machine 
like that which had been fixed to the Ipfwich, and by 
which ihe was fleered home : thib machine in about 
five days he completed, and with fome little alterations 
of his own, it was an excellent piece of woric. The 
Tamar fleered very well with it, but thinking that it 
might not be fulEcient to fecure her in bad weather, 
or upon a lee fhore, I ordered Captain Gumming to 
run down to Antigua, that he might there heave the 
(hip down, and get the rudder new hung, with afrefh 
fet of braces which he had with him for that purpofe ; 
for the braces with which the fhip went out, being of 
iron, were not expeded to lafl as long as ours, the 
lower ones, with the fheathing, being of coppen 

Purfuant to theie orders, the Tamar parted com- 
pany with us on the ift of April, and fleered for the 
Caribbee Iflands. When we came into latitude 34© 
N. longitude 350 W. we had flrong gales from W. 
S. W. to W. N. W. with a great fea, which broke 
over us continually for fix days fucceflively, and run 
us into latitude 48® N. longitude 140 W. On the 7th 
of May, at feven o'clock in the morning, we made 
the Iflands of Scilly, having been juft nine weeks com- 
ing from the Cape of Good Hope, and fomewhat 
more than two and twenty months upon the voyage ; 
the 9th, the (hip came to an anchor in the Downs, 
and on the fame day I landed at Deal, and fet out 
for London. 

A N 

A N 


O F A 

VOYAGE round the WORLD, . 

In the Years 1766, 1767, and 1769, 


Commander of his Majestt's Ship the Dolphin- 

A N 


O F A 

VOYAGE round the WORLD. 


The Pajfage to the Coaft of Patagonia ^ with fo me Account 

of the Natives. 

[The longitude in this voyage is reckoned from the meri- 
dian of London.] ' 

HAVING received my commifllon, which was ,^55 
dated the 19th of June 1 766, 1 went on board June 19. 
the fame day^ hoifted the pendant, and began '-'v**' 
to enter feamen, but, according to my orders, took no 
boys either for myfelf or any of the officers. 

The ihip was fitted for the fea with all poflible expe- 
dition, during which the articles of war, and the a6t 
of parliament were read to the Ihip's company : on the Saturday 
26th of July we failed down the river, and on the 1 6th J«ly a^- 
of Auguft, at eight o'clock in the morning, anchored a^u^ ^g. 
in Plymouth Sound. 

On the 19th I received my failing orders, with di- Tuefday 19. 
reSions to take the Swallow floop, and the Prince 
Frederick ftore-(hip under my command : and this day 
I took on board, among odier things, three thoufand 
weight of portable foup, and a bale of cork jackets. 
Every part of the (hip was filled with (lores and necef- 
faries of various kinds, even to the fteerage and ftate- 
room, which were allotted to the flops and portable 
foup. The furgeon offered to purchafe an extraordi- 
nary quantity of medicines, and medical neceflfaries. 

Vol. I. I which^ 


1766. which, as the fliip*s company might become fickly, 
^^^^^\ fie faid would in that cafe be of great fervice, if room 
- could be found to flow them in ; I therefore gave him 
le^ive to put them into my cabin, the only place in the 
(hip where they could be received, as they confifted of 
three large boxes. 
Friday 22. On the 2 2d, at four o^'clock in the morning, I 
weighed and made fail in company with the 
Swallow and Prince Frederic, and had foon the 
mortification to find that the Swallow was a very 
bad failer. 
Stptembtr. We proceeded in our voyage without any re- 
Sunday^, rnarkable incident, till Sunday the feventh of Sep- 
tember, when, about eight o*clock in the morn- 
ing, we f4w the ifland of Porto Santo bearing weft ; 
and about noon faw the eaft end of the ifland of 

About five o'clock we ran between this end of the 
ifland and the Deferters. On the fide next the Defer- 
ters is a low flat ifland, and near it a needle rock ; the 
fide next to Madeira is full of broken rocks, and for 
that reafon it is not fafe to come within lefs than two 
miles of it. 

At fix in the evening we anchored in Madeira Road, 
about two-thirds of a mile from the fhore, in 24 fa- 
thom with a muddy bottom : about eight the Swallow 
and Prince Frederick alfo came to an anchor ; and I 
fent an oflScer on fhore to the governor, to let him know 
that I would falule him, if he would return an equal 
number of guns, which he promifed to do ; the next 
Mond. 8. morning therefore, at fix o'clock, I faluted him with 
thirteen guns, and he returned thirteen as he had 

Having taking in a proper quantity of water at this 

place, with four pipes and ten puncheons of wine, 

fome frefh beef, and a large quantity of onions, we 

Friday 12. weighed anchor on the 12th, and continued our 

Tacfdayi6. At fix" o'clock in the morning, of Tuefday the 
i6ih, we faw the ifland of Palma, and found the 
fhip 1 5 miles to the fouthward of her reckoning. As 
we were failing along this ifland, at the rate of no lefs 
than eight miles an hour, with the wind at eaft, it died 



away at once ; fo that within lefs than two minutes 17^^- 
the (hip had no motion, though we were at leaft four^^^*"**'* 
leagues diftant from the (hore. Palma lies in lat. 28® ^'^'^^^^^ 
40' N, longitude 1 70 48' W. 

On- the 20th we tried the current, and found it fetSatur. 10. 
S. W. by W. one mile an hour : this day we faw two 
herons flying to the eaftward, and a great number of 
bonettas about the fliip, of which we caught eight. 

In the night between the 21 and 2 2d we lod our Sunday 21. 
companion the Swallow, and about eight in the mom- **°"**- *»• 
ing we faw the ifland of Sal, bearing S. f W. at noon it 
bore S. | W. didant 8 leagues ; and at noen on the 
23d, the neareft land of the ifland of Bonavifta bore Tuefday 23. 
from S. to W. S. W. diftant feven or eight miles, 
the eaft end, at the fame time, bearing W. diftant two 
leagues. In this fituation we founded, and had only 
1 5 fathom, with rocky ground ; at the fame time we 
faw a very great rippling, which we fuppofed to be 
caufed by a reef, ftretching oflF the point about E. S. E. 
three miles, and breakers without us, diftant alfo about 
three miles in the direftion of S. E. We fleered be- 
tween the rippjing and the breakers, but after hauling 
the fliip off^ about half a mile, we had no foundings. 
The Prince Frederick paffed very near the breakers, 
in the S. E. but had no foundings ; yet thefe breakers 
are fuppofed to be dangerous; The middle of the ifle 
of Sal is in latitude 16® 55' N. longitude 21** 59' W. 
the middle of Bonavifta is in latitude 16° 10' longitude 
23. W. 

On the next day, at fix in the morning, the ifle ofWcdn. 24. 
May bore from W. to S. W. fix leagues ; and foon 
after the Swallow again joined company. At half an 
hour after 10 the weft end of the ifle of May bore 
north at the diftance of five miles, and we found 
a current here, fetting to the fouthward at the rate 
of twenty miles in four and twenty hours. The 
latitude of this ifland is 150 10' N. longitude 220 
25' W. 

At noon tjje fouth end of the ifle St. Jago bore S. 
W. by W. diftant four leagues, and the north end N. 
W, diftant five leagues. At half an hour after three 
we anchored in Port Praya, in that ifland, in company 
with the Swallow and Prince Frederick, in eight 

I 2 fathom 


1 765. fathom water, upon fandy ground. We had much rain 

Stptember. ^^^ lightning in the night, and early in the morning 

ThurTas. ^ ^^^^ ^^ ^^^ Commanding officer at the fort, for leave 

to get off fome water, and other refreftiments, which 

he granted. 

We foon learnt that this was the fickly feafon, and 
that the rains were fo great as to render it- extremely 
difficult to get any thing down from the country to the 
Ihips J it happened alfo, unfortunately, that the fm all- 
pox, which is extremely fatal here, was at this time 
epidemic ; fo that I permitted no man to go a-fhore 
who had not had that diftemper, and I would not 
fufFer even thofe that had to go into any houfe. 

We procured, however, a fupply of water and fome 
cattle from the fhore, and caught abundance of fi(h 
with the feine, which ^as hauled twice every day : 
we found alfo in the valley where we got our water, 
a kind of large purflain, growing wild in amazing 
quantities : this was a mod welcome refrefhment both 
raw as a fallad, and boiled with broth and peafe ; 
and when we left the place we carried away enough erf 
it toferve us a week. 
Sunday 28. On the 28 th, at half an hour after twelve we weigh- 
ed and put to fea ; at half an hour after fix in the 
evening the peak of Fuego bore W. N. W. diftant 12 
leagues, and in the night the burning mountain was 
very vifible. 

This day I ordered hooks and lines to be ferved to 
all the fbip's company, that they might catch fifti for 
themfelves ; but at the fame time I alfo ordered that no 
man fhould keep his fifli more than four and twenty 
hours before it was eaten, for I had obferved that ftale, 
and even dried fi(h, had made the people fickly, and 
tainted the air in the fhip. 
oaober. On thefirft of OQober, in lat. lo® 37' N. we loft 
Wedn. I. ^i^g ^j.^^g trade-wind, and had only light and variable 
gales ; and this day we found that the fhip was fet 
twelve miles to the northward by a current ; on the 
Friday 3. third we found a current run S. by E. at the rate of 
fix fathom an hour, or about twenty miles and a half 
Tucfdayy. a day : on the feventh we found the (hip 19 miles to 
the fouthward of her reckoning. 


On the 20th, our butter and cheefe being all expend- '766. 
cd we began to ferve the (hip's company with oil ; ^^J/^* 
and I gave orders that they fliould alfo be fervcd with Monday ao. 
iTJuftard and vinegar once a fortnight during the reft 
of the voyage. 

On the 2 2d we faw an incredible number of birds, Wcdncf 12. 
and among the reft a man of war bird, which inclined 
us to think that fome land was not more than 60 leagues 
diftant : this day we croffed the equator in longitude 
230 40' W. 

On the 24th, I ordered the (hip's company to be Friday 24. 
ferved with brandy, and referved the wine for the fick 
and convalefcent. On the 26th the Prince Frederick Sunday 26. 
made fignals of diftrefs, upon which we bore down to 
her, and found that (he had carried away her forc-top- 
fail-yard. To fupply this lofs we gave her our fprit- fail- 
top-fail-yard, which we could fpare, and (he hoifted 
it immediately. 

On the 27th (he again made fignals of diftrefs, upon Monday 27. 
which I brought to, and fent the carpenter on board 
her, who returned with an account that flie had fprung 
a leak under the larboard cheek forward, and that it 
was impoflible to do any thing to it till we hadbeiter 
weather. Upon fpeaking with Lieutenant Brine, who 
commanded her, he informed me that his crew were 
fickly ; that the fatigue of working the pumps, and 
conftantly ftanding by the fails, had worn them down ; 
that their provifions were not go6d, that they had no- 
thing to drink but water, and that he feared it wou|d 
be impoflible for him to keep company with me except 
I could fpare him fome afliftance. For the badnefs of 
iheir provifion I had no remedy, but I fent on board a 
carpenter and fix feamen to aflift in pumping and work- 
ing the (hip. 

On the eight of November, being in latitude 250 jj^y^jj^^^j.^ 
52' S. longitude ^g^ 38' we founded with 160 fathom Saturday 8. 
but had no ground : on the ninth, having feen a great 
number of birds, called albatroffes, we iounded again 
with 180 fathom, but had no ground. 

On the nth, having by fignal brought the ftore-Tuefd. u. 
fhip under our ftern, I fent the carpenter, with proper 
aflTiftants, on board to flop the leak ; but they found 
that very little could be done : wc then compleated our 

1 3 provifiows^ 


1766. provifions, and thofe of the Swallow, from herftores, 

November. ^^^ ^^^ ^^ board her all our ftaves, iron hoops, and 
empty oil jars. The next day I fent a carpenter and 
fix feamen to relieve the men that had been fent to 
affift heron the27ih of Oftober, who, by this time, 
began tofufFer much by their fatigue. Several of her, 
crew having the appearance of the fcurvy, I fent the 
furgeon on board her with fome medicines for the fick. 
This day, having feen fome albatrofles, turtles, and 
weeds, we founded, but had no ground with 1 80 fa- 

Wcdncf. iz. On the 1 2th, being now in latitude 30 fouth, we 
began to find it very cold ; we therefore got up our 
quarter cloths, and fitted them to their proper places, 
and the feamen put on their thick jackets. .This day 
we fg^w a turtle, and feveral albatrofles, but ftill had no 
ground with 18 J fathom. 

We continued to fee weeds and birds on board the 

Thurfd. 18. (hip, but had no ground till the i8th, when we found 
a foft muddy bottom at the depth of 54 fathom. We 
were now in lat. 35® 40' S. longitude 490 54' W. and 
this was the firfl: founding we had after our coming 
upon the coafl of Brazil. 

^edncf. 19. On the 19th, about eight o'clock in the evening, 
we faw a meteor of a very extraordinary appearance in 
the north- eaft, which, foon after we had obferved it, 
flew off in a horizontal line to the fouth-weft, with 
amazing rapidity : it was near a minute in its progrefs, 
and it Itft a train of light behind it fo ftrong, that the 
deck was not lefs illuminated than at noon-day. This 
day we faw a great number of feals about the fhip, and 
had foundings at 55 fathom, with a muddy bdttom. 

Thurfd. 20. 'i'j,g ^^g^t day the feals continued, and we had found- 
ings at 53 fathom, with a dark coloured fand, upon 
which we bent our cables. 

Friday 21. Qn the 2 1 ft we had no ground with 150 fathom. 
Our latitude at noon was 37^40' S. longitude 51^ 

24 w. 

Saturday22. Qp ^hc 2 2d wc had foundings again at 70 fathom, 
with a dark brown fand, "and faw many whales and 
feals about the fhip, with a great number of butterflies 
and birds, amon which were fnipcs and plover. 



Our latitude at noon was 38® 55' longitude 560 1766. 

47' W. Decimber. 

Our foundings continued from 00 to 40 fathom, M^JJa^. 
till the eighth of December, when, about fix o'clock 
in the morning, we faw land bearing from S. W. to * 
W. by S. and appearing like many fmall iflands. At 
noon it ^bore from W. by S. to S. S. W. diftant 8 
leagues ; our latitude then bearing 47° 1 6' S. longitude 
64° 58' W. About three o'clock C^pe Blanco bore 
W. N. W. diftant fix leagues, and a remarkable 
double faddle W. S, W. diflant about three leagues. 
We had now foundings from 20 to 16 fathom, fome- . 
times with coarfe fand and gravel, fometixnes with fmall 
black ftones and fhells. At eight in the evening the 
Tower rock at Port Defire bore S, W. by W. diflant 
about three leagues ; and the extreams of the Und 
from S. by E. to N. W. by N. At nine ip.enguin 
Ifland bore S. W. by W, f W. diftant two leagues ; 
and at four o'clock in the morning of the ninth, the Tueftay 9. 
land feen from the maft-head bore from S. W^to W. 
by N. 

At noon Penguin Ifland bore S. by E. diftant 57 
miles ; our latitude being 48° 56' 5. longitude 65*^ 6 
W. This day we faw fuch a quantity of red flirimps 
about the ftiip,.that the fea was coloured with them. 

At noon the next day, Wednefday the loth, thewcdn. 10. 
extreams of the land bore from S. W. to N. W. and 
Wood's Mount, near the entrance of Saint Julian's, 
bore S. W. by W. diftant three or four leagues. Our 
latitude was 49^ 16' our longitude 66° 48' W. and 
our foundings were from 40 to 45 fathom, .fometimes 
fine fand, fometimes foft mud. 

At noon, on Thurfday the nth. Penguin Ifland Thurf. n. 
bore N. N. E. diftant 58 leagues. Our latitude was 
500 48' S. our longitude 670 10' W. 

We continued our courfe till Saturday the 15th, Saturday 13. 
when our latitude being 50** 34' S. and our longitude 
680 1 5' W. the extreams of the land bore f om N. | 
E. to S. S. W. i W. and the fliip was about five or fix 
miles diftant from the fliore. Cape Beachy- head, the 
northermoft cape, was found to lie in latirude 500 16 
8. and Cape Fair-weather, the fouiherinoft cape, in 
latitude 500 50' S. 



1766. On Sunday the 1 4th, at four in the morning, Cape 

December. Beachy-head bore N. W. | N. diftant about eight 
Sund. 14. leagues ; and at noon, our latitude being 50® 52' S. 
and longitude 68** 10' W. Penguin Ifland bore N. 3500 
E. diftant 68 leagues. We were fix leagues from the 
fhore, and the ext reams of the land were from N. W. 
to W. S. W. 
Monday 15. ^^ ^\^^^ o'clock in thc morning, of Monday the 
1 5th, being about fix miles from the fhore, the ex- 
treams of the land bore from S. by E. to N. by E. and 
the entrance of the river Saint Croix S. W. f W. 
We had 20 fathom quite crofs the opening, the dif- 
tance from point to point being about (even miles, and 
afterwards keeping at the diftance of about four miles 
from each cape, we had from 22 to 24 fathom. The 
land on the north fhofe is high, and appears in three 
capes ; that on the fouth fliore is low and flat. At fe- 
vtn in th6 evening. Cape Fairweather bore S. W. 
I S. diftaiit about four leagues, a low point running 
. out from it S. 8. W. | W, We flood off and on 
all night, and had from 30 to 22 fathom water, 
with a bottom of fand and mud. At feven the next 
Tueiday 16. morning, Tuefday the i6th, we (hoaled gradually into 
1 2 fathom, with a boitonfi of fire fand, and foon after 
into fix : we then hauled off S. E- by S. fomewhat more 
than a mile ; then fleered eaft five miles, then E. by 
N. and deepened into 1 2 fathom. Cape Fairweather 
at this time bore W. i S. diftant four leagues, and the 
northermoft extremity of the land W. N. W. When 
we firft came into fhoal water. Cape Fairweather bore 
W. f N. and a low point without it W. S. W. diftant 
about four miles. At noon Cape Fairweather bore 
W. N. W. 4 W. diftant fix leagues, and a large hum- 
mock S. W. i W. diftant feven leagues. At this time 
our latitude was 51° 52' S. longitude 68® W. 

At one o'clock, being about two leagues diftant 
from the fhore, the extreams of three remarkable round 
hills bore from S. W. by W. to W. S. W. At four. 
Cape Virccin Mary bore S. E. by S. diftant about four 
leagues. At eight, \vc were very near the Cape, and 
upon tlie point of it fav/ feveral men riding, who made 
figns for us to come on fljore^ In about half an hour 
we anchored in a bay, c'.ofe under thc fourh fide of 



the Cape, in ten fathom water, with a.gravelly bottom. qTJ^v 
The Swallow and ftore-fliip anchored foon after be- 
tween us and the Cape, which then bore N. by W. 
I W. and a low fandy point like Dungenefs S. by W. 
From the Cape there runs a (hoal, to the diftance of 
about half a league, which may be eafily known by 
the weeds that are upon it. We found it high water 
at half an hour after eleven, and the tide rofe twenty 

The natives continued a-breaft of the (hip ail night, 
making feveral great fires, and frequently (houting very 
loud. As foon as it was light, on Wednefday morn - 
ii^ the 17 th, we faw great numbers of them in mo- Wednef. 17. 
tion, who made iigns for us to land. About five o'clock 
I made the fignal for the boats belonging to the Swal- 
low and the Prince Frederick to come on board, and 
in the mean time hoifted oiit our own. Thefe boats 
being all manned and armed, I todc a party of ma- 
rines, and rowed towards the fhore, having left orders 
with the mafter to bring the fhip's broad-fide to bear 
upon the landing place, and to keep the guns loaded 
with round (hot. We reached the beach about fix 
o'clock, and before we went from the boat, I made 
figns to the natives to retire to fome diftance : they 
immediately complied, and I then landed with the cap- 
tain of the Swallow, and feveral of the officers : the 
marines were drawn up, and the boats were brought 
to a grappling near the fhore. 1 then made figns to the 
natives to come near, and direSed them to fit down 
in a femiqircle, which they did with great order 
and chearfulnefs. When this was done, I diftributed 
among them feveral knives, fciffars, buttons, beads, 
combs, and other toys, particularly fome ribbands to 
the women, which they received with a very becom- 
ing mixture of pleafure and refpe6t. Having diftributed 
my prefents, I endeavoured to make them underftand 
that I had other things which 1 would part with, but 
for which I expefted fome what in return. I fliewed 
them fome hatchets and bill-hooks, and pointed to 
fome guanicoes, which happened to be near, and fome 
oftrichcs which I faw dead among them ; making 
figns at t^c fame time that I wanted to eat ; but they 
cither could not, or would not underftand me : for 



1766. though they feemed very defirous of the hatchets and 
» "°L \ ^^c bill-hooks, they did not give the leaft intimation 
^hatthey would part with any provifions; no trafGck 
therefore was carried on between us. 

Each of thefe people, both men and women^ had 
a horfe, with a decent faddle, ftirrups, and bridle. The 
men had wooden fpurs, except one, who had a large 
pair of fuch as are worn in Spain, brafs Airrups, and 
a Spaniih cymeter, without a fcabbard ; but notwith- 
ftanding thefe diftinSions, he did not appear to have 
any authority over the reft : the women had no fpurs. 
The horfes appeared to be well made, and nimble^ 
and were about 1 4 hands high. The people had alfo 
many dogs with them, which, as well as the horfes, 
appeared to be of a Spanifh breed. 

As I had two meafuring rods with me, we went 
round and meafured thofe that appeared to be talleft 
amongft them. One of thefe was fix feet feven inches 
high, feveral more were fix feet five, and fix feet fix 
inches ; but the ftature of the greater part of them was 
from five feet ten to fix feet. Their complexion is a 
dark copper colour, like that of the Indians in North 
America ; their hair is ftrait, and nearly as harfh as 
hc^'s briftles : it is tied back with a cotton firing, but 
neither fex wears any head-drefs. They are well made, 
robnft, and boney ; but their hands and feet are re- 
markably fmall. They are cloathed with the fkins of 
the guanico, fewed together into pieces about fix feet 
lone, and five wide : thefe are wrapped round the 
body, and fattened with a girdle, with the hairy fide 
inwards ; fome of them had alfo what the Spaniards 
have called a puncho, a fquare piece of cloth made of 
the downy hair of the guanico, through which a hole 
being cnt for the -head, the reft hangs round them 
about as low as the knee. The guanico is an animal 
that in fize, make, and colour, refembles a deer, but 
it has a hump on its back, and no horns. Thefe peo- 
ple wear alfo a kind of drawers, which they pull up 
very tight, and buflcins, which reach from the mid- 
leg to the inflep before, and behind are brought under 
tlie heel ; the reft of the foot is without any covering. 
We obferved that feveral of the men had a fed circle 
painted round the left eye, and that others were painted 



on their arms, and on difiFerent parts of the face ; the j^"^^^ 
eye-lids of all the young women were painted black. 1 
They talked much, and fome of them called out 
Ca- pi-ta-ne ; but when they were fpoken to in Span-^ 
ifli, Portuguefe, French, and Dutch, they made no 
reply. Of their own language we could diftinguifli 
only one word, which was chtvow : we fuppofed it to 
be a falutation, as they always pronounced it when 
they (hook hands with us, and when, by (igns, they 
aiked us to give them any thing. When they were 
fpoken to in £ngli(h, they repeated the words after us 
as plainly as we could do ; and they foon got by heart 
the words " ElngUibmen come on fliore." Everyone 
had a miilile weapon of a Angular kind, tucked into 
the 'girdle. It confided of two round (lones, covered 
with leather, each weighing about a pound, which 
were faftened to the two ends of a firing about eight 
feet long. This is ufe'd as a fling, one ftone being 
kept in the hand, and the other whirled round the 
head till it is fuppofed to have acquired fuflicient force, 
and then difcharged at the pbjeS. They are fo ex- 
pert in the management of this double-headed (hot, 
that they will hit a mark, not bigger than a (hilling, 
with both the ft ones, at the diftance of fifteen yards ; 
it is not their cuftom, however, to ftrike cither the 
guanico or the oflrich with them in the chace, but 
they difcharge them fo that the cord comes againft the 
legs of the oftrich, or two of the legs of the guanico, 
and is twifted round them by the force and fwing of 
the balls, fo that the animal being unable to run, be- 
comes an eafy prey to the hunter. 

While we flayed on fhore, we faw them eat fome 
of their fle(h meat raw, particularly the paunch of an 
oftrich, without any other preparation or cleaning than 
juft turning itinfideout and (baking it. We obferved 
among them feveral beads, fuch as I gave them, and 
two pieces of red baize, which we fuppofed had been 
left there, or in the neighbouring country, by Commo- 
dore Byron. 

After I had fpent about four hours with ihefe people, 
I made figns to them that I was going on board, and 
^hat I would take fome of them witli me if they were 
^efirous to go. As foon as I had made myself under- 




ftoody above an hundred eagerly offered to vifit the 
fliip ; b^ I did not chufe to indulge more than eight 
of the nnmber. They jumped into the boats with the 
joy an^ alacrity of children going to a fair, and having 
no intention of mifchief againft us, had not the leaft 
fti|fptcion that we intended any mifchief againft them. 
They fung feveral of their country fongs while they 
-were in the boat^ and when they came on board did 
not exprefs either the' curiofity or wonder which the 
mnhipifctty of objcfts to them equally ftrange and 
ftupendonsy that at once prefented themfelves, might 
be fappofcd to excite. I took them down into the cabin 9 
where they looked about them with an* unaccountable 
indifference, till one of them happened to caft his eyes 
wpon a looking-glafs : this however excited no more 
aftoniihment than kht prodigies which offer themfelves 
to our imagination in a dream, when we converfe 
with the dead} fly in the air, and walk upon the fea, 
withoat reflcQing that the laws of nafnrc are violated ; 
but it afforded them infinite diverfioH : they advanced, 
retreated, and played a thoufand tricks before it, laugh- 
ing violently^ and talking with great emphafis to each 
other. I gave them fome beef, pork, bifcuit, and 
other articles of the ihip*s provifions : they eat, indif- 
criminately, whatever was offered to them, but they 
would drink nothir^ but water. From the cabin I 
carried them all over the ihip, but they looked at no- 
thing with much attention, except the animals which 
we had on board as live ftock : they examined the hc^s 
and fheep with fome curiofity, and were exceedingly 
delighted with the Guinea hens and turkies ; they did 
not feem to defire any thing that they faw except our 
apparel, and only one of them, an old man, afked for 
that : we gratified him with a pair of (hoes and buckles, 
and to each of the others I gave a canvas-bag, in 
which 1 put fome needles ready threaded, a few flips 
of cloth, a knife, a pair of fciftars, fome twine, a few 
bead<!, a comb, and a looking-glafs, with fome new 
f:x-pences and halFpence, through which a hole had 
been drilled, that was fitted with a ribband to hang 
lound the neck. We offered them fome leaves of to- 
bacco, rolltd up into what are called fegars, and they 
fiViOakcd a little, but did not feem fond of it. I ihewed 

I hem 


them the great guns, but they did not appear to have 
any notion of their ufe. After I had carried them 
through the fhip, I order^ the marines to be drawn 
up, and go through part of their exercife. When the 
firft volley was fired, they wereilruck with aftonilh- 
ment and terror ; the old man, in particular, threw 
himfelf down upon the deck, pointed to the mu&ets, 
and then flriking his bread with his hand, lay fome 
time motionlefs, with his eyes ftiut : by this we fuppo- 
fed he intended to (hew us that he was not unacquaint- 
ed with fire-arms, and their fatal effeS, The reft 
feeing our people merry, and finding themfelvcs un- 
hurt, foon refumed their chearfulnefe and good hu- 
mour, and heard the fecond and third volley fired 
without much emotion ; but the old man continued 
proftrate upon the deck fome lime, and never recover- 
ed his fpirits till the firing was over- About noon, 
the tide being out, I acquainted them by figns that the 
fhip was proceeding farther, and that they muft go on 
fhore: this I foon perceived they were very unwilling 
to do ; all however, except the old nun and one more, 
were got into the boat without much difficulty ; but 
thefe (topped at the gangway, where the old man turn- 
ed about, and went . aft to the companion ladder, 
where he flood fome >time without fpeaking a word ; 
he then uttered what we fuppofed to be a prayer ; for 
he many times lifted up his hands and his eyes to the 
heavens, and fpoke in a manner and tone very different 
from what we had obferved in their converfation : his 
oraifon feemed to be rather fung than faid, fo that we 
found it impoflible to diftinguifti one word from ano- 
ther. When I again intimated that it was proper for 
him to go into the boat, he pointed to the fun, and 
then moving his hand round to the weft, he paufed, 
looked in my face, laughed, and pointed to the (bore : 
by this it was eafy to underftand that he wifhed to ftay 
on board till fun-fet, and I took no little pains to con- 
vince him that we could not ftay fo long upon that part 
of the coaft, before he could be prevailed upon to go 
into the boat ; at length however he went over the 
(hip's fide with his companion, and when the boat put 
off they all began to fing, and continued their merri- 
ment till they got on (hore. When they landed, great 



numbers of thofe on (hore prefled eagerly to get into 
the boat ; but the officer on boards having pofitive 
orders to bring none of them off, prevented them, 
though not without great difficulty^ and apparently to 
their extreme mortincation and difappointment. 

When the boat returned on board, I fent her off 
again ^ith the MaAer, to found the flioal that runs off 
from the point : he found it about three miles broad 
from north to fouth, and that to avoid it, it was ne- 
ceffary to keep four miles off the Cape, in twelve or 
thirteen fathom water. 

CHAP. 11. 

^^ P^Jpfg^ through the S freight of Magellan, with fome 
farther Account of the Patagonians, and a Defcrtption 
of the Coqft on each fide, and its Inhabitants. 

WediieCij. A BOUT one o'clock, on Wednefday the 17th 
Jl^ of December, I made the fignal and weighed; 
ordering the Swallow to go a-headj and the (lore-fhip 
to bring up the rear. The wind was right againft us, 
and blew frefli, fo that we were obliged to turn into 
the Streight of Magellan with the flood-tide, between 
Cape Virgin Mary and the Sandy Point that refembles 
Dungenels. When we got a-brea(l of this point, we 
flood clofe into the (hore, where we faw two guani- 
coes, and many of the natives on horfeback, who 
feemed to be in purfuit of them : when the horfemen 
came near, they ran up the country at a great rate, 
and were purfued by the hunters, with their flnigs in 
their hands ready for the caft ; but neither of them 
was taken while they were within the reach of our 

When we got about two leagues to the weft of 
Dungenefs, and were (landing off ihore, we fell in 
with a (hoal upon which we had but feven fathom 
water at half flood : this obliged us to make (hort 
tacks, and keep continually heaving the lead. At half 
an hour after eight in the evening, we anchored about 
three miles from the (hore, in 20 fathom, with a 
muddy bottom : Cape Virgin Mary then bearing 

N. E. 


N. E. by i E. Point Poflfcffion W. i S. at the dillar-cc ^j;^ 
of about five leagues. 

About half an hour after we had caft anchor, the 
natives made feveral large fires a>brea{l of the ihip, 
and at break of day we faw about four hundred of them 
encamped in a fine greoi valley, between two hills, 
with their horfes feeding befide them. About fix 
o'clock in the morning, the tide be'uig done, we gotTkwtt. >|. 
again under fail : its courfe here is firom eail lO weft : 
it rifes and falls thirty feet, and its flrength is equal to 
about three knots an hour. About noon there being 
little wind, and the ebb running with great force, the 
Swallow, who was a-head,ymade the fignal and came 
to an anchor ; upon which I did the fame, and fodid 
the ftore-ftiip, that was a-fiem. 

As we faw great numbers of the natives on horfe- 
back a-breaft of the (hip, and as Captain Carteret in- 
formed me that this was the place where Conunodore 
Byron bad the conference with the tall men, I fent the 
Lieutenants of the Swallow and the ftore-fhip to the 
fhore, but with orders not to land, as the (hips were 
at too great a diftance to proteft them. When thefe 
gentlemen returned, they told me that the boat having 
lain upon Iier oars very near the beach, the natives 
came down in great numbers, whom they knew to be 
the fame perfons they had feen the day before, with 
many others, particularly women and children; that 
when they perceived our people had no defign to land, 
they feemed to be greatly difappointed, and thofe who 
had been on board the (hip waded off to the boat, 
making figns for it to advance, and pronouncing the 
words they had been taught, ** Englilhmen, come on 
fhore," very loud, many times ; that when they found 
they could not get the people to land, they would fain 
have got into the boat, and that it was with great 
difficulty they were prevented. That they prefented 
them with.fome bread, tobacco, and a few toys, point- 
ing at the fame time to fome guanicoes and oft riches, 
and making figns that they wanted them as provifions, 
but that they could not make themfelves underftood ; 
that finding they could obtain no refrefhment, they 
rowed along the fhore in fearch of frefti water; but that 
feeingnoappearanceofarivulet,they returned on board. 



1766. At fix o'clock the next morning we weighed, the 

Swallow being flill a- head, and at noon we anchored 

Friday 19. in Poffeflion bay, having twelve fathom with a clean 
fandy bottom. Point Pofleffion at this time bore Eaft, 
diftant three leagues ; the Afles Ears weft, and the 
entrance of the Narrows S. W. i W. the bottom of 
the bay, which was the ncareft land to the fhip, was 
diftant about three miles. We faw a great number of 
Indians upon the Poinf, and at night large fires on the 
Terra del Puego fhore. 

Monday %i. From this time, to the 2 ad, we had ftrong gales 
and heavy feas, fo that we got on but flowly; and we 
now anchored in 18 fathom, with a muddy bottom. 
The AfTes Ears bore N. W. by W. f W. Point Pof- 
feflion N. E. by E. one the point of the Narrows, on 
the fouth fide, S. S. W. diftant between three and 
four leagues. In this fit nation, our longitude, by ob- 
fervation, was 70® 20' W. latitude 52^ 30' S: The 
tide here fets S. E. by S. and N. E. by N. at the rate 
of about three knots an hour ; the water rifes four and 
twenty feet, and at this time it was high water at four 
in the morning. 

Tuefd. 23. In the morning of the 23d, we. made fail, turning to 
windward, but the tide was fo ftrong, that the Swallow 
was fet one w^y, the Dolphin another, and the ftore- 
fliip a third : there was a frefli breeze, but not one of 
the vefleh would anfwer her helm. We had various 
foundings, arid faw the rippling in the middle ground : 
in thefe circumftances, fometimes backing, fometimes 
filling, we entered the firft Narrows. About fix o'clock 
in the evening, the tide being done, we anchored on 
the foutli'fhore, in 40 fathom, with a fandy bottom ; 
the Swallow anchored on the north-lhore, and the 
ftore-fhip not a cable's length from a fand bank, about 
two miles to the eaftward. T.he ftreight here is only 
three miles wide, and at midnight, the tide being 
flack, we weighed and towed the ftiip through. A 
breeze fprung up foon afterwatds, which continued till 

Wcdii. 24. feven in the morning, and then died away. We fleered 
from the firfl Narrows to the fecond S. W. and had 
19 fathom, with a muddy bottom. At eight we an- 
chored two leagues from the fhore, in 24 fathom. Cape 
Gregory bearing W. f N. and Sweepflakes Foreland 

S. W. 

ROU>JD TH'6 world. I3f 

S. W. f W. The tide here ran fevcn knots an hour, p^^J^^ 
and fuch^^r/x fometimes came down, with immenfe, 
quantities of weeds, that we expeSed every moment 
to be adrift. 

The next day, being Chriftmas day, we failed Thurfd. S5. 
through the fecond Narrows. In turning through this 
part of the Streight we had twelve fathom within half 
a mile of the (hore on each (ide, and in the middle 
17 fathom, 22 fathom, and no ground. At five o'clock 
in the evening, the (hip fuddenly (hoaled from i 7 fa- 
thom to 5, St. Bartholomew's Ifland then bearing 
S. '^ W. diftant between three and four miles, and Eli- 
zabeth Ifland S. S. W. f W. diftant five or fix. miles. 
About half an hour after eight o'clock, the weather 
being rainy and temped uous, we anchored under Eli- 
zabeth Ifland in 24 fathom, with hard gravelly ground. 
Upon this, ifland we found great quantities of celery, 
which, by the diredion of the fui^eon, was given to 
the people, with boiled wheat and portable foup, for 
breakfafl: every morning. Some of the officers who 
went a-fliore with their guns, ikw two fmall dogs, and 
feveral places where fires had been recently made, with 
mapy frefh fliells of mufcles and limpets lying about 
them : they faw alfo feveral wigwams or huts, confid- 
ing of young trees, which, being fliarpened at one end, 
and thruft into the ground in a circular form, the other 
ends were brought to meet, and faftened together at the 
top ; but they (aw none of the natives. 

From. this place we faw many high mountains, bear- 
ing from S. to W. S. W. feveral parts of the fummits 
were covered with fnow, though it was the midft of 
fummer in this part of the world : they were clothed 
with wood about three parts of their height, and above 
with herbage, except where the fnow was not yet 
melted. This was the firft place where we had feen 
wood in all South America. 

At two o'clock in the morning of the 26th, we Friday 16. 
weighed, and having a fair wind, were a-breaft of the 
north end of Elizabeth's Ifland at three : at half an 
hour after five, being about midway between Eliza- 
beth's Ifland and St. George's Ifland, we fuddenly 
jhoaled our water from 1 7 fathom to fix : we fl:ruck the 
ground once, but the next cad had no bottom with 20 
. Vot. I. K fathoip. 


i7j^ fathopiu Wheo we were upon this llxMd, Gaffe 'BoC' 
-Ljnj-ijj^j^ y^ j^^ ^ I ^ j^^ ^j^^^ leagues^ and the 

fouth-end of Saint George's Ifland N. £. diftaat Sowr 
l^agu^s. Th€ ilore<ihip, wfaieh was about half a league 
to the fouthward of us, had ooce no ofiore than four 
fjEithom, and for a confiderabie time not fevtn ; the 
Swaliowt which was three or four miles to the (buth-i* 
ward» bad deep water, for (he kept near to St. George's 
Ifland. In my opinion it is fafeft to run down from 
the north^end of ElitLabeth'sIfland, about two or three 
o^ilcs from the (horey and fo on all the way to Port 
Famine. At noon, a low pmnt bore E. f.N. Freih- 
water Bay S. W, ( W* At this time we were about 
three miles diftant from the north ihore, and had no 
ground with So fathooi. Qur longitude, by obferva- 
tion,- which was made over the ftoal, was 7 1<> ao' W. 
^r btitude 53<' la' S. . 

A\p^a^ . four o'dioick we anchored in Port Famine 
l^ay, la 15 .fathom> mxi there bebg Uttle wind, fent 
^1 the boats^ and towed, m the Swallow and Prince 

$itiird. z;. The next moraing> the weather beij^ fqually, we 
warped the ihip farther Into the harbour, and moored 
her with M cable each way in nine fathom. I then fent 
a party of men to pitch two large tents in the bottom 
of the bay« for the fick« the wooders, and the fail- 
makers, who were foon after fent on fhore with the 
furgepn, the gunner, and feme midfliipmen. Cape 
St. Anpe now bore N. E. by E. diftant three quarters 
of a m'rfe, andSedger River S. | W. 

Sond. 18. On ihe 28th we utkbent all the fails, and fent 
them Qti ihore to be repaired, ereded tents upon the 
banks of Sedger River, and fent all the empty cafks on 
(bore, with the coopers to trim them, and a mate and 
ten men to wa(h and fill them. We alfo hauled the 
. feioe, and caught fi(h in great plenty : fome of them 
refembled a mullet, but the .flefli was very foft ; and 
aiijQong them wene a few ftselts, fome of which were 
tJiy^euty ipckefi long, and weighed four and twenty 

. .I>uriag our wkole ftay in this place we caught &ih 
tnpngh to fumifli one meal a day both, for thefick and 



the well : we found alfo great plenty of celery and pea- -. ^7^' 
tops, which were boiled witn the peafe and portable » ^™^\ 
foup : befidcs thefe, we gathered great quantities of 
fruit that refembled the cranberry, and the leaves of a 
flirub fomewhaf like our thorn, which were remarka* 
biy four. When we arrived, all our people began to 
look pale and meagre ; many had the fcurvy to a great 
degree, and upon others there were mai)ifeft fighs of 
its approach ; yet in a fortnight there was not a fcor-^ 
butic perfon in cither of the (flips. Their recovery 
was effeSed by their being on fhore, eating plenty of 
vegetables, being obliged to wafh their apparel, and 
keep their perfons clean by daily bathing in the fea. 

The next day we fet up the forge on Ihore j and Monaty 19. 
from this time, the armourers, carpenters, and the 
freft of the people were employed in refitting the fliip^ 
and making ber ready for the fea. 

In the mean time, a confiderable quantity of wood 
was cut, and put on board the (lore- (hip, to be fent 
to Falkland's Ifiahd ;, and as I well knew there was no 
wood growing there, I caufed fome thouiands of young 
trees to be carefully taken up with their roots, and a 
proper quantity of earth : and packing them in the hett 
manner I could, I put them alfo on board the (lore- 
fliip, with orders to deliver them to the commanding 
officer at Port Egmont, and to fail for that place with 
the firft fair wind, putting on board two of my feamen, 
who being in an ill ftate of health when they firft came 
on board, were now altogether unfit to proceed in the 

On Wednefday the 1 4ih of January, we got all our 1767. 
people and tents on board ; having taken in feventy- «J??****^* 
five tons of water from the ftiore, and twelve months 
provifions of all kinds, at whole allowance, for our- 
felves, and ten months for the Swallow, from on board 
the ftore-fhip. I fent the matter in the cutter, which 
w^as viftualled for a week, to look out for anchoring 
places on the north fhore of the Streight. 

After feveral attempts to fail, the weather obliged 
us to continue in our old ftation till Saturday the 1 7 th, s«tur. 17. 
when the Prince Frederick Viftualler failed for Falk- 
land's Ifland, and the mafter returned from his expe- 

K 2 dition. 


^7^7: ditlon. The mafter reported that he had found four 
January. .^ places, in which there was good inchorage, between 
'^ — '. " ■ -■ the place v/here wjBlay and Cape Froward : that he had 
' been on fhore at feveral places, where he had found 
plenty of wood and water clofc to the beach, with 
abundance of cranberries and wild celery. He re- 
iported alfo, that he had feen a great number of currant 
bu(hes full of fruit, though none of it was ripe, and 
a great variety of beautiful fhrubs in full bloflbm, bear- 
ing flowers of different colours, particularly red, 
purple, yellow, and white, befides great plenty of the 
winter's bark, a grateful fpice, which is well known to 
the botanifts of Europe* He (hot feveral wild ducks» 
geefe, gulls, a hawk, and two or three of the birds 
which the failors call a Race-Horfe. 
Snndiy i8. At five o^'clock in the morning of Sunday the i8th, 
we made (ail, and at noon, being about two miles 
from the fhore. Cape Froward bore N, by E. a bluff 
point N. N. W. and Cape Holland W. 4 S. Our la- 
titude at this place, by obfervation, was 54° 3' S. and 
we found the Streight to be about fix miles wide. 
Soon after I fent a boat into Snug bay, to lie at the 
anchoring place, but the wind coming from the land, 
I flood off again all night ; and at a mile from the 
fhore, we had no ground with 140 fathlbm. 
Monday 19. In the morning of Monday the 19th, the Swallow 
. leaving made the fignal for anchoring under Cape Hol- 
land, we ran in, and anchored in 10 fathom, with a 
clear fandy bottom. Upon fending the boats out to 
found, we difcovered that we were very near a reef of 
rocks ; we therefore tripped the anchor, and dropped 
farther out, where we had 12 fathom, and were about 
-half a mile from the fhore, juft oppofite to a large 
flream of water which falls with great rapidity from 
the mountains, for the land here is of a ftupendous 
height. Cape Holland bore W. S. VV. f W. difbnt 
two mites, and Cape Froward E. Our Fatitude, by 
obfervation, was 53° 58' S. 
Tuefd. ao. The next morning we got off feme water, and great 
plenty of wild celery, but could get no fifli, except a 
few mufcles. I fent off the boats to founds and found 
that there was good anchorage at about half a mile 



from the fhore, quite from the Cape to four miks '7^ 
below it ; and clofe by the Cape a good harbour, ci^^2^ 
where a (hip might refrefh with more fafety than at 
Port Famine, and avail herfelf of a large river of 
frefh water, with plenty of wood, celery, and berries ; 
though the place affords no (ifh except mufdes. 

Having completed our wood and water, we failed Thorfd. 1 
from this place on the 2 2d, about three o'clock in the 
afternoon. At nine in the evening, the (hip being 
about two miles diftant from the fhore, Cape Gallant 
bore W. | N. diftant two leagues. Cape Holland 
E. by N. diftant fix leagues ; Cape Gallant and Cape 
Holland being nearly in one : a white patch in Mon- 
mouth's Ifland bore S. S. W. i W* Rupert's Idand 
W. S. W. At this place the Streight is not more than 
five miles over ; and we found a tide which produced 
a very unufual effieft, for it became impoffible to keep 
the fhip'shead upon any point. 

At fix the next morning the Swallow made the^"^*3- 
fignal for having found anchorage ; and at eight we 
anchored in a bay under Cape Gallant in 10 fathom, 
with a muddy bottom. The eaft point of Cape Gal- 
lant bore S. W. by W. | W. theextream point of the 
eaftermoft land E. by S. a point making the mouth of 
a river N, by W. and the white patch on Charles's 
Ifland S. W. The boats being fent out to found, 
found good anchorage every where, except within 
two cables length S. W. of the (hip, where it was 
coral, and deepened to 1 6 fathom. In the afternoon 
I fent out the mafter to examine the bay and a large 
lagoon ; and he reported that the lagoon was the mo(t 
commodious harbour we had yet feen in the Streight, 
having five fathom at the entrance, and from four to 
five in the middle ; that it was capable of receiving a 
great number of veflels, had three large frefh water 
rivers, and plenty of wood and celery. We had here 
the misfortune to have a feine fpoilcd, by being entan- 
gled with the wood that lies funk at the mouth of 
thefe rivers ; but though we caught but little fifh, 
ive had an incredible number of wild ducks, which 
we found a very good fuccedaneum. 

The mountains are here very lofty, and the mafter 
of the Swallow climbed one of the highell-^ hoping 


that from the fummit he (hould obtain a fight of the 
South Sea ; but he found his view intercepted by 
mountains ftill higher on the fouthern fhore : before 
he'defcended, however, he ereSed a pyramid, within 
which he depofited a bottle containing a (hilling, and 
a paper on which ^as lArritten the ihip's name and 
the date of the year ; a inemoriai which poflibly may 
remain there as Idng as the world endures. 
Saturd. 24. In the morning of the 24th we took two boats and 
examined Cordes bay, which we found very much 
inferior to that in Which the (hip lay 4 it had indeed 
a larger lagoon, but the entrance of it was very nar- 
row, and barred by a fhoal, on which there was not 
fufEcient depth of water for a (hip of burden to float : 
the entrance of the bay alfo was rocky, and within it 
the ground was foul. 

In this place we faw an animal that refembled an 
afs, but it had a cloven hoof, as we difcovered after- 
wards by tracking it, and was as fwift as a deer. 
This was the firft aifiimal we had feen in the Streight, 
except at the entrance, where "we foiind the guanicoes 
that we would fain have trafficked for with the In- 
dians. We (hot at this creature, but we could not 
hit it ; probably it is altogether unknown to the na- 
turaliftsof Europe. 

The country about this place has the mod dreary 
- and forlorn appearance that can be imagined ; the 
mountains on each fide the Streight are of an immenfe 
height : about one fourth of the alcent is covered with 
trees of a confiderable fize ; in the fpace from thence 
to the middle of the mountain there is nothing but 
withered (hrubs ; above thefe are patches of fnow, and 
fragments of broken rock ; and the fummit is altoge- 
ther rude and naked, towering above the clouds in 
vaft crags that are piled upon each other, and look 
like the ruins of Nature devoted to everlafting flerility 
and defolation. 

We went over in two boats to the Royal Iflands, 
and founded, but found no bottom : a very rapid tide 
Tet through wherever there was an opening; and they 
cannot be approached by (hipping without the moft 
imrainent danger. Whoever navigates this part of the 
Streight, (liould keep the north (hore clofe on board all 



the way, and not ventare more thin a mile from it 
till the Royal lilands are pafled. The ccrrrrt fets 
cafterly through the who'e Joar and twc:::v r.ours, 
and the inurausht (hould bv all mean^bc avo'Jed. The 
latitude of Cape Gallant road is 53* 50 S. 

We continued in this Aation, tak!ns: in wood and 
water, and gathering raufclcs and herbs, ti:l the morn- 
ing of the 27th, when a boat that had been fcnt to try T«ei'. 27. 
the current, returned with an account that it fet nearlv 
at the rate of two miles an hour, but that th? wind 
being northerly, we might probably get round to FJi- 
zabeth bay or York road before night ; wc the-efore 
weighed with all expedition. At noon on the28ih,Wedn a8 
the weft point of Cape Gallant bore W. N. W. dif- 
tant half a mile, and the white patch on Charles's 
Ifland S. E. by S. We had frefli gales and heavy 
flaws off the land ; and at two o'clock the weft point 
of Cape Gallant bore E. diftant three leagues, and 
York Point W. N. W. diftant five leagues. At five, 
we opened York road, the Point bearing N. W. at 
the diftance of half a*mile: at this time the (hip was 
taken a^back, and a (Irong current with a heavy (quail 
drove us fo fir to leewardi that it was with great diffi- 
culty we got into Elizabeth bay, and anchored in 1 2 
fathom near a river. The Swallow being at anchor 
off the point of the bay, and very near the rocks, 1 
fent all the boats with anchors and haufers to her 
affiftance, and atlaft (he was happilv warped to wind- 
ward into good anchorage. Yoric point now bore 
W. byN. aihoal with weeds upon it W. N. W. at 
the diftance of a cable's length, Point PafTage S. E. | E. 
diftant half a mile, a rock near Rupert's Ifle S. | E. 
and a rivdlet on the bay N. E. by E. diftant about 
three cables length. Soon after fun-fet wc faw a great 
fmoke on the fouthern ftiore, and another on Prince 
Rupert's Ifland. 

Early in the morning I fent the boats on fliorc for Thurfd. 19 
water, and foon after our people landed, three canoes 
put ofi^ from the fouth ftiore, and landed fixtccn of the 
natives on the eaft point of the bay. When they came 
within alx)ut a hundred yards of our people they ftopt, 
called out, and made figns of friendftiip ; our people 

did the fame, flawing them fome beads and other toys. 



At .this they fcemed pleafed, and began to (hout ; our 
people imitated the noife they made, and fhouted in 
return : the Indians then advanced, ftill (houting and 
laughing very loud. When the parties met they (hook 
hands, and our men prefented the Indians with feveral 
of the toys which they had (hewn them at a diftance. 
They were covered with feal (kins, which flunk 
abominably, and fome of them were eating the rotten 
flefh and blubber raw, with a keen appetite and 
great feemirg fatisfadion. 'J heir complexion was the 
iame as that of the people we had feen before, but 
they were low of fiature, the tailed of them not be- 
ing niore than five feet fix : they appeared to be pe- 
rifliing with cold, and immediately Kindle4 feveral 
fires. How they fubfift in winter, it is not perhaps 
leafy to guefs, for the weather was at this time fo fe- 
vere, thai we had frequent fells of fnow. They uere 
grmed with bows, arrows, and javelins : the arrows 
iand javelins were pointed with flint, which was 
wrought into the fbape of a ferpent's tongue : and 
they difcharged both with great force, and dexterity, 
fcarce ever failing to hit a mark at a confiderabie dif- 
tance. 'Jo kindle a fire they flrike a pebble againft 
a piece of mundic, holding under it, to catch th« 
/parks, fome mofs or down, mixed with a whitifh 
jcartb, which takes fire like tinder : they then take 
fome dry grafs, of which there is every where plenty, 
and putting the lighted mofs into it, wave it to and 
fro, and in about a minute it blazes. 

When the boat returned ilie brought three of them 
on board the (hip, but they Teemed to regard nothing 
with any degree of curiofity except our cloaths and a 
looking-glais ; the looLing-glal's afforded them as much 
diverfion as it had dene the Tataf^onians, and it feemed 
to furpilfe them more : when ihey firll peeped into 
it they ftarted back, firft looking at us, and then at 
each other ; they then tock another peep, as it were 
by ftealth, flaitirg back as before, and then eagerly 
looking behind it ; when by degrees they became fa- 
miliar with it, tlicy iiriiled, and feeing the image fmile 
in return, they were exceedingly delighted, and burft 
into fits ot the mort violent laughter. They left this 
however, and €\ery thing elfe, with perletl indiffe- 


rence,' the little they poflefled being to all appearance 17^7* 
equal to their deiires. They eat whatever was given ^J*^"*^- 
them, but would drink nothing but water. 

When they left the (hip I went on (hore wifli them, 
and by this time feveral of their wives and children 
were come to the watering-place. I diftributed fome 
trinkets among them, with which they feemed pleafed 
for a moment » and they gave us fome of their arms in 
return; they gave us alfo feveral pieces of mundic, 
fuch as is found in the tin mines of Cornwall : they 
made us underftand that they found it in the moun - 
tains, where there are probably mines of tin, and 
perhaps of more valuable metal. As this feems to be 
the moft dreary and inhofpitable country in the world, 
not excepting the worft parts of Sweden and Norway, 
the people feem to be the lowed and moft deplorable 
of all human beings. Their perfed indifference to 
every thing they faw, which marked the difparity 
between our ftate and their own, though it may pre- 
ferve them from the regret and anguifli of unfatisfied 
defires, feems, notwithftanding, to imply a defed in 
their nature ; for thofe who are fatisfied with the gra- .. ■*^ 
tifications of a brute, can have little pretenfion to the 
prerogatives of men. When they left us and embark- 
ed in their canoes, they hoifted a feal ikin for a fail, 
and {leered for the fouthem (hore, where we faw 
many of their hovels ; and we remarked that not one 
of them looked behind, either at us or at the (hip, fo 
little imprefficn had the wonders they had feen made 
upon their minds, and fo much did they appear to be 
abforbed in the prefcnt, without any habitual exerclfe 
of their power to refled upon the paft. 

In this (lation we continued till Tuefday the 3d of February. 
February. At about half an hour paft twelve we^"*^* ^' 
weighed, and in a fudden fquall were taken a-back, fo 
as that both fiiips were in the moft imminent danger 
of being driven a-ihore on a reef of rocks ; the wind 
however fuddenly fliifted, and we happily got off 
without damage^ At five o'clock in the afternoon, 
the tide being done, and the wind coming about to the 
weft, we bore away for York road, and at length 
anchored in it : the Swallow at the fame time being 
very near Ifland bay, under Cape Qyod, endeavoured 



,17^ to get in there; but was bjT the tide ebfigM My retinv 
^^toYork foad.. Id tbii .fibilotion Gmpc^'i^QA kore- 
W. I S. diftant miMteeanriles, YoHt Point E.S.E. 
diftan t dhe mile, . Badielor^s ' River N/ N» W. thfee 
qoartets of a inile^ the entmnce of Jerono^s Sound 
N. W. by W. and a (kiiaU iflafid on the foutfa (bora 
W. by S. We fomd the tide here>ery nqpid aad on^ 
certain ; in the dream it generally fet to tl» eaftwand^ 
but it fomettmes, though rarely, fet weftward fix hours 
together. This evening we faw five Indian canoes cooae 
out of Bachelor's Riveit, and go up JcfOnol's Sound* 
WttuCj^ In the morning, the boat$ which I. had fent out to 
found both the (hores of the Strei^t and aB parts of 
the bay, returned with ati account that there was good 
anchorage' within Jerotti's Sound, and aH the way thi- 
ther from the (hip's fiation it the dlibmce of about half 
atnile firom the ftore ; aifo between -Elizabeth and 
York Point, near YorkvPointr it thd difiance of a 
caUeanda half's length from the weeds, in t6 fathom^ 
with a muddy bottom. There weruaifo iev«raf |4aoes 
under the tflaods on the fouth fliore where a (hip might 
anchor ; but the force and uncertainty of the* tides^ 
and the heavy gufts of wind that came off the high 
lands, by which thefe fituatipns were furrotinded, ren- 
dered them unfafe. Soon after ihe boats returned, I 
put freih hands into tbem^nd went tfty fisdf up Bachelor's 
River : we found a bar at the entrance, which at cer- 
tain times of the tide muft be dangerods. We hauled 
the fe'uie, and (houki have caught plenty of fi(h if it had 
not been for the weedr and flumps gf trees at the bot- 
tom of the river. We then went o^-ihore, vdiere we 
faw many wigwams of the natives, and feverai of their 
dogs, who, as foonas we came in (ight, ran away. 

Wc alfo faw fome oftriches, but they were beyond 
the reach of our pieces: we gathered mufcies, limpets, 
iea-eggs, celery, and nettles in gredit abundance. 
About three miles up this river, on the weft fide, be- 
tween Mount Miiery and another mJaontain of a fhi- 
pendous height, there is a catirad, which has a very 
ftriking appearance: it is precipitated from an elevation 
of above four hundred yards ; half the way it rolls over 
a very deep declivity, and the other half is a perpen- 


dicular fall* The found of this catarad is not Icfs ^ 57ft'_ 
awful th^ii Ibe %ht. . ^J^' 

In this plaee» contrary winds detained us till lOSaturd. 14. 
o'clock in the mdrning of Saturday the 14th, when we 
weighed, and in half ^n hour the current fet the (hip 
towards Bachelor's River : we then put her in ftays, 
and while ihe was coming about, which (he was long 
in doing, we drove over a fhoal where we had little 
iiK>re than 16 feet water with roeky ground; fo that 
out danger was vefy great, for the (hip drew 1 6 feet 
9 iiichts aft, add 1 5 feet one inch forward : as foon 
as the (hip gathered way, we happily deepened intb 
three fithom ;. within two cables length we had five, 
and in a very fhori time we got into deep water. We 
continued plying to windward till four o'clock in the 
afternoon, lind then finding that we had loft ground, 
we returned' to our flat ion, and again anchored in 
York toad. 

Here we remained till five o'clock in the morning Tuef. »^- 
of the 1 7th^ ivhen we weighed, and towed out of the 
road. At nine, Chough we had a fine breeze at weft, 
the (hip was carried with great violence by a current 
towards thefoiith (bore^ the boats were all towing 
a-head, and the faih aileep, yet we drove fo clofe to 
the rock, that the oars of the boats were entangled in 
the weeds. Ih this manner we were hurried along 
near three quarters of an hour, cxpeSing every mo- 
ment to be daftied to pieces againft the cliff, from 
which we were fcldom' ferther than a (hip's length, 
and very often not half fo much. We founded on both 
fidesi and found that next the (hore we had from 14 
to 2Q fathom, and on the other fide of the (hip no 
bottom : as all our efforts were ineffeSual, we re- 
figned ourfelves to our fate, and waited the event in a 
ftate of fufpence very little different from defpair. At 
length, however, we opened Saint David's Sound, 
and a current that rofhcd out of it fetus into the mid- 
channel. During all this time the Swallow was on 
the north fhore, and confeqncntly could know nothing 
of our danger till it was part. We now fent the 
boats out to Jook for an anchoring place ; and at noon. 
Cape Qyod bore N. N. E. and Saint David's head 
iS. E. 



About one o'clock the boats returned, having found 
an anchoring place in a fmall bay, to which we gave 
the name- of Butler's bay, it having been difcovered 
by Mr. Butler, one of the niates. It lies to the weft 
oif Ryder's bay on the fouth (hore of the Streight, 
which is here about two miles wide. We ran in with 
the tide which fet faft to the weftward, and anchored 
in 1 6 fathom water. The extreams of the bay from 
W. by N. to N. i W. are about a quarter of a mile 
afunder ; a fmall rivulet, at the diftance of fomewhat 
leis than two cables length, bore S. f W. and Cape 
Quod N. at the diftance of four miles. At this time 
the Swallow was at anchor in Ifland bay on the north 
(hore, at about iix miles diftance. 

I now fent all the boats out to found round the 
fhip and in the neighbouring bays ; and they returned 
with an account that they could find no place fit to 
receive the (hip-, neither could any fucb place be 
found between Cape Qi|od and Cape Notch. 
Friday ao. In this place we remained till Friday the 20th, 
when about noon the clouds gathered ver^ thick to the 
wedwardy and before one it blew a ftorm, with fuch 
rain and hail as we had fcarcely ever feen. We im- 
mediately ftruck the yards and top-mafls, and having 
run out two haufers to a rock, we hove the fhip up to 
it : we then let go the fmall bower, and veered away, 
and brought both cables a-head ; at the fame time we 
carried out two more haufers, and made them faft to 
two other rocks, making ufe of every expedient in our 
power to keep the fhip fteady. The gale continued 
to increafe till fix o'clock in the evening, and to our 
great aftoniftiment the fea broke quite over the fore- 
caftle in upon the quarter-deck, which, confidering 
the narrownefs of the Streight, and the fmallnefs of the 
bay in which we were ftationed, might well have been 
thought impoflible. Our danger here was very great, 
for if the cables had parted, as we could not run out 
without a fail, and as we had not room to bring the 
fhip up with any other anchor, we muft have been 
dafhed to pieces in a few minutes, and in fuch a fitu- 
ation it is highly probable that every foul would im- 
mediately have periftied ; however, by eight o'clock 
rhe gale was become fomewhat more moderate, and 



gradually decreafing during the ntght» we had tolera- 1767- 
ble weather the next morning. Upon heaving the ,^/^" 
anchor, we had the fatisiadion to find that our cable Saturd. %t, 
was found, though our haufen w ere much rubbed by 
the rocks, notwithftanding they were parcelled with 
old bammacoes, and other things. The firft thing I 
did after performing the necelTary operations about 
the (hip, was to fend a boat to the Swallow to enquire 
how die fared during the gale : the boat returned 
with an account that (he had felt but little of the gale, 
but that (he had been very near being loft, in pulhing 
through the Iflands two days before, by the rapidity 
of the tide : that notwithi^anding an alteration which 
had been made in her rudder, (he (leered and worked 
fo ill, that every time they got under way they were, 
apprehenfive that (he could never fafely be brought to 
an anchor again ; I was therefore requeued, in the 
name of the captain, to condder that (lie could be of 
very little fervice to the expedition, and to dire3 what 
I thought would be beft for the fervice. I anfwered, 
that as the Lords of the Almiralty had appointed her 
to accompany the Dolphin, (he muft continue to do it 
as long as it was poflibie ; that as her condition ren- 
dered her a bad failer, I woufd wait her time, and at- 
tend her motions, and that if any difafter (hould hap- 
pen to either of us, the other (hould be ready to af- 
ford her fuch aflSftance as might be in her power. 

We continued here eight days, during which time 
we completed our wood and water, dried our fails, 
and (^nt great part of the (hip's company on (hore, to 
wa(h their clothes and ftretch their legs, which wa^ 
the more nece(rary, as the cold, fnowy, and tempef- 
tuous weather, had confined them too much below. 
We caught mufcles and limpets, and gathered celery 
and nettles in great abundance. The mufcles were the 
largeft we had ever feen, many of them being from 
five to fix inches long : we caught alfo great plenty of 
a fine, firm, red fi(h, not unlike a gurnet, moft of 
which were from four to five pounds weight. At the 
fame time, we made it part of the employment of 
every day to try the current, which we found con- 
ftantly letting to the eaftwardj 





Sanday i. 



The Mafter having faioen fent out to look for an* 
choring places, returned with an account that he 
could find no (helter, except near the fhore/ where it 
ihould not be fought but in cafes of the m^ preflhig 
neceffity. He landed upon a large ifland on the liorth 
fide of Snow found, and bdifig almoft perilhed with 
cold, the firil thing he did was to make a large fire, 
with fome fmall trees he found upon the fpot: He 
thefi climbed one of the rocky mountains, with Mr. 
Fickerfgill, amidflitpman, aiKloneof thefeamen, to 
take a view of the Streight and the difmal r^ions that 
furround it. He found the entrance of the Sound' to 
be full as broad as feveral parts of the Streight, and to 
grow but very little narrower, for feveral miles inland 
on the Terra del Puego fide. The country on the 
fouth fide of it was fiill more dreary and horrid than 
any he had yet fisen : it confifled of craggy mountains^ 
much higher than the clouds, that were altogether 
naked fi-om the bafe to the fommit, there not being a 
fihgle flirub, nor even a Uadeof gra(s, to be feen upon 
them ; nor were the valleys between them lefs defo* 
late, being entirely covered with deep beds of fnow^ 
except here and there where it had been wafiied away, 
or converted into ice, by the torrents which were pre- 
cipitated from the fiflures and crags of the mountain 
above, where the fnow had been diflblved ; and 
even thefe vallies, in the patches that were free from 
fnow, were as deftitute of verdure as the rocks be- 
tween which they lay. 

On Sunday the firft of March, at half an hour 
after four o'clock in the morning, we faw the Swallow 
under fail, on the north fhore of Cape Quod. At 
feven we weighed, and flood out of Butler's bay, but 
it falling calm foon afterwards, the boats were obliged 
^o take the veffel in tow, having with much difficulty 
kept clear of the rocks : the paflage being very narrow, 
we fent the boats, about noon, to feek for anchorage 
on the north ftiore. At this time, Cape Notch bore 
W. by N.J N. diftant between three and four leagues, 
'ape Quod E. | N. diftant three leagues. 
lit 'three o'clock in the afternoon, thei|^ being 
littfi wind, we anchored j with the Swallow, under the 



north ftore, in a (mall hay, vrfaere there is a high, fteep 1767. 
rocky mouBtain, the. top of which refembles the head ^^^^^^ 
of a lion, for which reafon we called the bay Lion's 
Cove. We had here 40 fathom, with deep water clofe 
to the (hore, and at half a cable's length without the 
ihip, no ground. We fent the boats to the weilward 
in fearch of anchoring places, and at midnight they 
returned with an account that there was an indifferent 
bay at the diftance of about . four miles, and that 
Gpodluck bay was three leagues to the weftward. 

At half aahour after 12 the next day, the wind Monday 1. 
being northerly, we made fail from Lion's cove, and 
at five anchored in Goodluck bay, at the diftance of 
about half a cable's length from the rocks, in 28 
fatliom water- A rocky ifland at the wefl extremity 
of the bay bore N. W. by W. diftant about a cable's 
length and a half, and a low point, which makes the 
eaftera extremity of the bay, bore E. S. EL diftant 
about a nrxile. Between this point and the (hip, there 
were many (hoals, and in the bottom of the bay two 
rocks, the iargeft of which bore N. E. by N- the 
fmalleft EL From thefe rocks ihoals run out to 
the S. EL which may be known by the weeds that are 
upon them ; the fhip was within a cables length of 
them ; when fliefwung with her ftem in-(hore, we had 
16 fathom^ with coral rock ; when (he fwung off, we 
had 50 fathom, with fandy ground. Cape Notch 
bore from us W. by S I W. diftant about one league ; 
and in the intermediate fpac^ there was a large lagoon 
which w^ could not found, the wied blowing too hard 
all the while we lay here. After we had moored the 
fhip, we fent two boats to aflift the Swallow, and one 
to look out for anchorage beyond Cape Notch, The 
boats, that were fent to aflift the Swallow, towed her ^, 
ihto a i«r>a)t bay, where, as the wind was foutherly, / 
and blew frefti, (he was in great danger, for the cove 
was not only fmall, but full of rocks, and open to the 
foothLeafterly winds. 

AH the day following, and all the night, we had Tuefday 3. 
hard gates, witH a great fea, and much hail and rain. 

The next morning we had gufts fo violent, that it«vyedaer4. 
was impoffible to ftand the deck ; they brought whole 
flieets of water all the way from Cape Notch, which 
■^ was 


1767. was a league difiant, quite over the deck. They did 
March, ^qj j^^^ more than a minute, but were fo frequent, that 
the cables were kept in a confiant ftrain, and there was 
the greateft reafon to fear that they would give way. 
It was a general opinion that the Swallow could not 
poflibly ride it out, and fomeof themen were fo ftroi^ly 
prepoffefled with the notion of her being loft, that they 
fancied they faw fome of her people coming over the 
rocks towards our (hip. The weather continued fo 

Saturday 7. bad till Saturday the fcventh, that we could fend no boat 
to enquire after her ; but the gale being then more 
moderate, a boat was difpatched jabout four o'clock in 
the morning, which, about the fame hour in the after- 
noon, returned with an account that the (hip was fafe, 
but that the fatigue of the people had been incredible, 
the whole crew having been upon the deck neat three, 
days and three nights. At midnight the gufts returnn 
ed, though not with equ^l violence, with hail, fleet 
and fnow. The weather being now extremely cold, 

Sunday 8. ^nd the people never dry, I got up the next morning 
eleven bales of thick woollen ftuff, called Fearnought, 
which is provided by the government, and fet all the 
taylors to work to make them into jackets, of which 
every man in the (hip had one. 

I ordered thefe jackets, to be made very large, allow- 
ing, one with another, two yards and thirty-four inches 
of the cloth to each jacket. I fent alfo (even bales of 
the fame cloth to the Swallow, which made every man 
on board a jacket of the fame kind ; and I cut up three 
bales of finer cloth, and made jackets for the officers 
of both (hips, which I had the pleafure to find were 
very acceptable. 

In this Situation we were obliged to continue a week, 
during which time, I put both my own (hip, and the 
Swallow, upon two thirds allowance, except brandy ; 
but continued the breakfaft as long as greens and water 
were plenty. 

Sontfay 15. On Sunday the 1 5tb, about noon we faw the Swal- 
low under fail, and it being calm, we fent our launch 
to aflift her. In the evening the launch returned, hav- 
ing towed her into a very good harbour oh the fouth 

/ * ., /.fbore, oppofite to where we lay. The accoutu that 

*' -. ' • * . we 


vre received of this harbour, determined us to get into ^7^/ 
it as foon as^poflible ; the next morning therefore, at ^_^ '^ 
eight o'clock, we failed from Good-luck Bay and 
thought oqrfelves happy to get fafe out of it. When 
we got a-breaft of the harbour where the Swallow lay, 
we fired feverat guns, as fignals for her boats to ailift 
us in getting in ; and in a (hort time the mafter came 
on board us, and piloted us to a very comAiodiotls 
flation, where we anchored in 28th fathom, with a 
muddy bottom. This harbour, which is (heltered from 
all winds, and excellent in every refped, we called 
Swallow Harbour. There are two channels into 
it, which are both narrow, but not dangerous, as the 
rocks are eafily difcovered by the weeds that grow 
upon them. 

At nine o'clock the next morning, the wind coming Monday 16: 
eafterly, we weighed, and failed from Swallow Har- 
bour. At noon we took the Swallow in tow, but at 
five there being little wind, we call of the tow. 
At eight in the evening, the boats which had been 
fent out to look for anchorage, returned with an 
account that they could find none : at nine we had 
frefli gales, and at midn^ht Cape Upright bore S. S. 
W. f W. 

At feven the next morning, we took the SwalldW Tuefd. 17. 
. again in tow, but was again obliged to caflher off 
and tack, as the weather became very thick, with a 
great fwell, and we faw land clofe under our lee. As 
no place for anchorage could be found. Captain Car- 
teret advifed me to bear away for Upright bay, to 
which I confented ; and as he was acquainted with the 
place, he went a-head : the boats were ordered to go 
between him and the ihore, and we followed. At 
eleven o'clock, thiere being little wind, we opened a 
large lagoon, and a current fetting ftrongly into it, the 
Swallow was driven among thislbrdakers clofe upon the ■ 
lee Ihore : to aggravate the misfortune, the weather 
was very hazy, there was no anchorage, and the 
furf ran very high. In this dreadful fituation (he made 
fignals of diftrefs, and we immediately fent our launch, 
and other boats, to her a(G(!ance : the boats took her 
in tow, btit their utmoil; efforts to fave her would have 

Voc. I. L been 


' h 


?7^- been 'meffeQugl^ if it breeze had not fujckUoly come 
^ ^^^' ^ 4o WB from ft iDQuotftiQ and wafted her jiff. 

^' As a gfjc^t fwell ^uii« on about noon, we hauled 

over to the north (bore. We feon found ourfelves fur-* 
rounded with ifl^dv^but the fog was to thicki that we 
knew not where we w^re^ nor which way to fteer. 
Among tbefie iflands the boats were fent to caft the 
:U^d» but no anchorage was to be found ; we then con- 
je€l:ured.that we were in the Bay of Iflaml^andthat we 
bad Qq chance to e(cap^ (hipwreek, but by hauling di- 
. redly out : this, however, was no eafy ta(k, for I was 
obliged to tack, alnsoft continually, to weather fome 
jfland or rock-^ At four o'clock in the afternoon, it 
happily cleared up for a nunute, juft to ihew us Cape 
Upright, for which we diredly fleered, and at half an 
ho|ir after five anchored, with the Swallow, in the 
.bay. Whuk we dropped the anchor, we were in 24 
fathom, and after we had veered away a whole cabie» 
in 46^ with a muddy bottom. In this fitnatioo, a high 
^luff op tJbe nortluihore bore N. W. | N. diftant five 
leagues, and a fnuU ifland within us S. by E. f E. 
Soon after we had andx>red, the Swalbw drove to lee- 
ward, notwithflaading fhe had two anchors a-head> 
but was at laft brought up, in 70 fathom, about a 
cable's ki^th a-ftem of us. At four o'clock in the 
mormng I fent the boats, with a confiderable number 
of mi^n^ and fome haufers and anchors, on board her^ 
to weigh her anchors, and warp her up ta windward* 
When her befl bower anchor was weighed, it was 
found entangled with the fmall one ; I therefore found 
it necefTary to fend the flream cable on board, and the 
fhlp was hung up by it. To clear her anchors, and 
warp her into a proper birth, coil us the whole day,, 
^nd was not at laft effeded without the utmofl difficul- 
ty and labour. V,.:. 

On the 1 8th we:haAiDe& breezes,and fent the boats 
Wednef. i8, ^^^ f^^^j crofs the StHfigfet. Within half a mile of 

the (hip, they had 40, 45, 50, 70, 100 fathom, and 
then had no ground, till within a cable's length of the 
lee fhore, where they had 90 fathom. We now 
moored the ihtp in 78 fiuhom, with the flream an- 


- .-i ... 


The next mornings while oar people were emplo j- ^JJjJ* 
cd in getting wood ajod water, and gathenng cdery arid ^^ 1 

mufclesy two canoes foil of Indians, came along GdcThatti^- 
of the (hip. They had much the fame appearance as 
the poor wretches whom we had feen before in EJiza* 
beth's bay. They had on board fome feals fleOi, blub- 
ber, and penguins^ all which they eat raw. Some 
of our people who were fiihing with a hook and line, 
gave one of them a fiih, fomewhat bigger than a her- 
ring, alive juft as it came out of the water. The In- 
dian took it haftily, as a dog would take a bone, and 
inflantly killed it, by giving it a bite near the gills : he 
then proceeded to eat it, beginning with the head, and 
going on to the tail, without rcje^ng either the booea, 
fins, fcales, or entrsuls. They eat every thing that 
was given to them, indififerently, whether fait or frcfliji 
<ireired or raw, but would drink nothing hut water. 
They (hivered with cold, yet had nothing to coirer 
them but a feal-ikin, thrown loofely over their (houl* 
ders, which did not reach to their middle ; and we 
cbferved, that when they were rowing, they threw 
even this by, and fat fiarfc naked. They had with them 
fome javelins, rudely pointed with bone, with which 
they ufed to ftrike feals, fifh, and penguins, and we ob-^ 
ferved that one of them had a piece of iron, about the 
fize of a common chiffel, which was faftf ned to a piece of 
wood, and feemed to be intended rather for a tool than 
a weapon. They had all fore eyes, which we imputed 
to their fitting over the fmoke of their fires, and they 
fmelt more ofFenfively than a fox, which perhaps was 
in part owing to their diet, and in part to their nafti- 
nefs. Their canoes were about fifteen feet long, three 
broad and nearly three deep : they were made of the 
bark of trees, fewed together, either with the finews 
of fome bead, or thongs cut out of a hide. Some 
kind of rufh was laid into the feams, and the outfide 
was fmeared with a refin, or gum, which prevented 
the water from foaking into the bark. Fifteen flender 
branches, bent into an arch, were fewed tranfverfcly 
to the bottom and fides, and fome ftrait pieces were 
placed crofs the top, from gunwale to gunwale, and 
iecurely lalhed at each end : upon the whole however, . 
it was poorly made, nor had thefe people any thing 

L 2 among '• 


'7^7' among them in which there was the lead appearance 


of ingenuity! I gave them a hatchet or two, with 
fbme beadsy and a few other toys, with which they^ 
went aw«y to the fouthward, and we faw no more of 

Whit^ we lay here, we fentotft the boats, as ufuaft 
Hi fearch of anchoring' places, and having been to 
leagues to the'weft ward, they found but two : one was 
to the weflwardof Cape Upright, in the Bay oflflands, 
but was very difficult to enter and get out of; the other 
was called Dolphin Bay, at to leagues diftance, which 
was a good harbour, with «ven grpund in all parts. 
They (sw feveral fmall coves^ which were all danger- 
ous, as in them it wouM be neceflary to let go the 
anchor within half a cable's length of the lee (hore, and 
fteady the (hip with halfers Csiftened to the rocks. The 
people belonging to one of the boats fpent a night upon 
an iftand upon which while they were there, fix ca- 
noes landed about thirty Indians. The Indians ran 
immediately to the boat, and were carrying away every 
.thing they found in* her ; our people difcpvered what 
they were doing juft time enough to prevent them. 
As foon as they found themfelves oppofed, they went 
to their canoes, and armed themfelves with long poles,, 
and javelins pointed with the bones of fifli. They did 
not begin an" attack, but flood in a threatening man- 
ner : our people who were two and twenty in number^ 
a3ed only on the defenfive, and by parting with a few 
trifles to them they became friends, and behaved 
peaceably the refl of the time they flaid. 

For many days, we had hail, lightning,, rain, and 
hard gales, with a heavy fea, fo that we thought it 
trnpoflible for the fhip to hold, though fhe had two an- 
chors a>-head, and two cables an end. The men 
however, were fent frequently on (hore for exercife, 
which contributed greatly to rheir health, and procur- 
ed almofl conflant fupply of mufcles and greens. 
Among other damages that we had fuftained, our fire- 
place was broken to pieces, we therefore found it 
necefTary to fct up the forge, and employ the armour- 
ers to make a liew back ; we alfo made lime of 
. burnt fhells, and once more put it into in a ufeful con* 



On Monday the 30th, we had the firft inten^al of »7^« 
tnoderate weather, and we improved it in drying the ^,^„.^-,^_| 
Jails, which, though much mildewed, we had not be- 
fore been aWe to loofe, for fear of fetting the fliip 
adrift : we alfo aired the fpare fails, which we found 
much injured by the rats, and employed the fail-makers 
to mend them. Capt, Carteret having repretentedthat 
his fire-place, as w«ll as ours, had been broken to 
pieces, our armourers made him alfo a new back, and 
f6t it up with lime that we nriade upon the fpot, in the 
fame manner as had been done on board our own fhip. 
This day we faw feveral canoes^ full of Indians, put 
to ihore on the eaft fide of the bay, and the next morn- Tuda. jj, 
ing feveral of them came on board, and proved to be 
the fame that oirr people, who were out in the boat, 
had met with on (hore. They behaved very peace- 
ably, and we difmiffed them with a few to)s, as 

The day following, feveral other Indians came oflF ApriL 
to the (hip, and brought with them fome of the birds Wedacf. 1. 
called Race-horfes. Our people purchafed the birds 
for a few ^rifles^ and I made them a prefent of feveral 
hatchets and knives. 

On Thurfday the fecond of April the mafter of the Thurf. a. 
Swallow, who hadheen fent out to feek for anchoring 
places, returned, and reported that he had found three 
OTi the north (hore, which were very good ; one about 
four nilles to the eaftward of Cape Providence, another 
under the eaft fide of Cape Tamer, and the third about 
four miles to the eaftvvard of it ; but he faid that he 
found no place to anchor in under Cape Providence, the 
ground being rocky. 

This day two canoes came on board, with four men 
and three young children in each. The men were 
fomewhat more decently dreflcd than thofe that we had 
feen before, but the children were ftark naked. They 
were fomewhat fairer than the mea, who feemed to 
pay a very tender attention to them, efpecially in lift- 
ing them in and out of the canoes. To thefe young 
vifitors I gave necklaces and bracelets, with which they 
feemed mightily pleafed. It happened that while fome 
of thefe people were on board, and the reft waiting in 
their' canoes by the fliip's fide, the boat was fent on 

L 3 ftior^ 


(hore for wood and water. The Indians, who were 
in the canoes, kept their eyes fixed upon the boat while 
ihe wa£ manning, and the moment (he put off from 
the fhip, they called out with great vociferation to thofe 
that wefe on board, who feemed to be much alarmed^, 
' and haffily handing down the children, leaped into 
their canoes, without uttering a word. None of us 
could guefs nt the caufe of xhU fudden emotion, but we 
faw the men in the canoes pull after the boat with all 
their might, hallooing and'fliouting with great ap- 
pearance of perturbation and diftrefs. The boat out- 
rowed thtoi, and when fhe came near the fhore, the 
people on board difcovered fome women gathering 
' mufcles among the rocks. This at once explained 
the TAyftjNY^ the p<k>r Indians were afraid that the 
ftHangers, either by force Or faCvour, fliould violate the 
pHefo^tiW 6f a hulband, ' of which they feemed to be 
rfiorejailoiiirthirf the natives of fome other countries, 
who in their appearance are leis favage and fordid. Our 
^ ' p^{Aje,'^liliakethenleafy, immediately lay upon their 
o^h,^ iwf fbflfered the caiioes to pafs them. The In- 
dians, however, ftill continued to call out to their wo- 
men, tilt they took th^ alarm and ran out of fight, and 
as foon as they got to land, drew their canoes upon 
the beach, and followed them with the utmoft expe-' 

Sund. 5. We continued daily to gather mufcles till the 5th, 

whcnfeveral of the people being feized with fluxes, the 
furgeon defired that no more mufcles might be brought 
into the fliip. 

Friday 10. The weather being ftill tempeffluous and unfettled, 
we remained at anchor till 10 o'clock in the morning 
of Friday the loth, and then, in company with the 
Swallow, we made fail. At noon. Cape Providence 
bore N. N. W. diftant four or five miles ; at four in 
the afternoon Cape Tamer bore N. W. by W. i W. 
diftant three leagues. Cape Upright E. S. E. i S. diftant 
three leagues, and Cape Pillar W. diftant 10 leagues, 

Satjir. II. ^^ fleered about W. J N. all night, and at fix o'clock 
in the morning, had run eight and thirty miles by the 
log. At this time Cape Pillar bore S. W. diftant half 
a-mile, and the Swallow was about three miles a-ftem 
of us. At this time there being but little wind, we 



mnere obliged to make all the fail we could, to get 
without the Streight's mouth. At 1 1 o'clock I would 
have (hortened fail for the Swallow, but it was not in 
my power, for as a current fet us ftrongly down upon 
the Ifles of Diredion, and the wind came to the we(i, it 
became abfolutely neccflary forme to carry fail, that I 
might clear them. Soon ilfter we loft fight of the Swal- 
low and never faw her afterwards. At firft I was in- 
clined to have gone back into the Streight, but a fo^ 
coming on, and the fea riflng very faft, we were all ol 
opinion that it was indifp^fiibly neceflary to get an 
ofting as foon ad poitible ; for except we prefled the 
(hip with filil, before the feft rofe too nigh, it would be 
impraSicable either to weather Terra del Fuego on 
one tack, or Cape Vidory on the other. At noon, the 
Iflands of DttefiHon bore N, 11' W. diftartt three 
leagues. Saint Paul's cupola iind Cape ViQory in one, 
N. diftai^t feven leagues^ aAd Cape Pillar E. diftant 
fix leagues. 

Our latittuk^ by 6bfervAtioti was 52^ 38' and we 
<:omputed our longitude to be 76® W, 

Thus we quitted a dreary and inhofpitaUe region, 
where we w^re in almoftp^fpetual danger of (hipwreck 
for near four months, having entered the Streight on 
the 1 7th of December 1 766, and quitted it on th^ i ith 
of April 1 767 ; a region where, in the midft of Sum- 
mer, the weather was cold, gloomy, and tertipeftu- 
ous, where the profpeSs had nK>re the appearance 
of a jchaos than of Nature, and where, for the moft 
part, xht valUes were without herbage, and the hilli 
without wood. 


A partkulur A.€9unt df the places in which we anchor- 
ed during our pajjage through the ftreighty and of 
the Shoals and Rocks that lie near them, 

HA VING cleared tl>€ Streight, we (leered a wefterrt 
courfe. But before I continue the narrative of 
our voyage, I (hall give a more particular account of 
rheieveral places, where we anchored, plans of which 

L 4 arc 



ore depofited in the Admiralty Office for the ufe of 
future navi|;atorSf with the (hoais and rock» that lie 
near them, ' the latitude, longitude^ tides, and variati- 
on of the. compafs. # 

I. CAPE VIRGIN MARY. The bay under this 
Cape is a good harbour, when the wind is weilerly. 
There is a jhoal lying off the Cape, but that m^ easi- 
ly be known by the rock weed that grows upon it : 
|he Cape is a fteep white cliff, not unlike the South 
Foreland. Its latitude, by obfervation, is 5a<> 24' S. 
jind its longitude, by account, 66^ 22' W. The Ta- 
.riation of the needle, by the medium of five azimuthaf 
and one amplitude, was 24^ 30' .E. In this place we 
faw no appearance either of wood or water. We an- 
jcbored in 10 fathom, with coarfe fandy ground, about 
a mile from the (hore. Cape Virgin Mary bearing N. 
by W. f W. difianf about two miles, and Dui^enefs 
Point ^. S. W. diftant four miles. We anchored here 
on the 1 7th of Deceniber, and failed the next day. 
There is eood landing, on a fine fandy beach, all 
along the more. 

II. POSSESSION BAY. Jn failing into this bay. 
It is neceflary to give the point a good birth, becaufe 
there is a reef runs right off it about a (hort mile. 
The foundings are very irregular all over the bay, but 
the grouiid is every where a fine foft mud and clay, fo 
that the cables can com€ to no damage. The Point 

* lies in latitude 52^ degrees 23' S. longitude, by account 

68® 5 7' W. the variation is two points eafterly, In the 
bay the tide rlfes and falls between four and five fa • 
thorn, and runs at the rate of about a mile an hour ; 
in the mid-channel without the bay, it runs nearly 
three miles an hour. In this place we faw no appear- 
ance either of wood or water. The landing appeared 
to be good, but we did not go on (hore. We anchorr 
ed hereon the 19th of December, and failed ag^in on 
the 22d. 

III. PORT FAMINE. At this place the Spani- 
ards, in the year 1 581, bi^ilt a town which they called 
Phllippeville, and left in it a colony, confiding of 400 
perfons. When our celebrated navigator, Cavendifli, 
arrived here in 1587, he found one of thefe unhappy 
^retches, the only one that remained, upon the beach : 



they had all perifhed for want qf fubfiftcnce, except 
twenty-four ; twenty-three of thefe fet out for the 
river Plata, and were never after u'^rds heard of. This 
man whofe name was Hernando, was brought to £i^* 
land by Cavendiih, who called the place where he hjKl 
taken him up. Port Famine. It is a very fine bay, in 
which there is room and conveniency for many (hips to 
moor in great fafety. We moored in nine fathom^ 
having brought Cape St. Anne N. £. by E. and 
Sedger River S. i W. which perhaps is the beft fitua* 
tion^ though the whole bay is good ground. In this 
place there is very good wooding and watering: we 
caught many fine fmall fifli with a hook and line off 
the (hip's fide, and hauled the feine with great fuc* 
cefs, in a fine Tandy bay, a little to the fouthwardof 
Sedger River : we aJfo (hot a great number of birds, 
of various kinds, particularly geefe, ducks, teal,fnipes, 
plover and race-horfes, and we found wild celery in 
great plenty. The latitude of this place is 53® 4a' S, 
longitude, by obfervation, 71® 28* W. the variation is 
two points eafterly. We anchored here the 27th of 
December 1 766^ and (ailed again the i8th of January 

IV. CAPE HOLLAND BAY. There is no dan- 
ger in failing into this bay, and there is good anchor* 
ing ground in every part of it. We lay at about three 
cables length from the (horc, in ten fathom, the 
ground coarfe fand and fhells. Cape Holland bearing 
W. S. W. 4 W. diftant three miles. Cape Froward 
a little to the N. of the E. Right abreaft of the fhip 
there was a very fine rivulet, and clofe under Cape 
Holland a large river, navigable for boats many miles : 
the fhore alfo affords fire- wood in great plenty. We 
found abundance of wild celery and cranberries, muf- 
cles and limpets, but caught very little fifh, either 
with hook and line, or the feine. We killed fome 
geefe, ducks, teal, and race-horfes, but they were 
not plenty. This bay lies in latitude 53^ 57' S. longi- 
tude, by account, 72*^ 34' W. the variation is two- 
points eafterly. The water rofe about eigjit feet ; we 
found, however, no regular tide, but for the moft part 
a ftrong current fetting to the ea ft ward. vWc* anchor- 

\ * 


ed here on the iptb of Jamiary, and failed agaia ob 
the 23d. 

V. CAPE GALLANT Bay. In this bay, which 
may be entered, with great iafety, there is a fine large 
lagoon, where a fleet of (hips may moor in perfed fe-* 
curity. ! There is a depth of fbnr fathom in every part 
^ it, with a foft muddy ground. In the bay, the 
bed' anchoring i$ on the eaft fide, where there is from ten fathom. . Here is good watering from two 
rivers, and plenty of . wood. The lagoon abounded 
with wild fowl, and we found Wild cdery, mtifcles, 
and limpets in plenty. We did not haul the feine, 
having torn one to pieces,.and the other being unpack'* 
ed, but if we had,, there is reafon to believe that we 
ihould have been well fupplied with fi(h. The landing 
« is good. The latitude c^ the bay and lagoon is 53* 
500 S. longitude, by account, 73® 9' W. the variation 
ts two points eafterly. t obferved the water to rife 
and fall about nine feet, but the tide was very irr^tar. 
We anchored here the a 3d of January, and failed 
again the l8th. 

VL ELIZABETH'S BAY. At the entrance of 
this bay there are two fmall reefs, which appear above 
waten The moft dangerous lies oiF the eaft point of 
the bay, but this may eafily be avoided, by keeping at 
the diftance of about two cables length from the point. 
There is good landing all round the bay, but it is much 
expofed to the wefterly winds. The beft place for an- 
choring is Paflage Point, at half a mile diftance, bear- 
ing S. E. and the river bearing N. E. by E. diftant 
three cables length ; in this fituation, a bank or fiioal, 
which may be known by the weeds, bears W. N. W. 
diftant a cable's length : the ground is coarfe fand, 
with fliells. Sufficient wood is to be procured here for 
the ufe of fliips, and there is good watering at a fmall 
river. We found a little celery and a few cranberries, 
but neither fifli nor fowl. The latitude of this place 
is 530 43' S. the longitude, by account, 'j^^2j\!W, 
the variation is two points eafterly. We anchored 
here the 29th of January, and failed the 4th of Fe- 

Vn. YORK ROAD. The only danger of failing 
into the bay, that is formed by two joints in this road. 


arifes from a reef that runs off to about a cable's length 
from the weftern point, which once known, may be 
eafily avoided. To anchor in this bay, it is fafeft to 
bring York Point E. S. E. Bachelor's River N. by W. 
i W. the weft point of the bay or reef N. W. i W. 
and St. Jerom's Sound W. N. W. at the diftance of 
half a mile from the Ihore. There is good watering 
about a mile up Batchelor's River, and good wooding 
all round the bay, where the landing alfo is, in all 
parts, very good. We found plenty of celery, cran- 
berries, mufcles, and limpets, many wild fowl, and 
fome fifli, but not enough to fupply the (hip's company 
with afreftimeal. The latitude here is 530 39^ S. 
longitude, by account, 73® 52' W. the variation two 
points eafterly. The water rifes and falls about eight 
feet, but the tide is irregular. The mafter, who croff- 
ed the Streight many times to examine the bays, fre- 
quently found the. current letting in three different di- 
reSions. We anchored here on the 4th of February, 
and failed again the 1 1 th. 

VIII. BUTLER'S BAY. This is a fmall bay in- 
tirely furrounded by rocks, fo that no (hip fhould an- 
chor here if Ihe can pofEbly avoid it. Wc found, 
however, fufEcient wood and water to keep up our 
flock, mufcles and limpets in plenty, fome good rock- 
fifh, and a few wild fowl,- but celery and cranberries 
were very fcarce. This bay lies in latitude 53° 3 7' S. 
longitude, by account, 740 9' W. the variation is two 
points eafterly. The water rifes and falls here about 
four feet, but the current always fets to the eaftward. 
We anchored here the i8th of February, and failed 
the I ft of March. 

IX. LION COVE. This is a fmall bay, and fur- 
rounded by rocks. The water is deep, but the ground 
is good. It is not a bad place for one fhip, nor a good 
one for two. Here is good watering up a fmall creek, 
but no wood. There is good landing at the watering- 
place, but no where elfe. We found no refrefhment 
but a few mufcles, limpets, and rock-fifh, with a little 
celery. The laiitude is 530 26' S. longitude, by ac- 
count, 740 25' W. the variation was two-points eafter- 
ly. The water, as far as we could judge by the ap- 
pearance of the rocks^ rifes and falls above tvv^ feex. 


and the current fets at the rate of about two knots ait 
hour. We anchored here on the ad of March, and 
failed the next day. 

X. GOOD-LUCK BAY. This is a finall bay, and 
like feveral others in thb Streight, intirely furrounded 
by rocks. The ground is very coarfe, and the cable of 
our bed bower anchor was fo much rubbed, that. we 
were obliged to condemn it, and bend a new one. At 
this place there is a little wood, and plenty of good 
water, but the rocks render it very difficult of accefs. 
No man that fees this part of the coaft, can expe3 to 
find any kind of refrelhment upon it ; and indeed we 
caught nothing except a few rock-fifli, with hook and 
line. There may be circiimfiances in which it may be 
good luck to get into this bay, but we thotight it very 
good luck to get out of it. It lies }n latitude 530 
23' S. longitude, by account, 74* 33' W. the varia- 
tion is two points eafterly. The water rifes and £ills 
bet weeniihree and four feet, though whenever we had 
an opportunity of tryii^ the current, we found it run 
eaflerly. We anchored here the 3d of March, ad 
failed the 1 5th. 

XI. SWALLOW HARBOUR. This harbour 
when once entered, isveryfafe, being (heltered from 
all winds, but the entrance is narrow and rocky ; the 
rocks, however, may be eafily avoided by keeping a 
good look-out, as there are large bunches of rock- 
weed upon them all. We found here a fufficient fup- 
ply of wood Vind water, the wood however was Very 
fmall. As the water is conftantly fmooth here, The 
landing is every where good ; but we found no fup- 
ply of provifions, except a few mufcles and rock-fifh. 
The mountains round it have the moft horrid appear- 
ance, and feem to be altogether deferted by every thing 
that has life. The latitude is 53® 29 S. the longitude, 
by account, .74® 35' W. the variation is two points 
eafterly, and the tide rifes and falls between four and 
five feet. We anchored here the 1 5th cf March, 
and left the place the next day. 

XII. UPRIGHT BAY. This bay may be fafely 
enured, as there is no obftruSion but what is above 
water. The wood here is very fmall, bat we found 



fufficient to keep up our ftock. The water is excellentt 
and in great plenty.' As to provifions, we got only a 
few wild fowl, rock (ifhes, and mufcles. The landing 
is bad. The latitude of this place, is 53® 8' S. longi- 
tude 75 35' W. the variation two points eafterly. 
The.water rifes and falls about five feet, but the tide 
or current is very irregular. We anchored here on 
the 1 8th of Marchj and failed, again on the loth o^ 

There are three very good bays a little beyond Cape 
Shut-up, which we called River Bay, Lodging 
Bay, and Wallis's Bay. Wallis's Bay is th« 

About half way between Elizabeth's bay and York 
road, lies Mufcle bay, where there is very good anchq* 
rage with a wefterly wind. There is alfo a bay, with 
good anchorage, oppofite to York road, and another 
to the eaftwardof Cape Crofs-tide, but this will hold 
only a fingle (hip* Between Cape-Crofs and Saint 
David's dead, lies Saint David's Sound, on the fouth 
fide of which we found a bank of coarfe fand and (helfs, ' 
withadepthof water from 19 to 30 fathom, where a. 
(hip might anchor in cafe of neceflity : and the mafter 
of the Swallow found a very good fmall bay a little to 
the eaftward of Saint David's Head. A little to the 
eaftward of Cape Quod, lies Ifland bay,* where the 
Swallow lay fome time, but it is by no means an eli- 
gible fituation. The ground of Chance bay is very 
rocky and uneven, and for that reafon (hould be 

As all the violent gales by which we fuffered in this 
navigation, blew from the weftward, it is proper to 
(land about a hundred leagues or more to the weft- 
ward,, after failing out of the Streight, that the fhip 
may uot be endangered on a lee (hore, which at pre- 
fent is wholly unknown. 

The following table fhews the courfes anddiftances, 
from point to point, in the Streight of Magellan, by 






In the Streight of MAGELLAN^ by Compafs. 

Cape VIRGIN MARY lies in Latitude 52** 24' S. 

and Longitude 68® 22' W. 





Cipc Virgin Mary to Dongenefs 

Point -^ S. by W. - 

Dangenefs Point to Point Pofleflion W. J S. — 
Point Pofi*effion to the S. fide of the 

I ft Narrows ■ ^. W. J S. - J47 

The N. to the S. end of the Narrows S. S. W. — 
The S. end of the Narrows to Cape 

Gregory . ^ W.S.W.^W. 

Cape Gregory to Sweepftakes Pore- 
land S. 300 W. 

Cape Gregory to Dolphin's Foreland S. W. 4 W. 

Dolphin's Foreland to the N. end of 

Elizabeth's Ifland — S. ^ W. — 

The N. end of Elizabeth^ Ifland to| 
St. Bartholomew's Ifland — 

The N. end of Elizabeth's Ifland to 
St. George*#!fland — 

The N. end of Elizabeth's Ifland to 
Porpoife Point — — 

Porpoife Point to Frefli-watcr Bay 

Frefli- water Bay to Cape St. Ann, 
or Port Famine — . 

Cape St. Ann to the entry of a great 
lound on the fouth ftiore — 

Cape St. Ann to Cape Shut-up - 

Cape Shut-up to Dolphin's Ifland 

Dolphin's Ifland to Cape Froward^ 
the fouthermofl in all America 

Cape Froward to Snug-Bay Point 

Snug-bay Point to Cape Holland 





52028 6S028' 
ja 2368 S7 

5» S569 ^8 

5^ 39 

E. N. E. — 

S. E. — 

S. by W. — 
S.^E. - 

S.S.E. ^E. 

N. E. — 
S. by E. — 
S. S. W. — 

S, 47 W. - 
W. i N. — 
W. by S. — 

5^ 43 

70 3* 

7^ 53 



52 5671 6 
52 5671 4 

53 6 71 17 
»3t53 427^ 







53 547* 32 
53 597* 4» 


71 59 

53 577^ 34 

Cape Holland to Cape Gallant jW. ^S. — 2i4c3 5o73 9 
Cajpe Gallant to Elizabeth»s Bay iW.N.W.^W |ii||5^ 43|73 *4| 


Elizabeth's Bay to York PoinI — 
York road to Cape Crofs-.ide - 
York road to Cape Quod — 
Cape Quod to St. David's Head 
Cape Quod to Butler's Bay — 
Cape Quod to Chance Bay — 
Cape Quod to Great Mufde Bay 
Cape Quod to Snow Sound — 
Cape Quod to Lion's Cove 
Lion's Cove to Good-Luck Bay 
Cape Quod to Cape Notch — 
Cape Notch to Swallow Harbour 
Cape Notch to Pifs-poc Bay 
Cape Notch to Cape Monday 
Cape Monday to Cape Upright 
Cape Monday to a great Sound on 
the N. ihore 



w.^s. — 

W.iS. — 

S. E. 

S.\W. — 

s. s. w. - 

S. W. i s. 

W. N.W.^W 
S. S.E. — 
W. i S. 

w. — 

W. by N. ~ 


MII.| Ltdtul Long. 

Cape Upright to Cape ProvidcBcc[N. bjr W.^W. 
Cape Upright to Cape Tamer 
Cape Upright to Cape Pillar 
Cape Pillar to Weftminfter liland 
Cape Pillar to Cape Vi£kory 











53 33 

74 6 


'" N, — 
N. E. i N. 
N. W. i N. 

Cipc Pillar to the IflandofDircaioaW. N. W. - 






53 37 

74 9 



53 ^9 



52 57 
S* 43 

74 25 
74 33 

2274 36 

74 36 




7S 37 

76' S» 




C H A 'P. IV. 

/• ' 

The Pajfage from the Str eight of Magellan^ io King 
George the Thirds Ifiand^ called Otaheite^tfTthi 
South Sea, luitb an Account of the Difcovery offeve^ 
ral other IJlandsy and a Defiription of their Inhabi- 

}^^\] yi S wc continued our courfe to the Weftward, af- 

K^^^yr^J ±X. ^^^ having cleared the Streight^ we faw a great 

Sand. la. number of gannet, (heerwajters^ pintado birds, and 

many others, about the ihip, and had for the mod 

part (Irong gales, hazy weather, and heavy feas, fo 

that we were frequently brought under our courfes, 

and there was not a dry place in the (hip for fome 

weeks together. 

W«as. St. At eight in the morning of the 22d, w/ehad an ob- 

fervation, by which we found our longitude to be 950 

46' W. and at noon, our latitude was 420 1^ S. and 

the variation by azimuth, i lo 6' E. 

Friday 24. By the 24th, the men began to fall down very faft 

In colds and fevers, in confequenceof the upper works 

being open, and their cloaths and beds continually 


Saod. 16. On the 26th, at four in the afternoon, the variation, 

by azimuth, was 10® 20' E. and at fix in the morning 

of the next day, it was 90 8' E. Oiir latitude, on the 

liwiday 27. 27th at noon, was 36° 54' S. our longitude, by account, 

100^ W. This day, the weather being moderate 

'and fair, we dri^d all the people's clothes, and got 

the fick opon deck, to whom we gave falop, and 

wheat boiled with portable foup, every morning for 

breakfaft, and all the fhip's company had as much 

vinegar and muftard as they could ufe ; portable foup 

was alfo conftantly boiled in their peafe and oatmeal. 

The hard gales, with frequent and violent fqualls, 

and a heavy fea, foon returned, and continued with 

very little intermldion. The thip pitched fo much 

that \ve were afraid ftie would carry away her mails, 

and the men were again wet in their beds. 



On the 30th, the variation, by azimuth, was 8* 17^- 
30' E. our latitude was 32° 50' longitude, by accounts *^ 
100' W. I began now to keep the (hip to the north- 
ward, as we had no chance of getting wefting in this * 
latitude ; and the furgeon was of opinion, that in a 
little time the fick would fo much increafe, that we 
fhould want hands to work the (hip, if we could not 
get into better weather. 

On the third of May, about four in the afternoon, Sunday j 
we had an obfervation of the fun and moon, by which 
we found our longitude to be 96^ 26' W. the variation 
by the azimuth was 50 44' E. at (ix in the evening, 
and at fix the next morning, it wa> 50 58' £. OurMoBd.4. 
latitude, this day at noon, was 28® 20' S.^ At four in 
the afternoon we had feveral obfervations for the longi- 
tude, and found it to be 96° 21' W. at feven in the 
evening, the variation was 6^ 40' E. by the azimuth, 
and the next morning at 10 it was by amplitude, 50 -, - 
48' E : at three in the afternoon, the variation, by 
amplitude, was 70 40' E. This day we faw a trppic 

At fix o'clock in the morning, of Friday the eighth Friday S. 
of May, the variation of the needle, by amplitude, 
was 70 1 1 ' E. Jn the afternoon we faw feveral (heer- 
waters and fea fwallows. At eight in the morning of Satur. 9. 
the 9th, the variation by azimuth was 9° 34' E. and 
in the morning of the nth, by azimuth and amplitude, Monday n. 
it was 40 40' E. Our latitude was 270 28' S. longi- 
tude, by account, 1060 W. This day, and the next, Tuefday ii« 
we faw feveral fea fwallows, (heerwaters, and porpoi- 
fes, about the (hip. 

On the 14th of May the variation, by four azi- Thurf, 14. 
muths, was 2° E. About four o'clock in the after- 
noon, we faw a large' flock of brown birds, flying to 
the eaftward, and fomething which had the appearance 
of high land, in the fame quarter. We bore away for 
it till fun-fet, and it ftill having the fame appearance, 
we continued our courfe ; but at two in the morning, 
having run 1 8 leagues without making it, we hauled 
the wind, and at day-light nothing was to be feen. 
We had now the fatisfadion to find our ailing people 
menda-pace. Our latitude was 240. 50' out lon- 

YoL. I. M ^vX\xA^> 


i7^7' that they got on (hore, as the furf ran very high-' 
J""^ Having received this account, I flood ofF and on all 
Sond.V^ night, and early the next morning I fent the boits out 
again to found, with orders, if poiUble, to find a 
place where the (hip might come to an anchor ; but 
at eleven ©'clock they returned, with no better fuccefs 
than before. The people told me that the whole 
ffland was furrounded by -a reef, and that although 
on the weather fide of the iiland there was an opening 
through it, into a large bafon, that extended to the 
middle of the ifland^ yet they found it fo full of break- 
ers, that they could not venture in ; neither indeed 
had they been able to land on any part of the iiland, 
the furf running ftill higher than it had done the day 
before. As it would therefore anfwef lio pfarpofe to 
continue here, I hoifted the boats in, and flood away 
for the other ifland^ which bore S» ^2<^ £. diflant 
about four leagues. The ifland which I now quitted, 
having been difcovered on Whitfun-cve, I called it 
Whitfun-^jjjYsuN IsLAND. It isabout four miles long, and 
three wide. Its latitude is jg^ 26' S. and its longitude, 
by obfervation 1370 56' W. 

When we came under the lee of the other ifland, 
I fent Lieutenant Furneaux> with the boats manned 
and armed, to the fliore, where I faw about fifty of 
the natives armed with long pikes, and feveral of them 
running about with firebrands in their hands. I or- 
dered Mr. Furneaux to go to that part of the beach 
where we faw the people, and endeavour to traffic 
with them for fruit and wi ter, or whatever elfe might 
be ufeful ; at the fame time, being particularly careful 
to give them no offence. I ordered him alfo to employ 
the boats in .founding for anchorage. About feven 
o'clock he returned, and told me that he could find no 
ground with the line, till he came within half a cable's 
length of the (here, and that there it confifted of fhaip 
rocks, and lay very deep. 

As the boat approached the fliore,, the Indians 
thronged down towards the beach, and put themfelves 
upon their guard with their long pikes, as if to difpute 
the landing. Our men then lay upon their oars, and 
made figns of friendfhip, fhewing at the fame time 
fcvcral ftrings of beads, ribbands, knives and other 


ROUND THE wo RLD^ t6j 

trinketo. The Indians ftill insde figns to our people, 
that they fhould departf but at the fame time eyed the 
-trinkets with a kind of wifhfiil curiodty. Soon after 
fome of them advanced a few fteps into ^he fea, and 
our people making (igns that they wanted. cocoa-outs 
and water, fome of them brought down a fmall quan- 
tity of both ; and -ventured to hand them into the 
boat : the water was in cocoa-nut flieUs, and the fruit 
was ftripped of its outward covering, which is probably 
tifed for various purpofes. For this fupply they were. 
paid with the trinkets that had been (hewed them, and 
fome nails, upon which they feemed to ftit a much 
greater value. During^ this trafSc, one of the Indians 
found means to fleal a filk handkerchief,: in which 
fome of bur fmall merchandize was wrapped up, and 
carried it clear oiF, with its contents, fo dexteroufly, 
that nobody obferved him.. Our peoplernuide' figas 
that a handken^hief liad.been ftolen, but they etthcr 
could not, or Uroutd not underftand them. The boat 
continued 2bout the beach,.. fobnding for anchorage, 
till it was diark ; ^d having tnany times endeavoured 
to perfaade th^ nativesto bringdown fome fcurvy^ais, 
vrithout faccefs,. ihe returiled on board. 

I flood off and on with the fliip all night, and as j^ondat s. 
foon as the day broke, . I fent the boats again, with 
orders to make a landing, but without giving any 
offence to the natives, that cotdd poffibly be avoided. 
When our boats came near the ihorc, the officer was 
greatly furprizcd to fee feven large canoes, with two 
ilout mafts in each, lying Juft in the furf, with all the 
inhabitants upon the beach, ready io embark. They 
made figns to our people to go higher up ; they readily 
complied, and as foon as they went on (hore, all the 
Indians embarked, and failed away to the weftward, be- 
ing joined by two other canoes at the weft end of the 
ifland. About noon, the boats returned, laden with 
cocoa-nuts, palni-nuts, and fcurvygrafs* Mr. Fur- 
neaux, who commanded the expedition, told me that 
the Indians had left nothing behind them but four or 
five canoes. He found a well of very good water, and 
defcribed the ifland as being fandy and level, full of 
trees, but without underwood, and abounding with 
fcurvy-grafs* The canoes, which fleered about W. S. 


tyty, W. as long as they could be feen from the maft-^head, 
^•**'' appeared to be about thirty feet long, four feet broad> 
^^^^ and three and an half deep. Two of thefe being 
brought along-fide of each other, were faftened toge- 
ther, at the diftance of about three feet afunder, by 
crofs beaiils, paffing from the larboard gunwale of one, 
.to the fiarboard gunwale of the other, in the middle 
and near to each end. 

.. .The inhabitants of this ifland were of a middle 
ftature, and dark complexion, with long black hair, 
. which hiAig lobfc over their (faoulders. The men 
iweFe well made, and the women handfoitle. Their 
. cloathing was a kind of coarfe cloth or matting, which 
-^wai^ fafEened about their middle, and feemed capable 
of b€;in^' brought up round their ihoulders« 
' :Iii the afternoon,' I fent Lientenant Furneaux with 
the boats again on (bore. • He had with him a mate 
aflid twehty men, who w<ere to make a foiling way 
for gating the ca&s down to the beach irom the well. 
I gave orders that he (hbuld take pofieffiort of the ifland, 
in the name of King George the Third, and give it 
. the pameof Queen Charlotte's Island, in ho- 
nour of her Majefty. The boats returned freighted 
with cocoa-nuts and fcurvy-grafs, and the officer told 
me that he had found two more wells of good water, 
not far from the beach. I was at this time very ill, 
yet I went a-fliore with the Surgebn, and feveral of 
the people, who were enfeebled by the fcurvy, to take 
a walk. I found the wells fo convenient that I left 
the mate and twenty men on fhore to fill water, and 
ordered a week's provifions to be lent them ffom the 
fliip, they being already furniihed with arms and am- 
munition. In the evening I returned on board, with 
the Surgeon and the fick, leaving only the waterers on 
(here. As we had not been able to find any anchorage, 
I flood off and on all night. 
Tucfd. 9. ^" ^^^ morning, I fent all the empty water caiks on 
ihore ; the Surgeon and the fick were alfo fent for the 
benefit of another airing, but I gave them ftriS orders 
that they ihould keep near the water-fide, and in the 
(hade ; that they (honld not pull down or injure any 
of the houfes, nor, for the fake of the fruit, deftroy 
the cocoa- trees, which 1 aippoitvted proper perfons to 

.cliiTib. At nooji, the rolling-way b^if^g tl^iSt ^^ ''^' 
cutter returned laden witlj wafpr. (jjii it was with gre^ ■_*^!Lj 
difficulty got off the beach, as jt is afl rpck, and thp ^ ~' 
furf thai breaks upgn it, is ofteii very great. M fgur, 
I received another boat-load of water, and a frejlj 
fupply pf cocoa-[)uts, palm-niils, and icurvy-grafs j 
the Surgeon al(o returned with the ffck m^ n, wljo re; 
celvpd mucl) bf nefil frptn th,ei^ jyaJk. fhe nexi morn- 
ing, as (qop ^s it wa; )i$ht, I dilpaxcbejd Qrd^i^ to the 
inaie, to feqd all ^the water t)iat ^cis fille^ pn boari]^ 
aijd to be re^y tc? come off with his people vfieo ihe 
bo^s fhouM retyrn ^uj> Ijriflgjng -wiih ihenr «s pnan y 
cocoa mUs, an,d js much ^upvy-gr^ as ih^y cfjjJ.^ 
procure. About eight o'cljjckf all l^e bo^ts and p[Kf- 
ple came on board, yirith the water At^ refre&meDM, 
but rhe cytter, jp coming pff, Si^figed ^ Cea, whic^ 
almflff filled ij.e/- jw,l^ wfttef _; t^ b?fgp ,Vas J^appil^ 
near enoygh to ^fftii her, }ty RsJiiflg great .pift (pi hpr 
crew on board, y ^ the ifilj i«ed ^, wjiilit^t aoy dfipiage t^a^ f^c lijfs fjj'/^he ,(:f3s,0A-nai^ ap^ 
greens tjjal jirere on bV^d. ^t 'i99^* i hoifted the 
boa,is in, ^ itht^e j^Vfg^^ ff^}-^' ^'^k * drcaafm 
turf mllLng iji^' upofl jtj^e (UwV ar^d fit .a^^chffrm:, t 
tho,L^t ^t ^jadenl .tp (eajee this pl?J^? .with (luJd r.e- 
frjeflijiients, as ^e hf d gqt. TJie ffso0.e y/i^p ^^ ji;'cr 
fided .on (t^9j;e, [aw ny apRear.aj^ce ^f fln,e,t3i ,«* ^ay 
l^ind^ bm,fev,t^al tools, >viiich .were made ^f ih^ls ^d 
ftones, ^airpeped snd ,fiued,in[,o .hfindl?s, .^tk,f adxes^ 
chiQeis, a^i^jiwls. They faw ftvcr;il c^g^sjiuilding, 
which are formed of planlts, fcv-xd i^^gether, ^nil 
faftened tp feyeral fm.ill timbers, ^I^at pals Ijranf- 
v^rfely alpng tJiE bottom and up the fides- Tfiey 
faw feveral repqTitqries of ,the dea^i, i^ whjqh the 
body was ,leCt to putrefy under .a canopy^ and not .pitf 
into the ground. 

When we failed, we left ^ .UF^i^jn jack flying upon 
the ifland, with the ihips nan^e, tjie liipe of being 
here, and an ^ccoypt of our tajt^ng poffefliop of tljis 
place, and Whttfun Ifland, in the xia,n)e of his Bri.. 
tannic Majefty, cut on ji piece Qf ,>vopd, and in the bark 
of feveral trees. |We alfo ;l^(t fcjme hatchets, nails, 
gtafs-bottleE, beads, fliillings, fixpences, and half- 
pence, as prefe?it?'to thenativM, and an ixootme,iA 




for the difturbance we had given them. Queen Char- 
lotte's Ifland is about fix miles long, and one mile 
wide, lies in latitude 190 18 ^S. longitude, by ob- 
fervation, 1380 4' W. and we found the variation here 
to be 40 46' E. 

We made fail with a fine breeze, and about one 
o'clock, faw an ifland W. by S. Queen Charlotte's 
Ifland, at this time bearing E. by N. difl:ant 1 5 miles. 
At half an hour after three, we were within about three 
quarters of a mile of the eafl end of the ifland, and 
fan clofe along the fliore, but had no foundings. The 
eaft and weft ends are joined to each other by a reef of 
rocks, over which the fea breaks into a lagoon, in the 
middle of the ifland, which therefore, had the appear- 
ance of two iflands, and feemed to be about fix 
miles long, and four broad. The whole of it is low 
land, full of trees, but we faw not a Angle cocoa-nut, 
iior any huts : we found, however, at the weftermoft 
end, all the canoes and people who had fled, at our 
approach, from Queen Charlotte's Ifland, and fome 
more. We counted eight double canoes, and about 
fourfcore people, men, women, and children. The 
canoes were drawn up upon the beach, the women and 
children were placed near tliem, and the men advanced 
with their pikes and firebrands, making a gre^ noife 
and dancing in a ftrange manner. We obferved that 
this ifland was fandy, and that under the trees there 
was no verdure. As the fliore was every where rocky, 
as there was no anchorage, and as we had no profpeft 
of obtaining any refreftiment here, I fet fail, at fix 
o'clock in the evening, from this ifland, to which I 
gave the name of Egmont Island, in honour of 
the earl of Egmont, who was then firft Lord of the 
Admiralty. It lies in latitude i9<> 20' S. longitude, 
by obfervation, 1 38*^ 30' W. 
Thurf. 1 1. At one o'clock, on the i ith, we faw an ifland, in the 
W. S. W. and flood for it. At four in the afternoon, 
we were within a quarter of a mile of the fliore, and ran 
along it, founding continually, but could get no ground. 
It is furrounded on every fide by rocks, on which the 
fea breaks very high. It is full of trees, but not one 
cocoa-nut, and has much the fame appearance with 
Egmont J/Iand, but is much natrower. Among the 



rocks, at the weft end, we faw about fixteen of the '7^' 
natives, but no canoes: they carried long pikes or _A^^^^ 
poles in their hands, and feemed to be, in every refpcft 
the fame kind of people that we had feen before. As 
nothing was to be had here, and it blew very hard, I 
made fail till eight in the evening, and then bro'ight to. 
To this ifland, which is about fix miles long, add 
from one mile to one Quarter of a mile broad, I gave 
the name of Gloucester Island, in honour of cio^^j^ftj, 
his Royal Highnefs the Duke. It lies in latitude Ifland. 
19® 11' S. and longitude, by obfervation, 140*^ 
4' W. 

At five o'clock in the morning, we made fail, and Friday la. 
foot! after faw another ifland. At 10 o'clock, the 
weather being tempeftuous, with much rain, we faw 
a long reef, with breakers on each fide of the ifland, 
and therefore brought the fliip to, with her head oflF 
the ftiore. To this Ifland, which lies in latitude 19* 
18' S. longitude, by obfervation, 1400 36' W. I gave 
the name of Cumberland Island, in honour ofc„,„j^. 
his Royal Highnefs the Doke. It lies low, and is land^siflaad 
about the fame fize as Queen Charlotte's Ifland. We 
found the variation of the needle here to be 70 10' E- 
As I had no hope of finding any refrefliment here, I 
flood on to the weft ward. 

At day-break, on Saturday the 13th, we faw ano- saturd. i«. 
ther Tmaft low ifland, in the ii. N. W. right to wind- 
ward. It had the apjpearance of fmall flat keys. This 
place Icalled Prince William Henry's Island, Prince 
in honour of his Majefty's third fon. It lies in latitude William 
190 S; longitude, by obfervation, 1410 6' W. I madcifl^7,* 
no ftay here, hoping, that to the weft ward I fliould find 
higher land, where the fliip might come to an anchor, 
and fuch refreftiments as we wanted be procured. 

Soon after day-light, on the 17th, we faw land bear- ^^^cf. 17. 
ing W. by N. and mailing in a fmall round hummock. 
At noon, when it bore N. 64 W. diflant about five 
leagues, its appearance greatly refembled the Mewftone 
in Plymouth Sound, but it feemed to be much larger. 
We found the fliip this day, 20 miles to the northward 
of her reckoning, which I imputed to a great S. W. 


'767- At five in the evening, this ifland borie N. W. dift^nt 

^]*^^ about eight miles, I then hauled the wind, and ftopd 
on and off all night. At ten^ we faw a light upon the 
(hore, which, though the ifland was fma)l, proved 
that it was inhabited, and gave us hopes that we ihould 
find anchorage near it. We obferved with great plea- 
fqre, that the land was vi^ry highy ai^l coversd with 
cocoa- trees ; a Aire fign that ^hfsre wa$ water, 
hurfa. 18. The next morning, I fcnt Lieujtenant Fur/[>eaux to 
the (hore, with the boats mani^ed ^nd armed, and al) 
kinds of trinkets, to eft^bliih a tra^k with the natives, 
for fuch refrefliment as the place would afford. I gave 
him orders alfo to find, if poflUble, an anchoring place 
for the ihip. While we were getting out the boats, 
feveral canoes put off fr/oii) tl>e ifland, but as foon a$ 
the people on board faw them make towards the fhore, 
they put back. At noon the boiats returned, and brought 
with them a pig and a cock, with a few plaintains and 
cocoa-nuts. Mr. Fume^ux reported, that he had fee a 
at lead an hundred of the inhabitants, apd believed 
there were many more upon the ifland ; but that 
having been all round it, be could 6q4 no anchorage^ 
nor fcarcely a landing-place for tjie boat. When he 
reached the fliore, he came to a grappling and threw 
a warp to the Indians upon the beach, who caught it 
and held it faft. He then began to converle with them 
by flgns, and obferved tl!%t tbey had no weapon among 
them, but that fome of them had white flicks, which 
feemed to be enfigns of autl^ority, as the people who 
bore them kept the refl of the natives b^k. In ret;Mni 
for the pig and cock he gave them ibune beads, a 
looking'glafs, a few combs, with feveral. other trinkets^ 
and a hatchet. The women, who had been kept at 
a diflance, as foon as they faw the trii^ets, ran down 
in a croud to the beach, with great eagernefs, but were 
foon driven away by the men, at which they expreffed 
much difappointment and vexation. While this traffic 
was carrying on, a man came fecretly round a rock, and 
diving down, took up the boats grappling, and at the 
fame time, the people on fhore who held the warp, 
made an effort to draw her into the furf As foon as 
this was perceived by the people on board they fired a 
muiket over the man's head who had taken up the 




■ grappHng, upon which he inftantiy let it go, with marks '7^7- 
of great terror and aftonifhment ; the people on (hore ^J,^^ 

. alfo let go the rope. The boats after this, lay fome 
time upon their oars ; but the officer finding that he 
could get nothing more* returned on board. Mr. Fur- 
neaux told me that both men and women were 
cloathed, aad he brought a piece of their doth away 
with him. The inhabitants appeared to him to be more 
numerous than the tfland could fupport, and for this 
reafoo, efpecialiy as he faw fome large double canoes 
upon the beach, he imagined there were iflands of 
larger extent, not far diftant, where rcfrethments in 
greater plenty might be procured, and hoped that they 
might be iefs difficult of accefs. As I thought this a 
reafonabie conje^re, I hoifted in the boats, and de- 

-^ermined to run farther to the weft ward. To this place, 
which is nearly circular, and about two miles over, I 
gave the naitieofOsNABUROHlsLAND, in honour of Ofiuboisb 
Prince Frederick, who is biftiop of that fee. It lies in *"*^* 
latitude 170 51- S. and longitude 147^ 30' W. the va- 
riation here was 7** 10' E. 

C H A P, V. 

I ■ 

j/n account 4)f thi Difcovery4f King George ih Thirds 
Iflandj *r Otahtite^ ani cf feveral incidents which 
iappinid Mdtb tm board the Ship, and en Shore, 

AT two o'clock, the fame day, we bore away, and Thurfd. i8« 
in about half an hour, difcovered very high land 
m iheW. B. W. At feven in the evening, Ofnaburgh 
Ifland bore E. N. E. and the ntw difcovered land, from 
W. N. W. to W. by S. As the weather was thick and 
equally, we brought to for the night, or at leaft till the 
fog ftiould break away. At two \i\ the morning, it be- f ri<lay 19. 
ing very clear, we made fail again ; at day-break we 
•faw the land, at about ftve leagues dirtance, and (leered 
direSly for it ; but at eight o'clock, when we were 
clofe under it, the fog obliged us again to lie to, and 
when it cleared away, we were much furpriled to find 
ourfelves fur rounded by fome hundreds of canoes. They 
were of difFer-ent fizes, and had on board different 
numbers from one to tcn^ fo that in all of them to- 


1767. gether, there could not be lefs than eight bundrecf 
J^^ people. When they came within piftol (hot of the 
ibipythey lay by, gazing at us with great aftonifhnienty 
and by turns conferrbg with each other. In the mean 
time we ihewed them trinkets of various kinds^ and 
invited them on board. . Soon after ». they drew toge- 
ther, and held a kind of council to determine what 
ihould be done : then they all paddled round. the (hip, 
making figns of friendihip, and one of them holding 
up a branch of the plantain tree, made a fpeech that 
lafled near a quarter of an hour, and then threw it in- 
to the fea. Soon after as we continued to make figns 
\f invitation, a fine, ftout lively young man ventured 
on board : he came up by the mizen chains, and jump- 
ed out of the fhrouds upon the top of the awning. 
We made figns to him to come down upon the quar- 
ter-deck, and handed up fome trinkets to him : he 
looked pleafed, but would accept of nothing till fome 
of the Indians came along-fide, and after much talk, 
threw a few branches of plantain-tree on board the 
(hip. He then accepted our prefents, and feveral others 
very foon came on board, at different parts of the fhip, 
not knowing the proper entrance. As one of thefe 
Indians was ftanding near the gang-way, on the lar- 
board fide of the quarter-deck, one of our goats butted 
him upon the haunches : being furprized at the blow, 
he haftily turned about, and faw the goat raifed upon 
his hind legs, ready to repeat the blow. The appear- 
ance of this animal, fo different from any he had ever 
feen, ftruck him with fuch terror thai he inflantly 
leaped over-board ; and all the reft, upon feeing what 
had happened, followed his example with the utmoft 
precipitation : they recovered however, in a fhort 
time, from their fright, and returned on board. After 
having a little reconciled them to our goats and (heep, 
I fliewed them our hogs and poultry, and they imme- 
diately made figns that they had fuch animals as thefe. 
I then diftributed trinkets and nails among them, and 
made figns that they (hould go on ftiore and bring us 
fome of their hogs, fowls and fruit, but they did not 
feem to underftand my meaning : they were in the mean 
time watching an opportunity to fteal fome of the 
things that happened to lie in their way, but we gene^ 




rally detefted them in the attcmpti At laft, however, 'T^z* 
one of the midfhipmen happened to come where they ^^]^ 
were (landing with a new laced hat upon his head^ and 
began to talk to one of them by figns : while he was 
thus engaged, another of them came behind him, and 
fuddenly fnatching off the hat, leapt over the taffarel 
into the Tea, and fwam away with it. 

As we had no anchorage here, we flood along the 
ihore, fending the boats at the fame time to found at 
a lefs diftance. As none of thefe canoes had fails, they 
could not keep up with us, and therefore foon paddled 
back towards the fliore. The country has the moft 
delightful and romantic appearance that can be imagin* 
ed : towards the fea it is level, and is covered with 
fruit trees of various kinds, particularly the cocoa-nut. 
Among thefe are the houfes of the inhabitants, con- 
fiding only of a roof, and at a diftance having greatly 
the appearance of a long bam. The country within, 
at about the diftance of three miles, rifes into lofty hills, 
that are crowned with wood, and terminate in peaRs, 
from which large rivers are precipitated into the fea. 
We faw no fhoals, but found the ifland (kirted by a reef 
;iof rocks, through which there are feveral openings into 
deep water. About three o'clock in the afternooa 
we brought to, a-breaft of a large bay, where there 
was an appearance of anchorage. The boats were im- 
mediately fent to found it, and while they were thus 
employed, I obferved a great number of canoes gather 
round them. I fufpefted that the Indians had a defign 
to attack them, and as I was very deiirous to prevent 
mifchief, I made a fignal for the boats to come a-board^ 
and at the fame time, to intimidate the Indians, I 
fired a nine-pounder over their heads. As foon as the 
cutter began to (land toward the (hip, the Indians in 
their canoes, though they had been ftartled by the 
thunder of our nine-pounder, endeavoured to cut her off. 
The boat, however, failing fafter than the canoes could 
paddle, foon got clear of thofe that were about her ; 
but fome others, that were full of men, way-laid her 
in her courfe, and threw feveral (tones into her, wliich 
wounded fome of the people. Upon this the Officer on 
•board (ired a mufquet, loaded with buck-(hot, at the man 



17^7* who threw the (irft ftone> and wounded him in the 
J^^ ^ fhoulder. The reft of the people in the canoes, as 
fooi^ as they perceived their companion wounded^ leapt 
into the fea, and the other canoes. paddled away, in 
great terror and confufion. As foon as the boats 
reached the (hip, they were hoifted on board, and juft 
as (he was about to (land on, we obferved a large ca- 
noe under fail, making after us. As I thought (he 
might have fome Chief on board, or might have been 
difpatched to bring me a melTage from . fome chief, I 
determined to wait for her. She failed very faft, aod 
was foon along-fide the (hip, but we did not ob* 
ferve among thofe on board any one that feemed to 
have an authority over the reft* One of them, how- 
ever, flood up, and having made a fpeech, which 
continued about five minutes, threw on. board a branch 
of the plantain tree. We underftood this to be a 
token of peace, and we returned it, by faondiog over 
one of the branches of plantain that hud been left on 
board by our firft viGtors : with this aqd tpme toys, 
that were afterwards prefeoted to him, he appeared 
to be much gratified, and after a (hort time went 

The officers who had been fent out with the boats, 
informed me that they had founded clofe to the reef, 
and found as great a depth of water as at the other 
iflands : however, as I was now on the weather fideol 
the ifland, I had reafon to expe£k anchorage in running 
to leeward. I therefore took this courfe, but finding 
breakers that ran off to a great diftance from the fouth 
end of the ifland, I hauled the wind, and continued 
turning to windward all night, in order to run down 
on the eaft fide of the ifland. 

At five o'clock in the naorning we »made fail, the 
land bearing N. W. by W. diflrant 10 leagues ; and 
there feemed to be land five leagues beyond it, to the 
N. E. a remarkable peak, like a fugar loaf, bore N. 
N. E. when we were abooat two leagues from the 
(here, which afforded a mod delightful profpe^ and 
was full of houfes and inhabitants. We law feveral 
large canoes near the (hore, under fail, but they did 
not fleer towards the (hip. At noon, we were within 
two or three miles of the ifland, and then it bore from 

S. I w. 


S. I W. tb N. W. by W. We continued our courfe 
along the ttiott, fometimes sCt the diftftnce t^f half a 
milcy and fottietimes at the diftance of four or five 
mikS) but hitherto had got no foundings, x^t fix 
o'clock in the evening, we were a-breaft of a fine ri- 
ver, and the coaft having a better appearance hete 
than in any Other part that we had feen, I deternnined 
to (land off and on all night, and try for anchorage in 
the morning. As foon as it was dark, we faw a great 
number of lights all along the fliore. At day-break we jsatur. m, 
fait out the boats to fou^, and foon after they made 
the fignat for twenty fathom. This produced an uni- 
verfal joyj wWch it is not eafy to defcribe, and we im- 
mediately tioi in, ind CBlmt to in anchor in 17 fathoni« 
with a clear fendy bottom. We lay about a mile 
diftatit from this ihore,oppofiteto a fine run of water; 
the extreams of the [And bearing from E. S* E. to N. 
W. by W. As foon as we h'ftd i«cured the (hip, I fent 
the boats to found along the coaft-, ^nd look at the 
pkce where we (kw tfee water. At this time a cOni- 
fiderable number of canoes caitape ctf to the (hip, and 
brought with them froigs, fowls> dnd fruit ingreat plenty^ 
which we purchafed for trinkets ahdiiiails. But when 
the boats m^de tbwatds the fhore, the canoes, moft * 
of which were double, and very large, failed after them. 
At firft they kept at a diftance^ but as the boats ap- 
proached the (hone, they gvew bolder, and at laft tht^ee 
of the largcft ran at the cutter, ftaved in her quarter, 
and carried away her outrigger, the Indians preparing 
at the fame time to board her, with their clubs and 
paddles in their hands. , Our people being thus preflTed, 
were obliged to fire, by which one of the aflfailants 
^ was killed, and the other much wounded. Upon re- 
ceiving the (hot, they both fell overboard, and all the 
people who were in the fame caiioe, inftantly leaped 
into the fea after them; the other two canoes dropped 
a-ftern, and our boats went on without any farther in- 
terruption. As foon as the Indians, who were in the 
^ater, faw that the boats (lood on without attempting 
to do them any farther hurt,they recovered their canoe, 
2ind hauled in their wounded comj>anions. They fet 
them both upon their feet to fee if they could (land, 
and finding they could not, they tried whether they 



»7^7- could fit upright : one of them could , and him they 
_^' , fupported in that pofture, but perceiving that the other 
was quite dead^ they laid the body along at the bottom 
of the canoe. After this, fome of the canoes went 
aihore, and others returned again to the fhip to traffic, 
which is a proof that our condu£l had convinced them 
that while they behaved peaceably they had nothing 
to fear^ and that ^ they were confcious they had 
brought the mifchtef which had juft happened upon 

The boats continued founding till noon, when they 
returned with an account that the ground was very 
clear ; that it was at the depth of five fathom, within 
a quarter of a mile of the (hore, but that there was a 
very great furf where we had feen the water. The 
officers told me that the inhabitants fwarmed upon 
the beach, and that many of them fwam off to the 
boat with fruit, and bamboos filled with water. They 
faid that they were very importunate with them to come 
on (bore, particularly the women, who came down to 
the beach, and dripping themfelves naked, endeavoured 
to allure them by many wanton geftures, the mean- 
ing of which could not poiTibly be miftaken. At 
this time, however, our people refifled the temp- 

In the afternoon, I fent the boats again to the fhore^ 
with fome barecas or fmall calks, which are filled at 
the head, and have a handle by which they are carried, 
to endeavour to procure fome water, of which we be- 
gan to be in great want. In the mean time, many of 
the canoes continued about the fhip, but the Indians 
had been guiliy of fo many thefts, that I would not 
iuffer any more of them to come on board. 

At five in the evening, the boats returned with only 
two barecas of water, which the natives had fille 1 for 
them ; and as a compenfation for their trouble, they 
thought fit to detain all the reft. Our people, who 
did not leave their boat, tried every expedient they 
could think of to induce the Indians to return their 
water veffels, but without fuccefs ; and the Indians, 
in their turn, were very preffing for our people to come 
qn (hore, which they thought it prudent to decline. 
There were many thoufands of the inhabitants of both 



fcxcs, and a great number of children on the beachj ^7^' 
when our boats came away. ^ ^ 

The next morning, I fent the boats on (hore again Mond, u. 
for water, with nails, hatchets, and fuch other things 
as I thought moft likely to gain the friendfliip of the 
^ inhabitants. In the mean time, a great number of 
canoes came oflF to the fliip, with bread-fruit *, plan- 
tains, a fruit refemWing an apple only better, fowls, 
and hogs, which we purchafed with beads, nails, 
knives, and other articles of the like kind, fo that we 
procured pork enough to ferve the (hip's company two 
days, at a pound a man. 

When the boats returned, they brought us only a 
few calabaflies of water ; for the number of people ori 
the beach was fo great, that they would not venture to ^ 
land, tho' the young women repeated the allurements 
which they had praQifed the day before, with ftill 
more wanton, and, if poflible, lefs equivocal geftures* 
Fruit and provifions of various kinds were brought 
down and ranged upon the beach, of which our peo- - 
pie were alfo invited to partake, as an additional in- 
ducement /or them to leave the boat. They continued, 
however, inexorable, and fhewing the Indians the 
barecas on board, made fjgns that they fbould bring 
down thofe which had been detained the day before : 
to this the Indians were inexorable in their turn, and 
our people therefore weighed their grapplings, and 
founded all round the place, to fee whether the fliip 
could come in near enough to cover the waterers, in 
which cafe they might venture on fliore, in defiance 
of the whole ifland. When they put off, the women 
pelted them with apples and banacas, (houting and 
(hewing every mark of derifion and contempt that they 
could dcvife. They reported^ that the fliip might ride 
in four fathom water, with fandy ground, at two 
cables length from the fhore, and in five fathom water 
at three cables length. The wind here blew right 
along the ihore, raifing a great furf on the fide of the 
vefTel, and on the beach. 

At day break, the next morning, we weighed, whh Tueffaj. 
a defign to anchor off the watering place. As we were 

Vol. I. N (landing 

* See a Jefcription of this fruit in tlic AccouDtof the 
Voyage of the Endeavour. 


ftandiog off, to get farther to windward, we difcovercd 
a bay about fix or eight miles to leeward, over the 
lartd, from the maft head, and immediately bore away 
for it, fending the boats a-head to found. At nine 
o'clock, the boats making the fignal for 12 fathom, 
we hauled round a reef, and flood in, with a defign to 
come to ananchor ; but when we came near the boats, 
one of which was- on each bow, the fhip ftruck. 
Her head continued immoveable, but her ftern was 
free ; and, upon cafting the lead, we found the depth 
of water, upon the reef or fhoal, to be from 1 7 fathom 
to two and a half : ^e clewed all up as faft as poilible, 
and cleared the fhip of what lumber there happened to 
be upon the deck, at the fame time getting out 
the long-boat, with the ftream and kedge anchors, 
the ftream cable and haufer, in order to carry them 
without the reef, that when they had taken ground, 
the fhip might be drawn off towards them, by apply- 
mg a great force to the capftern, but unhappily with- 
out the reef we had no bottom. Our condition was 
liow very alarming, the ftiip continued beating againft 
the rock with great force, and we were furrounded by 
many hundred canoes, full of men : they did not, how- 
ever, attempt to come on board us, but feemed to 
wait in expeftation of our fhipwreck. In the anxiety 
and terror of fuch a fituation we continued near an 
hour, without being able to do any thing for our de- 
liverance, except ftaving fome water cafks in the fore- 
hold, when a breeze happily fpringing up from the 
fliore, the (hip's head fwung off. We immediately 
preffed her with all the fail we could make ; upon which 
iTie began to move, and was very foon once more in 
deep water. 

We now ftood off, and the boats being fent to lee- 
ward, found that the reef ran down to the weftward 
about a mile and a half, and that beyond if there was 
a very good harbour. The mafter, after having 
placed a boat at the end of the reef, and furnifhed the 
long-boat with anchors and haufers, and a guard to 
defend her from an attack of the Indians, came on 
board, and piloted the fhip round the reef into the 
harbour, where, about twelve o'clock, (he came to an 
' anchor 


anchor in 1 7 fathom water, with s fine bottom of »7^7- 
black fand. , ,»*" 

The place where the (hip ftruck appeared, upon 
farther examination, to be a reef of (harp coral rock, 
with very unequal foundings, from fix fathom to two ; 
and it happened unfortunately to lie between the two 
boats that were placed as a dire&ion to the (hip, 
the weathermoft boat having 1 2 fathom, and the lee- 
wardmoft nine. The wind freihened almoft as foon 
as we got oflF, and thpugh it foon became calm again, 
the furf ran fohigh, and broke with fuchH^lolence upon 
the rock, that if the (hip had continued faft half an 
hour longer, (he muft inevitably have been beaten to 
pieces. Upon examining her bottom, we could not 
difcover that (he had received any damage, exceptthat 
a fmall piece was beaten off the bottom of the rudder. 
She did not appear to admit any water, but the trufslc- 
trees, at the head of aH the mafts, were broken (hort, 
which we fuppofed to have happened while (he was 
beating againft the rock. Our boatsi to(V their grap- 
piings upon the reef, but as we had reafon to hope 
that the (hip was fburrd; they gave us very little con- 
cern. As (bon as the (hij)^ N^as fecurcd, I fcntthetttaP 
ter, with all the bOatis manned and armed to formd 
the upper part of the bay, that if he found "good an- 
chorage we might warp .the (hip up whhfn the reef, 
and dnchor her in fafefy . The weather was now very 
pleafant, a great number of canoes were upon the 
recfj and the fliore wa^ crowded with people. 

Abbut four in the afternoon the Mafter returned,and 
reported that there was every where good anchorage ; 
1 therefore determined to warp the fliip up the bay 
early in the morning, and in the mean time, I put the 
people at four watches^ one watch to be always under 
arms, loaded and prtmfcd all the guns, fixed mufque* 
toons in all the boats, and ordered all the people who 
were not upon the watch, to repair to the quarters 
affigned them, at a moment's warning, there being a 
great number of canoes, fome of them very large, 
and full of men, hovering upon the (hore, and many 
fmaller venturing to the (hip, with hogs, fowls, and 
fruit, which we purchafed of them, much to the 

IJ 2 fatisfafition 


'7^7- fatisfa3ion of both parties ; and at fun-fet, all the 

\^^-^/^ canoes rowed in to the ihore. 

Wedn. 24. At fix o'ck)ck the next morning, we began to warp 
the fhip up the harbour, and foon after, a great num- 
ber of canoes came under her ftern. As I • perceived 
that they had hogs, fowls, and fruit on board, I or- 
dered the gunner, and two midshipmen, to purchafe 
them for knives, nails, beads, and other trinkets, at 
the fame time prohibiting the trade to all other perfons 
on board. By eight o'clock, the number of canoes 
was greatly^i^c^reafed, and thofe that came laft up were 
double, of a very large fize, with twelve or fifteen ftout 
men in each. I obfervcd, with fome concern, that 
they appeared to be furniflied rather for war than trade, 
having very little on board except round pebble ftones ; 
I therefore fent for Mr. Furneaux, my firft Lieutenant 
being ftill very dill, and ordered him to keep the fourth 
watch conftantly at their arms, while the reft of the 
people were warping the (hip. In the mean time more 
canoes werecontinuallycomingoflFfrom the fliore,which 
were freighted very differently from the reft,for they had 
on board a number of womeq who were placed in a row, 
and who, when they came near the fhip, made all the 
ivanton geftures that can be conceived. While thefe 
ladies were praSifing their allurements, the large canoes,- 
which were freighted with ftones, drew together very 
clofe round the fhip, fome of the men on board fing- 
ing in a hoarfe voice, fome blowing conchs, and fome 
playing on a flute. After fome time, a man who fat 
under a canopy that was fixed on one of the large dou- 
ble Canpes, made figns that he wifhed to come up to 
the fhip's fide ; I immediately intimated my confent, 
and when he came along-fide, he gave one of the men 
a bunch of red and yellow leathers, making figns that 
he (hould carry it to me. I received it Vv 1th expreflions 
of amity, and immediately got fome trinkets to prefent- 
liimin return, but to my great furprife he had put off 
to a little diftance from the fhip, and upon his throw- 
ing up the branch of a cocoa-nut tree, there was an 
iiniverfal fhout from all the canoes, which at once 
moved towards the fliip, and a fhowcr of ftones was 
poured into her on every fic'e. As an attack was now 
peo"nn, in wliich our arms only could render us fupcrlor 



^o the multitude that afTalleci us, €fp€cial1y as great jMirt «7^- 
of the (hip's company was in a fick and feeble condition, . •[,_ 
I ordered the guard to fire ; two of the quarter-deck 
gunsy which I had loaded with fmall (hot, were alfo 
(i red nearly at the fame time, and the Indians appeared 
to be thrown into fome confu(ion : in a few minutes, 
however, they renewed the attack, and all our people 
ihat were able to come upon deck, having by this time 
got to their quarters, I ordered them to fire the great 
guns, and to play fome of them conftantly at a place 
on fhore, where a great number of canoes were (lill 
taking in men, and pufhing o(F towards the (hip with 
the utmoft expedition. When the great guns b^an to 
fire, there were not lefs than three hundred canoea 
about the (hip, having on board at leaft two thoufand 
men ; many tH^ufands were alfo upon the (hore, and 
more canoes coming from every quarter : the firing, 
however, foon drove away the canoes that were about 
the (hip, and put a ftop to the coming off of others. As 
foon as I faw fome of them retreating, and the reft 
quiet, I ordered the firing to oeafe, hoping that they 
were fujfEciently convinced of our fuperiorlty, not t^ 
renew tbeconteft. In this, however, I was unhap- 
pily miftaken : a great number of the canpes that had 
been difperfed, foon drew t<^ther again, and lay fome 
time on their paddies, looking at the (hip from the dif- 
tance of about a quarter of a mile, and then fuddenly 
hoifting white (Ireamers, pulled towards the (hip's (lerq, 
and began again to throw (tones, with great force and 
dexterity, by the help of flings, from a confideraWe 
iliftance: each of thefe (lones weighed about two 
pounds, and many of them wounded the people on 
board, who would have fuffered much more, if an 
awning had not been fpread over the whole deck to 
keep out the fun, and the hammocks placed in the net- 
tings. At the fame time feveral canoes, well manned, 
were making towards the (hip's bow, having probably 
taken notice that no (hot had been fired fi'om this part : 
I therefore ordered fome guns forward to b^ well pointed 
stfid fired at thefe canoes ; at the fame time running out 
two guns a-baft, and pointing them well at the canoes 
that were making ttlb attack; Among the canoes that 
'T^rprc coTphg toward the bow^ there was one which 



J7^7- appearied to have fome Chief on boards as ir was by 
■ ■^' . fignals made from her that the others had been called 
together : it happened that a (hot, fired from the guns 
forward* hit this canoe fo full as to cut it afunder. As 
foon as this was obferved by the reft, they difperfed 
with fuch hafte, that in half an hour there was not a 
fingk canoe to be feen ; the people alfo who had 
crowded the ihore, immediately fled over the hills 
\<rith the utmofl: precipitation. 

Having now no reaibn to fear any further interrupn 
tion, we warped the {hip up the harbour, and by noon 
we were not more than half a mile from the upper 
part of the bay, within iefs than two cables length of 
a fine river, and about two and a half of the reef. We 
had here nine fathom water^ and clofe to the fhore 
there were five. Wc moored the ihip, and carried 
out the ftream-ancfaor^ with the two Ihroud haufers, 
for a fpring, to keep the (hip's broad^fide a^breaft of 
the river ; we alfo got up and mounted the eight guns, 
which had been put into the hold. As foon as this 
was done, the boats were employed in founding all 
round the bay, and in examining the fhore where any 
of the inhabitants appeared, in order to difcover, whe- 
ther it was probable that they would give us any further 

Jhurf. 2C ^ifl^^rb^C^^fi* All the afternoon, and part of the next 
morning, was fpent in this fervice, and about noon, 
the Mafter returned, with a tolerable furvey of the 
place, and reported, that there were no canoes in fight ; 
that there was good landing on every part of the beach ; 
that there was nothing in the bay from which danger 
could be apprehended, except the reef, and fome rocks 
at the upper end, which appeared above water ; and 
that the river, though it emptied itfelf on the other 
fide of the point, was frefli water. 

Soon after the Mafter had brought me this account, 
I fent Mr. Furneaux again, with all the boats manned 
and armed, the marines being alfo put on board, with 
orders to land oppofite to our ftation, and fecure him- 
felf, under cover of the boats and the fliip, in the 
cleareft ground he could find. About two o'clock the 
boats landed without any oppofition, and Mr. Fur- 
neaux fluck up a ftafi^, upon which he hoifted a pen- 
nant, turned a turf, and took pofleffion of the ifland 




in his Majefty*s name, in honour of whom h^calM '7^ 
it King George the Thud's Island : he then 
went to the river, and taftcd the water, which he 
found excellent, and mixing feme of it with rum, 
every man drank his Majefty*s heahh. While lie was 
at the river, which was about twelve yards wide, and 
fordable, he faw two old men on the oppofitc fide of 
it, who perceiving that they were difcovered, put 
themfelves in a fupplicatory pofhire, and feemed to be, 
in great terror and confufion. Mr. Furneaux made figns 
that they Ihould come over the river, and one of them 
complied. When he landed, he came forward, creep- 
ing upon . his hands and knees, but Mr. FumcauK 
raifed him up, and while he ftooid trembling, fhewed 
him fome of the (lones that were thrown at the (hip, 
and endeavoured to make him apprehend that if the 
natives attempted no mifchief againft us, wefhoulddo 
no harm, to them. He ordered two of the water cafks 
to be filled, to (hew the Indian that be wanted w^ater, 
and produced fome hatchets, and other things, to in- 
timate that he wifhed to trade for provifions. The 
old man, during this pantomimical converfation, in 
fome degree recovered his fpirits; and Mr. Furneaux, 
to confirm his profeifions of friendfhip, gave him a 
hatchet, fome nails, beads, and other trifles ; after 
which he re -embarked on board the boats, and left the 
pennant flying. As foon as the boats were put ofl^, 
the old man went up to the pennant, and danced 
round it a confiderable time : he then retired, but foon 
after returned with fon>e green boughs, which he 
threw dowHj and retired a fecond time : it was not 
iong however before he appeared again, with about a 
dozen of the inhabitants, and putting themfelves in 
a fupplicating pofture, they all approached the pennant 
in a flow pace, but the wind happening to move it, 
Avhen they were got clofc to it, they fuddenly retreated 
' with the greateft precipitation. After fl:anding fome 
time at a diftance, and gazing at it, they went away, 
but in a ihort time came back, with two large hogs 
alive, which they laid down at the foot of the ftaff, 
and at length taking covirage, they began to dance. 
When they had performedtttts ceremony, they brought 
^he hogs down to the water fide, launched a canoe^ 



*7*7- tnd put them on board. The old man, who had a large 
^^^."^ white beard, then embarked with them alone, and 
brought them to the fliip : when he came atong-fide, 
he made a fet fpeech, and afterwards handed in feve- 
tal green plantain leaves, one by one, uttering a fen- 
tence, in a folemn ilow tone, with each of them as he 
delivered it ; ^fter this he fent on board the two hogs, 
and then turning round, pointed to the land, I order- 
ed fome prefents to be given him, but he would ac- 
cept of nothing ; and Toon after put off his canoe, and 
went on ftiore. 
Fridty 26. At night, foon after it was dark, we heard the noife 
^ * of many drums, with conchs, and other wind inftru- 
ments, and faw a multitude of lights all along the 
coaft. At fix ip the morning, feeing none of the na- 
tives on (bore, and obferving thA the pennant was 
taken away, which probably they had learned to defpife, 
as the frogs in the fable did King Log, I ordered the 
Lieutenant to take a guard on fliore, and if all was 
well, to fend off, that we might begin watering : in a 
fiiort time I had the fatisfadien to find that he had 
fent off for water caiks, and by eight o'clock, we had 
four tons of water on board. While our people were 
employed in filling the ca(ks, feveral of the natives ap- 
peared on the oppofite fide of the river, with the old 
man whom the ofBcer had feen the day before ; and 
foon after he came over, and brought with him a little 
fruit, and a few fowls, which ^ere alfo fent off to the 
ihip. At this time, having been very ill for near ^ 
fortnight, I was fo weak that I could fcarcely crawl 
about ; however, I employed my glaffes to fee what 
was doing on Ihore. At near hajf an hour after eight 
o*clof k, I perceived a multitude of the natives coming 
over a hiU at about the diftance of a mile, and at the 
fame time a great number of canoes making round the 
weftern point, and keeping clofe along the (hore. I 
then looked at the watering-place, and faw at the back 
of it, where it was clear, a very numerous party of 
the natives creeping along behind the bufhes ; I faw 
alfo many thoufands in the woods, pufhing along 
towards the watering-place, and canoes coming very 
faft round the other point of the bay to the eaftward. 
Being alarmed at thefe appearances, I difpatched a 



boat, to acquaint the officer on (hore with what Ihad '7*7« 
ieen, and order htm immediately to come on board ^J^^ 
with his men, and leave the calks behind him : he 
had however, difcovered his danger, and embarked 
before the boat reached him. Having perceived the 
Indians that were creeping towards him under flicltcr 
of the wood, he immediately difpatched th^ old man 
to them, making figns that they (hould keep at a dif* 
tanc^e, and that he wanted nothing but water. As 
foon as they perceived that they were difcovered, they 
began to ihout, and advanced with greater fpe^d. The 
officer immediately repaired to the boats with his peo- 
pie ; and the Indians, in the mean time having crofTed 
the river, took pofTeffion of the water cafks, with great 
appearance of exultation and joy. The canoes now 
pulled along the fhore, towards the place, with the' 
utmoft expedition, all the people on land keeping pace 
with them, except a multitude of women and childreo^ 
who feated themfelves upon a hill which overlooked 
the bay and the beach. The canoes from each point 
of the bay, as they drew that part of it where 
the ihip was at anchor, put on (hore and took in more 
men, who had great bag^in their hands, which after- 
wards appeared to be filled with ftones, AH the canoes 
that had come round the points, and many others 
that had put off from the ftipre within the bay„ now 
made towards the (hip, fo that I had no doubt but 
that they intended to try their fortune in a fecond attack. 
As to fhorten the conteft would certainly leflen the 
mifchief, I determ'med to make this adion decifive, 
and puc an end to hoftitities at once ; I therefore orr 
dered the people, who were all at their quarters, to 
fire firft upon the canoes, which were drawn together 
in groups : this was immediately done fo effeftually, 
that thofe which were to the weft ward made towards 
the fhore as fad as poffible, and thofe to the eaftwarc]> 
getting round the reef, were foon beyond the reach of 
our guns. I then direded the fire into the wood in 
different parts, which foon drove the Indians out of 
it, who ran up the hill where the women and children 
had feated themfelves to fee the battle. Upon this 
hill there were now feveral thoufands who thought 
themfelves i^perfed fecurity^; but to convince thenji 



"7^7- of the contrary, and. hoping that when they faw th^ 
j[^]J^ ^ (hot fall much farther than they could think pofllble* 
they would fuppofe it could reach them at any diftance, 
I ordered fome of the guns to be let down as low as 
they would admit, and fired four (hot towards them. 
Two of the balls fell clofe by a tree where a great num- 
ber of thefe people were fitting, and ftruck them with 
fuch terror and confternation, than in lefs than two 
minutes not one of them was to be feen. Having thus 
cleared the coaft, I manned and armed the boats, and 
putting a ftrong guard on board, I fent all the carpen- 
ters with their axes, and ordered them to deftroy every 
canoe that had been run a-fliore. Before noon, this 
fervice was cfFeSually performed, and more than fifty 
canoes, many of which were fixty feet long, and three 
broad, and lafhed together, were cut to pieces. No- 
thing was found in them but ftones and flings, except 
a little fruit, and a few fowls and hogs, which were 
on board two or three canoes of a much fmaller 

At two o'clock in the afternoon, about ten of the 
natives came out of the wood with green boughs in their 
hands, which they ftuck up near the water fide, and 
retired. After a fhort time, they appeared again, and 
brought with them feveral hogs, with their legs tied, 
which they placed near the green boughs, and retired 
a fccond time. After this they brought down feveral 
more hogs, and fome dogs, with their fore legs tied 
over their heads, and going again into the woods, 
brought back feveral bundles of the cloth which they 
ufe for apparel, and which has fome refemblance to 
Indian paper. Thefe they placed upon the beach, 
and called to us on board to fetch them away. As we 
were at the diftance of about three cables length, we 
could not then perfeSly difcovcr of what this peace- 
ofFering confided : we gucfied at the hogs and the 
cloth, but feeing the dogs, with their forelegs appear- 
ing over the hinder part of the neck, rife up feveral 
times, and run a little way in an creS: pofture, we 
took them for (ome ftrange unknown animal, and were 
very impatient to have a nearer view of them. The 
boat was therefore fent on (hore with all expedition, 
and our wonder was foon at an end. Our people 



found nine good hogs, belides the dogs and the cloth : 

the hogs were brought off, but the dogs were turned 

loofe, and with the cloth left behind. In return for 

the hogs, our people left upon the (bore fome hatchets, 

nails, and other things, making figns to fome of the 

Indians who were in fight, to take ihem aWay with 

their cloth. Soon after the boat had come on board, 

the Indians brought down two more hogs, and called 

to us to fetch them ; the boat therefore returned, and 

fetched off the two hogs, but ftill left the cloth, though 

the Indians made figns that we fhould take it. Our 

people reported, that they had not touched any of the 

things which they had left upon the beach for them, 

and fomAody fuggefting that they would not take our 

offering becaufe we had not accepted their cloth, I 

gave orders that it (hould be fetched away. The event 

proved that the conjefture was true, *or the moment 

the boat had taken th« cloth on board, the Indians 

came down, and with every poflible demonftration of 

joy, carried away all I had fent them into the wood. 

Our boats theft went into the watering-place, and filled 

and brought off the caflcs, to the amount of about 

fix tons. We found that they had fuffered no injury 

while they had been in the poffeffion of the Indians, 

but fome leathern buckets and funr.els, which had 

been taken away with the calks, were not returned. 

The next morning I fent the boats on fliore, with asatur. 2-. 
guard, to fill fome more cafks with water, and loon after 
the people were on fliore, the fame old man, who had 
come over the river to them the firft day, came again 
to the farther fide of it, where he made a long fpeecb, 
and then croffed the water. When he came up to 
the waterers, the officer fliewed him the ftoncs that 
were piled up like cannon balls upon the fhore, and had 
been brought thither fince our firft landing, and fome 
of the bags that had been taken out of the canoes 
which I had ordered to bedeftroycd, filled with ftones, 
and endeavoured to make him underftand that the ,^ 

Indians had been the aggreffors, and that the mifchief 
we had done them Was in our own defence. The old 
man feemed to apprehend his m<^aninfr, but not to 
admit it : he immediately made a fpci ch to the people,. ^ 

pointing to the ftorics, flings, and bags, with great i-^i^ 

cn^otion, '^ * 


lane, amotion, and fometimes his looks, geftures, and voice 
« -^- _f were fo furious as to be frightful. His paflions, how- 
ever, fubfided by degrees, and the officer, who to his 
great regret could not underftand one word of all that 
he had faid, endeavoured to convince him, by all the 
figns he could devife, that we wi(hed to live in fricnd- 
(hip with them, and were difpofed to (hew them every 
mark of kindnefs in our power. He then ihook hands 
with him, and embraced him^ giving him at the fame 
time feveral fuch trinkets as he thought would be mod 
acceptable. He contrived alfo to make the old man 
underftand that we wifhed to traffic forprovifions, that 
the Indians (hould not come down in great numbers, 
and that fhey fhould keep on one fide of the river and 
we on the other. After this the old man went away 
with great appearance of fatis(a3ion, and before noon 
^ trade was eftablifhed, which furniftied us with hogs, 
. fowls and fruit in great abundance, fo that all the (hip's 
company, whether fick or well, had as much as thiey 
could ufe. 

C H A P. VI. 

The fick fent on Jhore^ and a regular Trade eftablljhed 
with the NatWit, Some account of their CharaSler 
and Manners y of their Vijits on board the Ship 9 and a 
Variety of Incidents that happened during this Inter- 

Sthir. ZT. "\ /TATTERS being thus happily fettled, I fent 
J[yJ[ ^^^ Surgi on, with the fecond Lieutenant, to 
examine the country, and fix upon fome place where 
the fick might take up their refidence on fliore. 
When they returned, they faid, that with refpeQ to 
health and convenience, all the places that they had 
feen upon the ifland feemed to be equally proper: but 
that with refpeS to fafety, they could recommend none 
but the watering-place, as they would be there under 
the proteSion of the fliip and the guard, and would 
eafily be prevented from ftraggling into the country, 
and -brought off to their meals. To the watering- 
place therefore I fent them, with thofe that were em.- 
ployed in filling the fafks, and appointed the Gunner 



to command the party that was to be their guard. A }7^7* 
tent was erefted for them as a Ihclter both from the fun ,jL^_ 
and the rain^ and the Surgeon was fent to fuperintend 
their condud:, and give his advice if it fhould be wanted. 
It happened that walking out with his gun, after he had 
feen the fick properly difpofed of in the tent, a wild 
duck flew over his head, which he fhot, and it fell 
dead among fome of the natives who were on t\^ 
other fide of the river. This threw them into a panic, 
and they all ran away : when they got to fome diftance 
they flopped, and he made figns to them to bring the 
duck over : this one of them at laft ventured to do, 
and, pale and trembling, laid it down at his feet. Se- 
veral other ducks happening at that inftant to fly over 
the fpot where they were flanding, he fired again^ and 
fortunately brought down three more. This incident 
gave the natives fuch a dread of a gun, that if a muf- 
quet was pointed at a thoufand of them, they would 
all run away like a flock of (heep ; and probably the 
^afe with which they were afterwards kept at a diftance, 
and their orderly behaviour in their traflSc, was in a 
great meafure owing to their having upon this occafion 
feen the inftrument of which before they had only felt 
the effects. 

As I forcfaw that a private traflic would probably 
commence between fuch of our people as were, on 
ihore, and the natives, and that if it was left to their 
own caprice, perpetual quarrels and mifchief would 
enfue, i ordered that all matters of traffic Ihould be 
tranfacEled by the Gunner, on behalf of both parties, 
and I direSed him to fee that no injury was done to 
the natives, either by violence or fraud, ;a^d by alt 
poflibie means to attach the old man to his intereft. 
This fervice he performed with great diligence and 
fidelity, nor did he negleft to complain of thofe who 
tranfgrefled my orders, which was of infinite advan- 
tage to all parties ; for as I punlflied the firft oflFenders 
with a neceflary feverity, many irregularities, that 
would otherwife have produced the rooft difagreeable 
confequences, were prevented : we were ilfo indebted 
for many advantages to the old man, whofc caution 
kept our people perpetually on their guard, and foon 
brought back thofe who ftraggled from the party. 



^^7' The natives would indeed fometimes piifcfr, but by the 
^j^^^^^l. terror of a gun, without ufing it, he always found 
means to make them bring back what was ftoien. A 
fellow had one day the dexterity and addrefs to crofs. 
the river unperceived, and fteal a hatchet ; the Gunner, 
as foon as he 'miffed it, made the old man underftand 
what had happened, and got his party ready, as if he 
would have gone into the woods after the thief : the 
old man, however, made figns that he would fave him 
the trouble, and immediately fetting off, returned in a 
very ihort time with the hatchet. The Gunner then 
infifted that the offender fhould be delivered up, and 
with this the old man, though not without great 
' reluQance, complied. When the fellow was brought 
down, the Gunner knew him to be an old offender, 
and therefore fent him prifoner on board. I had no 
intention to punifti him otherwife, than by the fear of 
punifhment, and therefore, after great entreaty and 
intercefBon, I gave him his liberty, and fent him on 
Ihore. When- the natives faw him return in fafety, it 
is hard to fay whether their aflonifhment or joy was 
greateft ; they received him with univerial acclamati-> 
ons, and immediately carried him off into the woods : 
the next day, however, he returned, and as a propi- 
tiation to the Gunner, he brought him a confide- 
rable quantity of bread-fruit, and a large hog ready 

At this time the people on board were employed 
in caulking and painting the weather-work, over-haul- 
ing the rigging, (lowing the hold, and doing other 
neceffary bulinefs ; but my diforder, which was a bili- 
ous cholic, increafed fo much, that this day I was 
obliged to take to my bed ; my Firft Lieutenant alfo 
ftill continued very ill, and the Purfer was incapable 
of his duty. The whole command devolved upon 
Mr. Furneaux, the Second Lieutenant, to whom I 
gave general directions, and recommended a particu- 
lar attention to the people on fhore. I alfo ordered 
that fruit and frefti provifions ihould be ferved to the 
fhip's company as long as they could be procured, and 
that the boats (hould never be abfent from the (hip 
after fun-fet. Thefe directions were fulfilled with 
fixk prudence and punftuality, that during all my 


*feOUND 'tHE WOR LD: ' 19*3 

ficknefs I was not troubled with any bufinefs, nor had ^»7^7» 
the mortification to hear a fingle complaint or appeal. ^J^^^^ 
The men were conflantly ferved with frclh pork, fowls, 
and fruit, in fuch plenty, that when I left my bed, 
after having been confined to it near a fortnight, 
my fhip's company looked fo frefh and healthy, 
that I could fcarcely believe them to be the fame 

Sunday the 28th was marked by no incident ; 
on Monday the 29th, one of the Gunner's party found ^^'^'^^ *^* 
a piece of faltpetrc near as big as an egg. As this was 
an objeft of equal curiofity and importance, diligent 
inquiry was immediately made from whence it came. 

The furgeon aikcd every one of the people on fliorc,' 
feparately, "whether he had brought it from the (hip ; 
every one on board alfp was alked whether he had 
carried it on (horc ; but all declared that they had never 
had fuch a thing in their poffcffion. Application wasr 
then made to the natives, but the meaning of both 
parties was fo imperfeftly conveyed by figns, tliat tio- 
thing could be learnt of them about it : during our 
whole ftay here, however, we faw no more than this 
one ptece. 

While the gunner was trafficking for provrfions on 
fliore, we fometimes hauled the feine, but we caught 
no fifti ; we alfo frequently trawled, but with no bet- 
ter fuccefs : the difappointment, however, was not felt, 
for the produce of the iflaTnd enabled our people to 
*' fare fumptuoufly every day/' 

All matters continued in the fame fituation till the t^^, 
2d of July, when our old man being abfent, the fupply ThutfiL* %, 
of frefli provifions and fi'uit fell fliort ; we had, howe- 
ver, enough to ferve moft of the meffes, referving 
plenty for the fick and convalefcent. 

On the 3d, we heeled the fliip, and looked at herp^j^i . 
bottom, which we found as clean as when flie came 
out of dock, and to our great fati«fa6lion as found. 
During all this time, none of the natives came near 
our boats, or the (hip, in their canoes. This day, 
about noon, we caught a very large fhark, and when 
the boats went to fetch the people on board to dinner, 
we fent it on fliore. When the boats were putting 


ofF again, the Gunner feeing fome of the natives on the 
other fide of the river, beckoned them to come over ; 
they immediately complied, and he gave them the 
.{hark, which they foon cut to pieces, and carried away 
with great appearance of fatisfad:ion. 

On Sunday the 5th, the old man returned to the 
^^^y S- market-tent, and made the gunner underftand that he 
had been up the country, to prevail upon the people 
to bringdown their hogs, poultry, and fruit, of which 
the parts near the watering place were now nearly cx- 
haufted. The good efFedbs of his expedition foon ap- 
peared, for feveral Indians, whom our people had ne- 
ver feen before, came in with fome hogs that were 
larger than any that had been yet brought to market. 
In the mean time, the old man ventured off in his ca- 
noe to the (hip, and brought with him, as a prefent 
to me, a hc^ ready roafted. I was much pkafed with 
bis attention and liberality, and gave him, in return for 
his hog, an iron pot, a looking-glafs, a drInking-gUfs, 
and feveral other things, which no man in the ifland 
was in poffeflion of but himfelf.. 

• While our people were on fhore, feveral young wo- 
men were permitted to crofs the river, who, though 
they were not averfe to tlie granting of perfonal favours, 
knew the value of them too well not to ftipulate for a 
confideration ; the price indeed, was not great, yet 4t 
was fuch as our men were not always able to pay, and 
under this tcnxptation they ftole nails and other iron 
from the fhip. The nails that we brought for traffic, 
were not always in their reach, and therefore they drew 
jGeveral out of different parts of the veflel, particularly 
thofe that fallened the cleats to the (hip's fide. This 
v^as productive of a double mifchief ; damage to the 
fhip, ami a confiderable rife at market. When the 
Gunner offered, as ufual, fmall nails for hogs of a 
middling fize, the natives refufed to take them, and 
produced large fpikcs, intimating that they expected 
ftich nails_'as thefe. A mod diligent enquiry was fet on 
foot to difcovcr the offenders, but all to no purpofe ; 
and thou:'ii a large reward was offered to procure intel- 
ligence, was obtained. I was mortified at the dif- 
appointment, but I was ftill more mortified at a fraud 
vrhich I found foiiic of o.:r people had praftifed upon 



the natives. When no nails were to be procured, 'tJt* 
they had (lolen lead, and cut it up in the fhape of ^^ 
nails. Many of the natives, who had been paid with 
this bafe money, brought their leaden nails with 
great fimplicity, to the Gunner, and rcquefted him to 
give them iron in their (lead. With this rcqueft, how- 
ever reafonable, he could not comply, becaufe, by 
rendering lead current, it would have encouraged the 
dealing it, and the market would have been as effedu- 
ally fpoiied by thofe who could not procure nails, as 
by thofe who could ; it was therefore neceflary, upon 
every account, to render this leaden currency of no 
value, though for our honour I (hould have been glad 
to have called it in. 

On Tuefday the 7th, I fent one of the mates, with Tucfdiy 7. 
thirty men, to a village at a little diftance from the 
market, hoping that refrefhments might there be bought 
at the original price; but here they were obliged to give 
ftill more than at the water-(ide. fn the mean time^ 
being this day able to get up for the firft time, and the 
weather being fine, I went into a boat, and rowed 
about four miles down the coa(L I found the country 
populous, and pleafant in the higheft d^rec, and faw 
many canoes on the (hore ; but not one came o(F to us, 
nor did the people feem to take the leaft notice of us as 
we pafled along. About noon I returned to the ihip. 

The commerce which our men had fDund means to 
eftabliih with the women of the ifland, rendered them 
much lefs obedient to the orders that had been given 
for the regulation of their conduft on (hore, than they 
were at firft. I found it neceflary therefore to read the 
articles of war, and I punifhed James ProSor, the 
Corporal of marines, who had not only quitted his 
ftation, and infulted the ofiker, but ftruck the Matter 
at Arms fuch a blow as brought him to the ground. 

The next day, I fent a party up the country to cut Wcanef. 8. 
wood, and they met with fome of the natives, who 
treated them with great kindnefs and hofpitality. Se- 
veral of thefe friendly Indians came on board in our 
boat, and feemed, both by their drefs and behaviour, 
to be of a fuperior rank. To thefe people I paid a 
Jjarticular attention; and to difcover what prefent 
would moft gratify them, I laid down before them a 

Vol. I. O Johannes, 


Johannes^ a guinea, a crown piece, a Spanlfh dollar, 
a few fhillingSy fonie new halfpence, and two large 
nail^y making figns that they fhould take what they 
liked beft. The nails were firft feized, with great 
eagernefs, and then a few of the halfpence, but the 
filver and gold lay neglefted. Having prefented them, 
therefore, with fome nails and halfpence, I fent thera 
on (here fuperlatively happy* 

From this' time, our market was very ill fi>pplied, 
the Indians ref ufiiag to fell providons at the ufual price, 
and making figns for large nails. It was now thought 
neceflapy to look more diligently about the fhip, to 
difcover what nails had been drawn ; it was foon found . 
that all the belaying elects had been ripped o(F, and 
that there was fcarcely one of the hammock nails left. 
All hands were now ordered up, and I praSifed eveiy 
artifice I could think of to difcover the thieves, but 
without fuccefs. I then told them that till the thieves 
were ^ifcovered, not a fingle man (hould go on (hore : 
this hbwevcr produced no efFeft, except that ProSor, 
the Corporal, behaved in a mutinous manner, for 
which he was inftantly puniftied 
Sfiti»2>.ti» On Saturday the i ith, in the afternoon, the Gun- 
ner came on board with a tall woman, who feemed to 
be about five and forty years of age, of a pleafing 
countenance and majeftic deportment. He told me 
that fhe was but juft come into that part of the coun- 
try, and that feeing great refpeS paid her by the reft 
of the natives, he had made her fome prefents ; in 
return for v/hich fhe had invited him to her houfe, 
^ which was about two miles up the valley, and given 

him fome large hogs ; after which fhe returned with 
him to the watering-place, and expreffed a defire to 
go on board the fhip, in which he had thought it 
proper, on all accounts, that (he fhould be gratified. 
She feemed to be under no leftraint, either from diffi- 
dence or fear, rvhcn fhe firft came into the fhip ; and 
ihe behaved, all the while fhe was on board, with an 
eafy freedom, that always diftinguifhes confcious fupe- 
rioiity and habitual command. I gave her a large blue 
mantle, that reached from her fhoulders to her feet, 
which I threw over her, and tied on with ribbands ; 
I giive her alfo a looking-glafs, beads of fevcral forts, 



and many other things, which (he accepted with a '7^7- 
very good grace, and much pieafure. She took notice ^j L ^'^ 
that I had been ill, and pointed to the fhore. I un- 
derftood that (he meant I (hould go thither to perfed 
my recovery, and I made (igns.that I would go thither 
the next morning. When (he intimated an inclination 
to return, I ordered the Oonner to go with her, who 
having fet her on (hore,. at tended her to her habitation, 
which he defcribed as bcin^^very large and well built. 
He faid, that in this houft (he had many guards and 
domedicks, and that (he had another at a little diftance, 
which was enclofed in lattice-work. 

The next morning I went on (hore for the firft time, Sundif i». 
and my Princefs, or rather Qjaeen, for fuch by her au- 
thority (he appeared to be, foon after came to me, 
followed by many of her attendants. As (he perceived 
that my diforder had left me very weak, (he ordered 
her people to take me in their arms, and carry nie not 
only over the river, but all the way to her houfe ; and 
obferving that fome of the people who were with me, 
particularly the firft Lieutenant and Purfer, had alfo 
been fick, (he caufed them alfo to be carried in the 
fame manner, and 'a guard, which I had ordered out 
upon the occafion, followed. In our way, a vaft mul-^ 
titude crouded about us, but upon her waving her 
hand, without fpeaking a word, they withdrew, and 
left us a free paflfage. When we approached near her 
houfe, a great number of both fexes came out to meet 
her : thefe (he prefented to me, after having intimated 
by (igns that they were her relations, and taking hold 
of my hand, (he made them kifs it. We then entered 
the houfe, which covered a piece of ground 327 feet 
long, and 4a feet broad. It' confided of a roof, thatch- 
ed with palm leaves, and raifed upon 39 pillars on each 
fide, and 1 4 in the middle. The ridge of the thatch, 
on the infide, was 30 feet high, and the fides of the 
houfe, to the edge of the roof, were 1 2 feet high ; ^11 
below the roof being open. As foon as we entered the 
houfe, (he made us fit down, and then calling four 
young girls, (he a(fi(led them to take off my (hoes, 
>draw down my ftockings, and pull off my coat, and 
then direded them to fmooth down the (kin, and 
gently chafe it with their hands : the fame operation 

O 2 vnii& 


«7j7- was alfo performed upon the firft Lieutenant and the 
xj^y/^ Purfer, but upon none of thofe who appeareid to be in 
heahh. While this was doing, our Surgeon, who 
had walked till he was very warm, took off his wig 
to cool and refresh himfelf ; a fudden exclamation of one 
of the Indians who faw it, drew the attention of the 
reft, and in a moment every eye was fixed upon the 
prodigy, and every operation was fufpended : the whole 
aflembly flood fome time motionlefs, in (ilent aftonifh- 
ment, which xould not have been more (Irongly ex- 
preiTed if they had difcovered that our friend's limbs 
had been fcrewed on to the trunk ; in a fhort time, 
however, the young women who were chafing us, re- 
fumed their employment, and having continued it for 
about h^lf an hour, they dreflfed us again, but in this 
they were, as may eafily be imagined, very aukward ; 
I found great benefit, however, fi-om the chafing, and 
fo did the Lieutenant and Purfer. After a little time, 
our generous benefaSrefs ordered fome bales of Indian 
cloth to be brought out, with which (he clothed me^ 
and all that were with me, according to the fafhion of 
the country. At firft I declined the acceptance of this 
fevour, but being unwilling not to feem pleafed with 
what was intended to pleafe me, I acquiefced. When 
we went away, ihe ordered a very large fow, big with 
young, to be taken down to the boat, and accompa- 
nied us thither herfelf. She had given diredions to 
her people to carry me, as they had done when I came, 
but as I chofe rather to walk, (he took me by the arm, 
and whenever we came to a pla(h of water or dirt, 
file lifted me over with as little trouble as it would 
have coft me to have lifted sver a child if I had been 
Mond. 13. The next morning I fent her, by the Gunner, fix 
hatchets, fix bill- hooks, and feveral other things ; and 
when he returned, he told me that he found her giv- 
ing an entertainment lo a great number of people, 
which, he fuppofed, could not be lefs than a thoufand. 
The melTes were all brought to her by the fervants 
that prepared them, the meat being put into the (hells 
of cocoa nuts, and the (hells into wooden trays, fome- 
what like thofe ufed by our butchers, and (he diftributed 
them with her own hands to the guefts, who were feated 



In rows round the great houfe. When this was done, 17^7* 
flie fat.down herfelf, upon a place fomewhat elevated , J^^j^' ^ 
above the reft, and two women, placing themfelvcs 
one on each fide of her, fed her, (he opening her 
mouth as they brought their hands up with the food. 
When (he faw the Gunner, ihe ordered a mefs for 
him ; he could not certainly tell what it was, but he 
believed it to be fowl picked fmall, with apples cut 
among it, and feafoned with fait water ; it was, how- 
ever, very well tafted. She accepted the things I fent 
her, and feemed to be much pleafed with them. After 
this correfpondence vas eftablifhed with the queen, 
provifions of every k'md became muth more plenty at 
market ; but though fowls and hogs were every day 
brought in, we were ftill obliged to pay more for them 
than at the firft, the market having been fpoiled by 
the nails which our men had ftolen and given .to the 
women ; I therefore gave orders that every man (hould 
be fearched before he went on fiioref and that no wo- 
man (hould be fuffered to cro(8 the river. 

On the 14th, the Gunner being on (horc to trade, Tucf. 14. 
perceived an old woman on the other fide of the river, 
weeping bitterly : when (he faw that (he had drawn his 
attention upon her, (he fent a young man, who flood 
by her, over the river to him^ with a branch of the 
plaintain tree in his hand« When he came up, he 
made a long fpeech, and then laid down his bough at 
the Gunner's feet : after this he went back and brought 
over the old woman, another man at the fame time 
bringing over two large fat hogs. The woman looked 
round upon our people with great attention, fixing her 
eyes fometimes upon one, and fometimes upon ano- 
ther, and at laft burft into tears. The young man 
who brought her over the river, perceiving the Gun- 
ner's concern and aftoniftiment, made anotlier fpeech, 
longer than the firft : ftill, however the woman's dif- 
trefs was a myftery, but at length fhe made him un- 
derftand that her hu{band, and three of her fpus, had 
b^en killed in the attack of the (hip. During this ex- 
planation, (he was fo affefled that at laft fhc fimk 
down unable to fpeak, and the two young men, wlio 
endeavoured to fupport her, appeared to be nearly in 
the fame condition: they were probably two more ot 

O 3 ' her 


her fons, or fome very near relations. The Gunner 
did all in his power to footh and comfort her, and 
when flie had in fome meafure recovered her recollec- 
tion, ihe ordered the two hogs to be delivered to him, 
and gave him her hand in token of friendftiip, but 
would accept nothing in return, though he offered her 
ten times as much as would have purchafed the hogs 
at market. 
Wednef.15. The next morning, I fent the Second Lieutenant, 
with all the boats, and fixty men, to the weftward, 
to look at the country, and try what was to be got. 
About noon he returned, having marched along the 
ihore near fix miles. He found the country very plea- 
fant and populous, and abounding as well with hogs 
and fowls, as fruit, and other vegetables of various 
kinds. The inhabitants offered him no moleftation, 
but did not feem willing to part with any of the pro- 
vifions which our people were mod defirous to pur- 
chafe : they gave them, however, a few cocoa-nuts 
and plantains, and at length fold them nine hogs and 
a few fowls. The Lieutenant was of opinion, that 
they might be brought to trade freely by degrees, but 
the diftance from the fliip was fo great, that too many 
men would be neceffary for a guard. He faw a great 
number of very large canoes upon the beach, and feme 
that were building. He obferved that all their tools were 
made of ftone, fhells, and bone, and very juftly in- 
ferred, that they had no metal of any kind. He found 
no quadruped among them, befides hogs and dogs, 
nor any earthen veffel, fo that all their food is either 
baked or roaftcd. Having no vefTel in which water 
could be fubjefted to the a6lion of fire, they had no 
more idea that it could be made hot, than that it could 
be made folid. As the Queen was one morning at break- 
faft with us on board the (hip, one of her attendants, 
a man of fome note, and one of thofe that we thought 
were priefts, faw the Surgeon fill the tea-pot by turn- 
ing the cock of an urn that flood upun the table : hav- 
ing remarked lliis with great curiofity and attention, 
he prefently turned the cock, and received the water 
i?pon his hand : as foon as he felt himfelf fcaldcd, he 
roared out, and began to dance about the cabin with 
the mod (Xtravagant and ridiculous expreflions of pain 



and aftonifhment: the other Indians, not being able to '7j7' 
conceive what was the matter with him, ftood flaring ^iy-*^ 
at him in amaze, and not without fome mixture of 
terror. The Surgeon^ however, who had innocently 
been the caufe of the mifchief, applied a remedy, 
though it was fome time before the poor fellow was 

On Thurfday the 1 6th, Mr. Furneaux, my Second xhnrfd. i^ 
Lieutenant, was taken very ill, which diftreffed me 
greatly, as the Firft Lieutenant was not yet recovered, 
and 1 was ftill in a very weak ftate myfelf : I was this 
day alfo obliged once more to punlfh ProSor, the Cor- 
poral of marines, for mutinous behaviour. The Queen 
had now been abfcnt feveral days ; but the . natives 
made us underftand by Cgns, that the next day (he 
would be with us again* 

Accordingly the next morning {he came down to Friday 17. 
the beach, and foon after a great number of people, 
whom we had never feen before, brought to market 
provifions of every kmd ; and the Ounner fent off 
fourteen h<^, and fruit in great plenty. 

In the afternoon of the next day the Queen came on Saturd. 18. 
board, with a prefent of two large hogs, for fhe never 
condefcended to barter, and in the evening (he returned 
on fhore. I fent a prefent with her, by the Mafter, 
and as foon as they landed, (he took him by the hand, 
and having made a long fpeecfa to the people that 
flocked round them, (he led him to her houfe, where 
(he.cloathed him, as (he had before done me, accord- 
ing to the faftiion of the country. 

The next morning he fent off a greater quantity of ^""^^^^ '^ 
(lock than we had ever procured in one day before ; it 
confifted of forty-eight hogs and pigs, four dozen of 
fowls, with bread-fruit, bananas, apples, and- cocoa- 
nuts, almoft without number. 

On the 20th, we continued to trade with good fuc- Monday 20. 
cefs, but in the afternoon it was difcovered that Francis 
Pinckney, one of the feamen, had drawn the cleats to 
which the main (hect was belayed, and after ftealing 
the fpikes, thrown them over-board. Having fecured the 
offender, I called all the people together on the deck, 
and after taking fome pains to explain his crime, with 
^1 its aggravations,! ordered that he (hould be whipped 



*7^7« -with nettles while he ran the gauntlet thrice round the 
x_ J~ ^ deck : my rhetoric, however, had very little tSt€t, 
for moft of the crew being equally criminal with him^ 
felf, he was handled fo tenderly, that others were ra- 
ther encouraged to repeat the' offence by the hope of 
impunity, than deterred by the fear of punilhment. 
To preferve the {hip therefore, from being pulled 
to pieces, and the price of refrelhments from being 
raiicd fo high as foon to exhauft our articles of trade, 
I ordered that no man, except the wooders and wa-> 
terers, with th^ir guard, fliould be permitted to go on 
fuefdayai. Qn the 2ift, the Queen came again on board, and 
brought feveral large hogs as a prefent, for which, as 
ufual, fhe would accept of no return. When flic 
was about to leave the fhip, flie expreffeda defire that 
I fliould go on fliore with her, to which I confented, 
taking feveral of the ofHcers with me. When we ar- 
rived at her houfe, flie made us all fit down, and 
taking off my hat, flie tied to it a bunch or tuft of 
feathers of various colours, fuch as I had feen no pcr- 
fon on fliore wear but herfelf, which produced by no 
means a difagrceable effeS. She alfo tied round my 
hat, and the hats of thofe who were with me, wreaths 
ot braided or plaited hair, and gave us to underftand 
that both the hair and workmanfliip were her own : 
flie alfo prefented us with fome niatts, that were very 
curioufly wrought. In the evening flie accompanied 
us back to the beach, and when we were getting into 
the boat, flie put on board a fine large fow, big with 
young, and a great quantity of fruit. As we were 
parting, I made figns that I fliould quit the ifland in 
ievcn days : fhe immediately comprehended my mean- 
ing, and made flgt>|i that 1 fliould flay twenty days ; 
that I fhould go iwo days journey into the country, 
llay there a few days, bring down plenty of hogs and 
poultry, and after that leave the ifland. I again made 
fjgns that I muft go in fcven days ; upon which flie 
burft into tears, and it was not without great difficulty 
that flie was pacified, 
■^cdncf.a*' The next morning, the Gunner fent off no lefs than 
twenty hogs, with great plenty of fruit; Our decks 
wcrt now quite full of hogs and poultry, of which 



we killed only the fmall ones, and kept the others for 1767- 
fea (lores ; we found, however, to our great mortifica- ^"^^ 
tion, that neither the fowls nor the hogs could, with- 
out great difficulty, be brought to eat any thing but 
fruit, which made it neceflary to kill them fafter than 
we (hould otherwife have done ; two, however, a boar 
and a fow, were brought alive to England, of which I 
made a prefent to Mr. Stephens, Secretary to the Ad- 
miralty ; the fow afterwards died in pigging, but the 
boar is ftill alive. 

On the 23d, we had very heavy rain, with a ftorm Thurf. 13 
of wind that blew down feveral trees on (hore, though 
very little of it was felt where the (hip lay. 

The next day, I fent the old man, who had been of Friday 24. 
great fervice to the Gunner at the market- tent, another 
iron pot, fome hatchets and bills, and a piece of cloth. 
I alfo fent the Qgeen two tuikies, twd geefe, three Gui- 
nea hens, a cat bie with kitten, fome china, looking- 
glaffes, glafs bottles, (hirts, needled, thread, cloth, 
ribbands, peas, fome fmall white kidney-beans, called 
callivances, and about fixteen different forts of garden 
feeds, and a fbovel, befides a confiderable quantity of 
cutlery wares, coniUling of knives, fciflfars, bill-hooks, 
and other things. We had already planted feveral forts 
of the garden feeds, and fome peas in feveral places, 
and had the pleafure to fee them come up in a very flou- 
rifliing ftatc, yet there were no remains of them when 
Captain Cook left the ifland. I fent her alfo two iron 
pots, and a few fpoons. In return for thefe things, 
the Gunner brought oflF eighteen hogs, and fome 

In the morning of the 25th, I ordered Mr. Gore,Saturd. 
one of the mates, with all the marines, forty feamen, 
and four midfhipmen, to go up the valley by the river 
as high as they could, and examine the foil and pro- 
duce of the country, noting the trees and plants which 
they (hould find, and when they faw any ftrcam from 
the mountains, to trace it to its foiirce, and obfcrve 
whether it was tin£tured with any mineral or ore. I 
cautioned them alfo to keep continually upon their 
guard againft the natives, and direSed them to make a 
fire, as a fignal, if they (hould be attacked. At the 
f^me time^^ I took a guard on (hore, and erected a tent 


»7^7« on a point of land, to obferve an cclipfe of the flin, 
^ ^ ^ which, the morning, being very clear, was done with 
great accuracy. 

Hours. Min. Seconds. 

The immerCon began, by true 7 ^ 

time, at J ^ 5^ 5^ 

The emerfion, by true time, was I ^ 

at I 8 I o 

The duration of the ecHpfe was i p lo 

The latitude of the point, on which the obfervation 
was made, was 1 7° 30' S. the fun's declination was 19*^ 
40' N. and the variation of the needle 5® 36' E. 

After the obfervation was taken, I went to the Queen's 
houfe, and (hewed her the telefcope, which was a re- 
fleftor. After ihe had admired its flrudiure, I endea- 
voured to make her comprehend its ufe, and fixing it 
fo as to command feveral diftant objeds, with which 
fhe was well acquainted, but which could not be dif- 
tinguiihed with the naked eye, 1 made her look through 
it. As foon as (he faw them, (he ftarted back with 
adonifliment, and direding her eye as the glafs was 
pointed, flood fome time motionlefs and filfent ; fhe 
then looked through the glafs again, and again fought, 
in vain, with the naked eye, for the objeSs which it 
difcovered. As they by turns vanifhed and re -appeared, 
her countenance and geftures exprefTed a mixture of 
wonder and delight which no language can defcribe. 
When the glafs was removed, I invited her, and feve- 
ral of the Chiefs that were with her, to go with me on 
board the fhip, in which I had a view to the fecurity 
of the party that I had fent out ; for I thought that 
while the Queen, and the principal people were known 
to be in my power, nothing would be attempted againft 
any perfon belonging to the fhip on fhore. When we 
got on board, I ordered a good dinner for their enter- 
tainment, but the Qiieen would neither eat nor drink ; 
the people that were with her eat very heartily of what- 
ever was fet before them, but would drink only plain 

In the evening our people returned from their excur- 
fion, and came down to the beach, upon which I put 
the Qi^iecn and her attendants into the boats, and fent 
fhem on fhore. As fhe was going over the fhip's fide, 



(he afked, bv (igns, whether I ftili periitled in oit 
folution of leaTine the ifland at the time I had fixed; 
and when 1 made her underftaod that it was 
I fhould Aay longer^ (he exprelTed her re^et bj a flood 
of tears, which for a while took away her fpeedL 
As foon as her pafiion fubfided» flie told me tSiat flie 
would come on board again the next day : and thos wc 


jfn Account of an Exp€£iim to £fcwer the aJmnd Pmt 
of tf-e Country y and nr 9tbnr Tramfa3um$y tUl we 
quittid the Ifland to amtinue sur Vvyage, 

AFTER the mate came on heard, he gave me 
a written account of his expeditioo to the follow- 
ing cfFcS : 

'^ At four o'clock in the morning, of Saturday the 
25th of June, I landed, with fioar midihipmen, a 
ferjeant, and twelve nurines, and twenty-foiir feamen, 
all armed, beiides foor who carried hatchets and other 
articles of traffic, and four who were loaded with am* 
munition and proviiions, the reft being left with the 
boat : every man had his day's allowance of brandy, 
and the hatchet men two fmall kegs, to give out when 
I ihould think proper. 

** As foon as 1 got on (hore, I called upon our old 
man, and took him with rs : we then followed the 
courfe of the river in two parties, one marching on 
each fide. For the firft two miles it flowed through a 
valley of confiderable width, in which were many ha- 
bitations, with gardens walled in, and abundance of 
hogs, poultry, and fruit ; the foil here fcemed to be a 
rich fat earth, and was of a biackifh colour. After 
this the valley became very narrow, and the ground 
fifing abruptly on one fide of the river, we were all ob- 
liged to march on the other. Where the ftream was 
precipitated from the hils, channels had been cut to 
lead the water into gardens and plantations of fruit 
trees : in thefe gardens we found an herb which had 
never been brought down to the water-fide, and which 
we perceived the inhabitants eat raw, I tafted it, and 



1767. found it pleafant, its flavour fomewhat refembling that 
J^ ^ of the Weft Indian fpinnage, called Cal/eloor, though 
its leaf was very different. The ground was fenced off 
fo as to make a very pretty appearance ; the bread-fruit 
and apple-trees were planted in rows on the declivity of 
the hiilsy and the cocoa-nut and plaintain^ which re- 
quire more moifture on the level ground : under the 
trees> both on the fides and at the foot of the hills, 
there was very good grafs, but no underwood. As we 
advanced^ the hills on each fide fwelled into mountains^ 
and vaft craggs every where projeSed over our heads. 
Travelling now became difficult, and when we had 
proceeded about four miles, the road for the taft mile 
having been very bad, we fat down to reft ourfelves, 
and take the refreftiment of our breakfaft ; we ranged 
ourfelves upon the ground under a large apple-tree, in 
a very pleafant fpot ; but juft as we were about to begin 
oar rcpaft, we were fuddenly alarmed by^a confufed 
jfiMind of many voices, and a great ftioutii^, and pre- 
feotty afterwards faw a multitude of men, women, and 
children, upon the hill above us ; our old man feeing 
lis rife haftily, and look to oar arms, beckoned to us to 
fit ftiU, and immediately went up to the people that had 
furprifed us. As foon as he joined them they were 
filent, and foon after difappeared ; in a ftiort time, how- 
ever, they returned, and brought with them a large 
hog ready roafted, with plenty of bread-fruit, yams, 
and other refrefhments, which they gave to the old man, 
who diftributed them among our people. In return 
for this treat, I gave them fome nails, buttons, and 
other things, with which they were greatly delighted. 
After this we proceeded up the valley as far as we could, 
fearching all the runs of water, and all the places 
where water had run, for appearances of metal or ore, 
but could find none, except what I have brought back 
with me. I ftiewed all the people that we met with, 
the piece of faltpetre which had been picked up in the 
ifland, and which I had taken with me for that purpofe, 
but none of them took any notice of it, nor could I 
learn from them any thing about it. The old man 
began now to be weary, aiid there being a mountain 
before t/5, he made figfis that he would go home : be- 
foft he left us, however, hemadeiVv^ r|to^\fcNwUo had 


fo liberally fupplied us with proviJions, take the bag- 
gage, with the fruit that had not been eaten, and fome 
cocoa-nut-lhells full of frefti water, and made fignsthmt 
they Ihould follow us up the fide of the mountain. As 
foon as he was gone, they gathered green branches 
from the neighbouring trees, and with many ceremo- 
nies, of which we did not know the meaning, laid them 
down before us : after this they took fmall berries with 
which they painted themfelves red, and the bark of a 
tree that contained a yellow juice, with which they 
ftained their garments in different parts. We began 
to climb the mountain while our old man was (lill in 
fight, and he, perceiving that we made our way with 
difficulty through the weeds and bru(h-wood, which 
grew very thick, turned back, and faid fomcthing to 
the natives in a firm loud tone ; upon which twenty or 
thirty of the men went before us, and cleared us a 
very good path ; they alfo refrefhed us with water and 
fruit as we went along, and affifted us to dtmb the 
moft difficult places, which we (hould othcrwife haye 
found altogether imprafticable. Webegan to afcend this 
hill at the diftance of about fix miles from the place 
where we landed, and I reckoned the top of it to be 
near a mile above the river that runs through the val- 
ley below. When we arrived at the fummit, we again 
fat down to reft and refrefh ourfetves. While we were 
climbing we flattered ourfelves that from the top we 
(hould command the whole ifland, but we now faw 
mountains before us fo much higher than our fituation, 
that with refpeft to them we appeared to be in a val- 
ley ; towards the (hip indeed the view was enchanting : 
the fides of the hills were beautifully clothed with wood, 
villages were every where interfperfed, and the vailies 
between them afforded a ftill richer profpeft ; the 
houfes flood thicker, and the verdure was more luxu- 
riant. We faw very few habitations above us, but 
difcovered fmoke in many places afcending from be- 
tween the higheft hills that were in fight, and there- 
fore I conjefhire that the moft elevated parts of the 
country are by no means without inhabitants. As we 
afcended the mountain, we faw many fprings ga(K 
fromfiffureson the fide of it, and v/V\et\>N^\vaLAT^?cAv- 
ed the fummit, we found many boufe^^ v\\ax -w ^ S\^ 


X767. not difcover as we pafled them. No part of thefe 
2"*^ mountains is naked ; the fummits of the higheft that 
we could fee were crowned with wood, but of what 
kind I know not : ihofe that were of the fame height 
with that which we had climed, were woody on the 
fides, but on thefummit were rocky and covered with 
fern. Upon the flats that appeared below thefe, there 
grew a fedgy k'md of grafs and weeds : in general the 
ioil here, as well as in the valley, feemed to be rich.- 
Wc faw feveral bufhes of fugar-cane, which were very 
large and very good, growing wild, without the leaft 
culture. I like wife found ginger and turmerick, and 
have brought famples of both, but could not procure 
feeds of any tree, moft of them being in bloflbm. 
After traverfing the top of this mountain to a good 
diftance, I found a tree exaQly like a fern, except 
that it was 'i 4 or i 5 feet high. This tree I cut down, 
and found the infide of it alfo like a fern : I would 
have brought a piece of it with me, but found it too 
cumberfome, and I knew not what difficulties we 
might meet with before we got back to the (hip, 
which we judged to be how at a great diftance. -After 
having again recruited our ftrength by refrefhment 
and reft, we began to defcend the mountain, being 
ftill attended by the people to whofe care we had been 
recommended by our old man. We kept our gene- 
ral direftion towards the ftiip, but fometimes deviated 
a little to the right and left in the plains and vallies, 
when we faw any houfes that were pleafantly fituated, 
the inhabitants being every where ready to accommo- 
date us with whatever they had. We faw no beaft, ex- 
cept a few hogs, nor any birds, except parrots, parro- 
quets, and green doves ; by the river, however, there 
was plenty of ducks, and .every place that was planted 
and cultivated, appeared to flouridi with great luxuri- 
ance, though in the midft of what had the appearance 
of barren ground. I planted the ftones of peaches, 
cherries, and plums, with a great varietyof garden feeds, 
where I thought it was moft probable that they would 
thrive, and limes, lemons, and oranges, in fituations 
which refemblcd thofe in which they are found in the 
Weft Indies. In the afternoon, we arrived at a very 
pleafant fpot, within about three miles of the (hip, 



where we procured two hogs and fome fowls, which 
the natives dreffed for us very well, and with grett 
expedition. Here we continued till the cool of the even- 
ing, and then made the heft of our way for the fliip, 
having liberally rewarded our guides, and the ptO[Ae 
who had provided us fo good a dinner. Our men be-* 
haved through the whole day with the greateft decency 
and order, and we parted with our Indian friends in 
perfeft good-humour with each other." 

About lo o'clock, the next morning, the QHeenSund. z6. 
came on board, according to her promife, with a prefcnt 
of hogs and fowls, but went on Ihore again foon af- 
terwards. This day, the Gunner fent off near thirty 
hogs, with great plenty of fowl and fruit. We com- 
pleted our wood and water, and got all ready for fea. 
More inhabitants came down to the beach, from, the 
inland country, than we had feen before, and many of 
them appeared, by the refped that was paid them, to 
be of a fuperior rank. About three o'clock in the after- 
noon, the Queen came again down to the beach, very 
well drefled, and followed by a great number of people. 
Having crofled the river with her attendants, and our 
old man, (he came once more on board the ihip. She 
brought with her fome very fine fruit, and renewed her 
folicitation,that.I would (lay ten days longer, with great 
earneftnefs, intimating that (he would go into the 
country, and bring me plenty of hogs, fowls, and fruit. 
I endeavoured to exprefs a proper fenfe of herkindnefs 
and bounty, but affured her that! (hould certainly fail 
the next morning. This, as ufual, threw her into tears, 
and after fhe recovered, fhe enquired by figns when I 
fliould, return ; I endeavoured to exprefs fifty days, and 
file made figns for thirty : but the fign for fifty being 
conftantly repeated, (he feemed fatisfied. She ftayed on 
board till night, and it was then with the greateft diffi- 
culty that fhe could be prevailed upon to go on fhore. 
When fhe was told that the boat was ready, fhe threw 
herfelf down upon the arm-cheft, and wept a long time 
with an excefs of pafEon that could not be pacified ; at 
laft, however, though with the greateft reluSance, fhe 
went into the boat, and wjts followed by her attendants 
and the old man. The old man had often intimated 
that hisfon, a lad about fourteen years of age, fhould 
go with us^ and the boy feemed to be willing : hcK^d^ 


1767. however, now dlfappeared for two days. I enquired 
^ J^l^ ^ after him when I firft miffed him, and the old man 
^^"^^^ gave me to underftand that he was gone into the coun- 
try to fte his friends, and would return time enough to 
go with us ; but I have reafon to think that, when the 
time drew near, the father's courage failed, and that to 
keep his child, he fecreted him tiU the (hip was gone, 
for we never faw him afterwards. 
Monday 27. At break of day, on Monday the 2 7th, we unmoored, 
and at the fame time I fent the barge and cutter to fill 
the few water-ca(ks that were now empty. When they 
came near the fhore, they faw, to their great furprife, 
the whole beach covered with inhabitants, and having 
fomc doubt whether it would be prudent to venture 
themfelves among fuch a multitude, they were about to 
pull back again for the fliip. As foon as this was per- 
ceived from the fiiore, the Qyeen came forward, and 
beckoned.them ; at the fame time gueffing the reafon of 
what had happened, (he made the natives retire to the 
other fide of the river. The boats then proceeded to the 
fhore, and filled the calks ; in the mean time (be put 
fome hogs and fruit on board, and when they were 
putting off would fain have returned with them to the 
Ihip. TheofBcer, however, who had received orders to 
bring off none of the natives, would not permit her ; 
upon which fhe prefently launched a double canoe, and 
was rowed off by her own people. Her canoe was im- 
mediately followed by fifteen or fixteenmore, and all of 
them came up to the fhip. The Queen came on board, 
but not being able to fpeak, fhe fat down and gave vent 
^ to her paffion by weeping. After (he had been onboard, 
about an hour, a breeze fpringingup we weighed anchor 
and made fail. Finding it now neceffary to return into 
her canoe, fhe embraced us all in themoft affeSionate 
manner, and with many tears ; all her attendants alfo 
expreffed great forrow at our departure. Soon after it 
fell calm, and I fent the boats a-head to tow, upon which 
all the canoes returned to the fhip, and that which had 
the Queen on board came up to the gun-room port, 
where her people made it fall. In a few minutes fhe 
came into the bow of her canoe, where fhe fat weeping 
with inconfolable forrow. I gave her many things which 
/ thought would be of great ufc to her^ zxiA fome for 
omsLtntnt ; flie filently acccpteA ol A\, \xn)X \s»>k\wxSfc 


notice of ahjr thing. About 10 o'clock we were got 1767. 
without the reef, and a firelh breeze fpringing up, our J"'y- 
Indian friends, atidpaniculariy the Queen, once more* 
bade us farewel, with fuch tendernefs of afFeSion and 
grief, as fitted both my heart and my eyes. 

At noon, the harbour from which we failed bore 
S. E. i E. diflant about twelve miles. It lies in latitude 
170 30' S*. lo^igitude 1500 W. and I gave it the name 
of Port Royal Harbour. 

CHAP. vin. 

jf more pariictttiir Account of th^ InhatttanU sfOtabeiie, 
and of. their do'mt/tic Life, Manners, and Arts. 

Ylf A VI N G lain ofF this ifland from Ac 214th of 
X Jl June to thief 27th of July, Khali fiow give the 
bed account of it&'inhiibitiihts^ with their manners aiid 
arts, that lean ; biithaVhtg* been in a very bad ftate of 
health the whblfef'tffncf, and foi'gfc^t part of it confined 
to ni^ bed, it will of netefiity^be mt(chle&. accurate 
and pafticuUf' thait^Irtighfothetwife have made it. 

The inhabitants 6f this iflarid'afi a ftbut, well-made^ 
aSive; and cohidy pfeopfe. Theftature'ofthemen, in 
general^ is frbih fiVfe'feet feve^ to five feet ten inches, 
though a few irtdividuab art talld*^ and a few fhorter ; 
that of the woitl'dri'fronni five feet tofi^ve feet fix. The 
complexion of 'thfe'^mfen is taWn'ey, but thofe that go 
upon the wateif a^6 much redder thaii thofe who live on 
fliore.' Their h^tr in g^eralis Uack^ but in fome it is 
Brown,' in fome redjl and others flaxen, which is remark- 
able, beciaiife the hair of - all other natives of Afia, 
Africa, arid 'AmcVica, is black, without a (Tni^e cxfcep- 
tion. It is'geneYdfy tifed up, either inonebiinch, in the 
niiddle'of the he'adi or in two, one on each fide, but 
fome wear it Iqiofe, and it then curls Tery (Irongly : in 
the children of both fexesit is generally flaxen. They 
hav^ no conibs; y6t their hair is very neatly dreffed, and 
thofe who had conibs from us, niade good ufe of them. 
It is a unrveHal cuffioni to anoint the head with cocoa- 
nut oil, in which a root has been fcraped that fmells 
fomething; like rofts. The wcfmen are all handfoifie, and 
fome" of tfiem extreAidy beailtiful. Chaftity does tvot 
feem'td 5e cdiifi^^rfedas a vimie among ihetiii iw \>tf!^- 
VoL. I. P xv^X 


1767. not only readily and openly trafficked with our people 
J"*^' for perfonal favours, but were brought down by their 
fathers and brothers for that purpofe : they were, how- 
ever, confcious of the value of beauty, and the fize of 
the nail that was demanded for the enjoyment of the 
lady, was always in proportion to her charms. The 
men who came down to the fide of the river, at the 
fame time that theyprefented the girl, (hewed a ftick of 
the fize of the naillnat was to be her price, and if our 
people agreed, fhe was fent over to them, for the men 
were not permitted to crofs the river. This commerce 
was carried on a confiderable time before the officers 
difcovered it ; for while fome draggled a little way to 
receive the lady, the others kept a look-out. When I 
was acquainted with it, I no longer wondered that the 
jhip was in danger of being pulled to pieces for the nails 
and iron that held her together, which I had before 
puzzled myfelf to account for in vain, the whole (hip's 
company having daily as much fre(h provifion and fruit 
as they could eat. Both men and women are not only 
decently but gracefully clothed, in a kind of white cloth j 
that is made of the bark of a (hrub, and very much re • 
fembles coarfe China paper. Their drefs confifts of two 
pieces of this cloth : one of them, a hole having been 
made in the middle to put the head through, hangs 
down from the (houlders to the mid-leg before and be- 
hind ; another pice, which is between four and five 
yards long, and about one yard broad, they wrap round 
the body in a very eafy manner. This cloth is not woven, 
but is made, like pap^r, of the macerated fibres of an in- 
ner bark, fpread out, and beaten together. Their orna- 
ments are feathers, flowers, pieces of (hells, and pearls : 
the pearls are worn chiefly by the women, from whom I 
purchafed about two dozen of a fmall fize : they were 
' of a good colour, but were all fpoiled by boring. Mr. 
Furneaux faw feveral in his excurfion to the weft, but 
he could purchafe none with any thing he had to offer. 
I obferved, that it was here a univerfal cuftom both for 
men and women to have the hinder part of their thighs 
and loins marked very thick with black lines in various 
forms. Thefe marks were made by ftrikingthe teeth of 
an inJlrument, fomewhat like a comb, juft through the 
&/i2, and rubbing into the punftures a kind of parte 
m9,dt oi foot and oil, wtucVl kaNt^ ^itv vtvdelible ftain. 


The boys and girls» under twelve years of age, are not i?^- 
marked ; but we obferved a few of the men whofe legs y j^J^ 
1%'ere marked in chequers by the fame method, and they 
appeared to be perfons of fuperior rank and authority. 
One of the principal attendants upon the Qgeen ap- 
peared much more difpofed to imitate our manners than 
the reft ; and our people, with whom he foon became 
^ favourite, diftinguiflied him by the. name of Jonathan. 
This man Mr. Furneaux clothed compleatly in an 
£ngli(h drefs, and it (at very eafy upon him. Our 
oiEcers were always carried on fliore, it being fhoal 
water where we landed, and Jonathan, affuming new 
fiate with his new finery, made fome of his people 
carry him on fiiore in the fame manner. He very foon 
attempted to u(e a knife and fork at his meals, but at 
firft, when he had (luck a moriet upon his fork, and 
tried to feed himfelf with that inftrument, he could not 
guide it, but by the mere force of habit his hand came 
to his mouth, and the visuals at the end of the fork 
went away to his ear. 

Their food, confifis of pork j poultry, dogs flefh,. 
and iifh, bread-fruit, bananas, plantains, yams, apples^ . 
and a four fruit which, though not pleafant by itfelf, 
gives an agreeable teliih to roafted bread*fruit, with 
which it is frequently beaten up. 'They have abun- 
dance of rats, but, as far as I could difcover, thefe make 
no part of their food. The river affords them good 
mullet, but they are neither large.nor in plenty. They 
findconchs, n^ufctes, and other (hell-fi(h on the reef, 
which they g^t;her at low water, and eat raw with 
bread-fruit before they come on ihore. They have al- 
fo very fine crayrfiih, and they catch with lines, and 
books of nu>ther of pearl, at a little diftance from the 
Ihore, parrot -fiih, groopers, and many other forts, of 
which they are fp fond that we could feldom pievail** 
upon them to ftU us a few at any price. They have alfo 
nets of an enormous fize, with very fmall me(hes, and 
with thefe they catch abundance of fmall (i(h about the 
fize of fardines ; but while they were ufing both nets 
and lines with great fuccefs, we could not catch a fingle 
fifli with either. We procured fome of their hooks 
and lines, but ^ want of their art we were ftill difap- 

P 2 ^V^ 


1767. The roajnner in wrhich they drefs their food is this : 
j^^l^ they kindle a fire, by rubbing the end of one piece of 
d|[y wood upon the iide of another^ in the (ame man- 
ner, as our carpenters whet a chifleL; then they dig a 
pit about half a foot deep, and two or three yards in 
circumference : they pave the bottom with large pebble, 
ftones, which they lay down very fmooth and even, and 
then kindle, a iire in it with dry wood, leaves, and the 
huik&of the cocoa-hut. When the (tones are fuffici* 
ently heated, they take out the embers, and rake up- 
the afli^ on every fide ; then they coyer the ftones witb^ 
a. layer of green,cocoa-n^t-itree leaves, and wrap up the 
animal that is to.bedrefled. in the leaves of the plan- 
tain ; if it is a fmall hog they wrap it up whole, if a 
large one they When it is placed in the pit^ 
they cover it witb.the hot embers, and lay upon them- 
bread-fruit, an^ yams, wBicb are alfb wrappied up in the 
leaves of .the plain tain ; over thefe they fpread the re- 
mainder of the embers^ mixing among tliem fome of 
the hot flones, with more cocoa-nut-tree leaves upon 
them, anc| tlic;^ dofe all up with earth, fo that the heat 
i| kept in. After a tirpe proportioned to tf\c fize of 
^hat is .dreffing, t|ie ovei\ is opened, and the meat taken 
out, which, is tender, full of gravy, and, in my opini- 
on, better in every other refped than when it is dreflcd 
any other w^y. Excepting the fruit, they have no fauce 
but fait water, rior any knives but fhells, with which^ 
they carve very dexterqufly, always cutting from them. 
li is impoffible to dcfcribe the aflohiibment they ex- 
preffed when theyfaw the Gunner, who, while he kept 
thie, market, ufedto dine on fhorej drefs his pork and 
poultry by boiling them in a pot ; haviflg, as I have 
before obferved,.iio veflel that woujdbear the fire, they 
had no idea of hot water or its eff^^da : but from the 
time that the old man was iri poffeifiori of an iron potj 
he and his friends eat boiled meat every day. The iron 
pots which I afterwards gave to the Queen, and feveraf 
of the Chiefs, were alfo in conftant ufe„ and brought 
as many pepple together as a monftcr or a puppet^ 
(how in a country fair. They appeared to li- 
quor for drinking but water, and to be happily igno- 
rant of the artot fermenting the juice of any vegetable, 
fo as to give it an intoxicating quality : they have, a& 



has been already obferved, the fugar^cane^ but they iJ7f 7« 
feemcd to make no other ufe of it than to chew, which ^ J[L 
they do not do habitually, but only break a piece off 
when they happen to pafs by a place where it is growing. 

Of their domeftic life and amufements, we had not 
fufficient opportunity to obtain much knowledge, but 
they appear fometimes to have wars with each other^ 
not only from their weapons, but the fears with which 
many of them were marked, and fome of which appear- 
ed to be the remains of very confiderable wounds, made 
with floncs, bludgeons, or fome other obtufe weapon : 
by thefe fears alfo they appear to be np hicdnriderabie 
proficients in furgery, of which indeed we -happened 
to have more dire^ evidetice. One of our feamen» 
when he was on (bore, run a large fplinter into his 
foot, and the Surgeon being on board, one of his com- 
rades endeavoured to take it out with a )>fefi-knife ; 
but after putting the poor fellow to a gt)Dd deal of pkiti, 
was obliged to give it over. Our good old Indiart^ who 
happened to be prefent, then called over pnfe of his 
countrymen that was (landing on the oppofite fide bf 
the river, who having looked a,t the feanlan'3 foot, weht 
immediately down to the beach^ ind taking up a (hiell, 
broke it to a point with his teeth ; with this ififtrumekit, 
in little more than a minute^ he laid open the place, 
and extraded the fplinter ; in the mean timt the old 
man, who, as foon as he had called the other over, 
-went a little way into the vfbod, returned with fome 
gum^ which he applied to the wound upon a piec^ of 
the cloth that was wraflped round hioi, and in two 
days time it was perfeQIy healed. We afterwards 
learned, that this giim waj; produced by the apple-trecj 
and our Surgeon procured fome of it, and ufed it a$ H 
vulnerary balfam with gfeat fuccefs. , . . 

The habitations of thefe happy people I have d^fcribr 
ed already ; and befides thefe, we faw feverd fheds in- 
clofed within a wall, on the outfide of which there were 
feveral uncouth figures of meft, wom6n, hogs, and 
^ogs, carved on pofts, that wer6 driven into the grPund. 
Several of the natives were from time to time fecn to 
enter thefe phKres, with a flow pace and dc}e6}cd coun- 
lenance^ frow which we <:ofijeftiired that they were 
rcpofitories of the dead. The area w'ltKm l\\^ >k2^\'& oi 


'7^' thefe places, was generally well paved with large round 
^ Jl^_j ftones^ but it appeared not to be much trodden, for the 
grafs every where grew up between them. I endea* 
voured, with -particular attention, todifcover whether 
they had a religious worihip among them, but never 
could find the leaft traces of any. 

The boats or canoes of thefe people are of three dif- 
ferent forts. Some are made out of a fingle tree, and 
carry from two to fix men : thefe are ufed chiefly for 
fifhing, and we conftantly faw many of them bufy up- 
on the reef: fome were conftru6ted of planks, very 
dextcroufly fewed together : thefe were of different 
fixes, and would carry from ten to forty men. Two 
of them v^re generally laihed together, and two mails 
fet up between them ; if they were fingle, they had an 
out-rigger on one fide, and only one mafb in the mid- 
dle. With thefe veffels they fail far beyond the fight 
of land, probably to other iflands, and bring home 
plantains, bananas, and yams, which feem alfo to be 
more plenty upon other parts of this ifland, than that 
oflf which the fiiip lay. A third fort feem to be intend- 
ed principally for pleafure and fhow r they are very 
large, but have no fail, and in fhape refemble the gon- 
dolas of Venice : the middle is covered with a large 
awning, and fome of the people fit upon it, fome un- 
der it. None of thefe vcfTels came near the fiiip, ex- 
cept on the firft and fecond day after our arrival ; but 
we faw, three or four times a week, a procefTion of 
eight or ten of them parting at a diftance, with ftream- 
ers flying, and a great number of fmall canoes attend- 
ing them, while many hundreds of people ran a-breaft 
of them along the fhore. They generally rowed to 
the outward point of a reef which lay about four miles 
to the wcftward of us, where they flayed about an hour, 
^nd then returned. Thefe procefiions, however, are 
never made but in fine weather, and all the people on 
board are drefled ; though in the other canoes they 
have only a piece of cloth wrapped round their middle. 
Thofc who rowed and fleered were drefled in white ; 
thofe v.- ho fat upon the awning and under it in white 
and red, and two men, who were mounted on the prow 
of each vclfel, were drefled in red only. We fometimcs 
went out to obfcrve ihem \t\o\.u V)o:vu> ^tvd though we 


were never nearer than a mile, we faw ibera with our »7^- 
glaffes as diftinSly as if we had been upon the fpot. . ^^^'^ 

Tlie plank of which thefe vcffels are conftruded, is ' • 
made by fplitting a tree, with the grain, into as many 
thin pieces as they can. They firft fell the tree with 
a kind of hatchet, or adze, made of a tough greenifh 
kind of flonc, very dcxteroufly fitted into a handle ; it 
is then cut into fuch lengths as are required for the 
plank, one end of which is heated till it begins to 
crack, and then with wedges of hard wood they fplit 
it down : fome of thefe planks are two feet broad, and 
from 1 5 to 20 feet long. The fides are fmoothed with 
adzes of the fame materials and conftruftion, but of a 
finaller fize. Six or eight men arc fometimes at work 
upon the fame plank together, and, as their tools pre- 
fently lofe their edge, every man has by him a cocoa 
nut-fhell filled with water, and a fiat flone, with which 
he fliarpens his adze almoft every minute. Thefe 
planks are generally brought to the thicknefs of about 
an inch, and are afterwards fitted to the boat with the 
fame exaSnefs that would he expefted from an expert 
joiner. To fatten thefe planks together, holes are bor- 
ed with a piece of bone that is fixed into a (lick for 
that purpofe, a ufe to which our nails were afterwards 
applied with great advantage, and through thefe holes 
a kind of plaited cordage is pafi!ed, fo as to hold the 
planks ftrongly together : the feams are caulked with 
dried ruflies, and the^whole outfide of the veflel is payed 
with a gummy juice, which fome of their trees produce 
in great plenty, and which is a very good fuccedaneum 
for pitch. 

The wood which they ufe for theif large canoes, is 
that of the apple-tree, which grows very tall and ftrait. 
' Several of them, that we meafured, were near eight 
feet in the girth, and from 20 to 40 to the branches, 
with very little diminution in the fize. Our carpenter 
faid, that in other refpefts it was not a good wood for 
the purpofe, being very light. The fmall canoes are 
nothing more than the hollowed trunk of the bread- 
fruit tree, which is ftill more light and fpongy. The 
trunk of the bread-fruit tree is fix feet in girth, and 
about 20 feet to the branches. 



»7^7- Their principal weapons are ftones, thrown either 
^^ with the hand or fling, and bludgeons ; for though 
they have bows and arrows, the arrows, are Qiilyfit' to 
knockdown a bird, none of them being pointed, but 
headed only with a 7X>und.Jlpne. 

i did not fee one turtle all .the while I lay off t^lis 
ifland ; but upon fliewing fonfie fmall ones which I 
brought froni 'Queen Charjotte's Ifland, to the inh^bi* 
tants, they made figns that they had them of a muQh 
larger fize. I very oiuch regretted my havii^ loft our 
he-goat, which died foon after we left Saint lago, and 
that neither of our flie-goats, of which we had two^ 
were with kid. If the he-goat had lived, I would have 
put them all on fliore at this place, and I would have 
left a ftie-goat here if either of them had been with 
kid ; and I doubt not,' but that in a few years they 
would have flocked the ifland. 

The climate here appears to be very good, and the 
ifland to be one of the moft healthy as well as delight- 
fuj fpots in the y^orlcj. We faw no appearance of dif- 
eafe among the inhabitants. The hilts ar£ covered 
with wood, and the vallies with herbage ; and the air 
in general is fo pure, that notwithftanding the heat, our 
flefti rheat kept very well two days, and our fifli one. 
We met with no frog, toad, fcorpion, centipied, or 
ferp^nt of any kind : and the only troublefome infeQs 
tliat we faw were ants, of which there were but few. 

The fouth-eaft part of the ifland feems to be better 
cultivated and inhabited than where we lay ; for we faw 
every day boats come round from thence laden with 
plantains and other fruit, and we always found greater 
plenty, and a lower price, fpon ^fter their arrival than 

The tide rifes aqd falls very little, and being govern- 
ed by the winds, is very uncertain ; though they gene- 
rally blow from the E. to the S. S. E. and for the moft 
part a pleafant breeze. 

The benefit that we receiyed while we lay off this 
ifland, with refpeft to the health pf the fliip's compa- 
ny, was beyopd our moft fanguine expeSations, for 
we had not nov/ an invalid on board, except the two 
I lieutenants and myftlf, andwe were recovering, though 
fllll in n very feeble condition. 



It is certain that none of our .people contraJ^ed .the *7j7« 
venereal difeafe here, and therefore, as they bad free ^jl^^^ 
commerce with great numbers of the womei^ there is 
the greateft probabiUty that it was not then known in 
the country. It was, however, found here by Captain 
Cook, in the Endeavour ; and as no European vcfTel 
is known to have vifited this ifland before Captain 
Cook's arrival, but the Dolphin, and the Boudeufe 
and Etoil, commanded by M. Bougainville, the re- 
proach of having contaminated with that dreadful peft 
a race of happy people, to whom its miferies had till 
then been unknown, muft be due either to him or to 
me, to England or to France ; and I think myfelf 
Jiappy to be able to exculpate myfelf and my country 
beyopd the poflibility of doubt. 

It is well known, that the Surgeon on board his 
Majefty's (hips keeps a lift of the perfons who are fick 
on board, fpecifyiog their djfeafe^} and ihe f ime when 
they can?e under his care, and wheo they wereidif- 
charged. It happened that I w^ onc^ at the pay-t;^hl£ 
on board a ftiipf when fjsveral fi^lors pbjeSed to the 
payment of the Surgeoi), aUedgjn^, that although he 
had difcharged thenqi from the lulp and reported them 
to be cured, yet their cure was incopiplete. From this 
time, it has beep my conftant pr^ice when the Sur- 
geon reported a man to be cured, who had been upon 
the fick lift, to call the man before me, and afk him 
whether the report was true : if he alledged that any 
fymptoms of his complaint remained, I continued him 
upon the lift ; if not, I required hijn» as a confirma- 
tion of the Surgeon's report, to fign the book, which 
was always done in niy prefence. A copy of the fick 
lift, on board the Dolphin^ duriqg this voyage, figned 
by every man in my prefence, when he was difcharg- 
ed well, ip confirmation of the Surgeon^s report, writ- 
ten In my own hand, and confirmed by my aflSdavit,j 
I have depofit^d in the Admiralty ; by which it ^pr^ 
pears, that the laft man on board the (hip, in her voy- 
age oqtward, who was upon the fick lift for the venereal 
difeafe, except one who was fent to England in the 
Store ftiip, was difcharged cured, and figned the book 
on the 27tb of December, 1 766, near fix months l?e- 
"" fore our arrival at Otaheite, which was orv iVv^ \5\\\ ^S. 



Monday 17. 

ToeCd. aS. 

Sir Char. 
Wedo. 2p* 


June, 1 767 ; and that the Rrft man who was upon the 
lift for that difeafe, in our return home, was entered 
on the 26th of February, 1768, fix months after we 
left the ifland, which was on the 26th of July 1 767 ; 
fo that the (hip's company was entirely free fourteen 
months within one day, the very middle of which time 
we fpent at Otaheite ; and the man who was firft en- 
tered as a venereal patient, on our return home, was 
known to have contra3ed the difeafe at the Cape of 
Good Hope, where we then lay. 

C H A P. IX. 

Pajfage from Otaheite to Tlnian, with fome Account of 
fever al other IJlands that were dif covered in the South 

HAVING made fail from King George the 
Third's Ifland, we proceeded along the fliore 
of the Duke of York's Ifland, at the diftance of about 
two miles. There appeared to be good bays in every 
part of it, and in the middle a fine harbour ; but I did 
not think it worth while to go on ftiore. The middle 
and weft end is very mountainous, the caft end is 
lower, and the coaft juft within the beach is covered 
with cocoa-nut, bread-fruit, apple, and plantain trees. 

At day-light, the next morning, we faw land, for 
which we made fail, and ran along the lee-fide of it. 
On the weather fide there were very gr^ar breakers, 
and the lee-fide was rocky, but in many places there 
appeared to be good anchorage. We faw but few in- 
habitants, and they appeared to live in a manner very 
diff*erent from thofe of King George's Ifland, their ha- 
bitations being only fmall huts. We faw many cocoa- 
nut and other trees upon the fhore ; but ?J1 of them 
had their heads blown away, probably in a hurricane. 
This ifland is about fix miles long, and has a moun- 
tain of confidcrable height in the middle, which fcems 
to be fertile. It lies in latitude 17*^ 28' S. and longi- 
tude, by our laft obfervation, 151^ 4' W. and I call- 
ed it Sir Charles Saunders's Island. 

On the 29th, the variation of the compafs, by azi- 
mvtb, was 7^ 52' F,^ and eavly the next morning. 



at day-break, we faw land bearing from N. by E. to '7|57- 
N. W. We flood for it, but could find no anchor- ij^^ 
age, the whole ifland being furrounded by breakers. Thurfd. 30 
We faw fnioke in two places, but no inhabitants. A 
few cocoa-nut trees were growing on the lee-part of it, 
and I called it Lord How's Island. It is about ten Lo^d How'i 
miles long, and four broad, and lies in latitude 16® " ' 
46' S. longitude, by obfervation, 154*^ 13'W. 

In the afternoon we faw land bearing W, by N. 
and flood for it. At five o'clock, we faw breakers run- 
ning a great way out to the fouthward, and foon after, 
low land to the S. W. and breakers all about it in 
every diredtion. 

We turned to windward all night, and as foon as it 
was light, crowded fail to get round thcfe (hoals. At 
nine we got round them, and named them Scilly Sciilyif- 
IsLANDS. They are a group of iflands or fhoals ex- ^*"^*' 
tremely dangerous ; for in the night, however clear 
the weather, and by day, if it is hazey, a (hip may 
run upon them without feeing land. They lie in la- 
titude 16^ 28' S. longitude 1 55^ 30' W. 

We continued to fteer our cburfe weftward till day- ,p^"^*' 
break on the 13th of Augnft; when we faw land "'•'3- 
bearing W. by S. and hatiled towards it. At 1 1 o'clock 
in the forenoon, we faW more land in the W. S. W. 
At noon, ihe firfl: land that we faw, which proved to 
be an ifland, bore W f S. diftant about five leagues, 
and had the appearance of a fugar loaf; the nriiddle of 
the other land, which was alfo an ifland, and appear- 
ed in a peak, bore W. S. W. diftant fix leagues. To 
the firfl, which is nearly circular, and three miles over, 
I gave the name of Boscawen's Island ; ar,d tht^^^^^"^^"** 
other, which is three miles and a half long, and two 
broad, I called Keppel's Fsle. Port Royal at this ^cppert 
time bore E. 4*^ lo'S. diftant 478 leagues. ^^^' 

At two o'clock, being about two miles diftant from 
Bofcawen's Ifland, we faw feveral of the inhabitants ; 
but Keppel's Ifle being to windward, and appearing 
more likely to afford us anchorage, we hauled up for , 
it. At fix it was not more than a mile and a half 
diftant, and, with our glafles, we faw many of the in- 
habitants upon the beach j but there being breaker* 


S^ ^^ ^ coofidenible £(laiice from •the fliore, we flood oQF 
and on aQ ni|rht. 

At four oxlock the. next mornings we fent ofr the 
boats to Youiid,4md vifit the ifland ; and as foon as it 
was tight^ we ran down and lay over-again$ the mid- 
dle of it. At nooQ» the boats retiiraedy and f cported 
that they had run within a qble^s length of the ifiand, 
but could find no m>iind : diat feeing a reef of roAs 
lie off it, they liad hauled round it, and got bto k 
large deep bay which was fiill of rocks : that they then 
founded without the bajji and found anchorase from 
)▲ to 2Q £athom. with a bottom of fand and coral : 
that afterwards they went again mto the bay^ and found 
a rivulet of good wateTj^ but the fliore being rdcky, 
went b Tcardi of a better landing-place^ wUch they 
found abouLt half a mile farther, and went a|l^ore. They 
rc|KNrted aUb, that from the water to this hindtng-place, 
ajiood rolling way might We made for fupptying the 
il^;», but that a ftlroi^ jS^^ wouljl Ibe neceflky, to 
present moleftatioB Itrom tlie inhabitants. They faw 
no hogs, but brought off two fowls and JTonie cocoa- 
nuts, plantains and bantaas. While the boats were 
on Ihore, two canoes came up to them with fix men : 
they feemed to be peaceably inclined, and were much 
the fame kind of people as the inhabitants of King 
George's Ifland, but they were cloathed in a kind of 
matting, and the firft joint of their little fingers had 
been taken off; at the fame time about fifty more 
came down Irom the country, to within about an hun- 
dred yards of them, but would advance no farther. 
When our people had made what obfervations they 
could, they put off, and three of the natives from the 
c&noes came into one of the boats ; but when (he got 
about half a mile from the ihore, they all fuddenly 
jumped over-board, and fwam back again. 

Having received this account, I conddered that the 
watering her would be tedious, and attended with 
great f^itigue : that it was now the depth of winter in 
the fouthcrn hemifphere, that the fliip was leaky, that 
the rudder {hook the Aern very much, and that what 
other damage (he might have received in her bottom 
could not be known. That for thefe reafons, flie was 
very un6t for the bad weather which Ihe would cer- 


tainly meet with either in going round Cape Horn, or 
through the Streight of Magellan : that if (he (houVd 
get fafely through the Streight, or round the Cape, it 
would be abfolutely neceflary for her to refrefh in fome 
port, but in that cafe no port would be in her reach; 
I therefore determined to make the beft of my way to 
Tinian, Batavia, and fo to Eiirope by the Cape of 
Good Hope. By this route, as far as we could judge, 
we (hould fooner be at home ; and if the (hip ihould 
prove not to be in a condition to make the whole voy- 
age, we fhould ftitl fave our lives, as from this place 
to Batavia we (hould probably have a calm fea, and 
be not far from a port. 

In confequence o£ this refolution, at noon I bore 
away, and pafTed Bofcawen's Ifland without vifiting 
it. It is a high round ifland, abounding in wood, and 
full of people ; but Kepplc.Ifle is the largeft and the 
beft of the two. 

Bofcawen's Ifland lies irt Iatit;ude i5* 50' S." longi- 
tude 175^ W. and K^pple's Ifle in latitude 15? 55' Si 
longitude 175*^-3' W. 

We continued a W: N. W. courfe till 10 o'clock 
in the morning, of Sunday the i6th, when we fawSond^^ 
land bearing.N.. by E. a^dhauled up for it. At noon, 
we were within three kagues of it : the land within 
ihore appeared to be high, but at the water fide it was^ 
low, and had a pleafant appearance ; the whole feem- 
ed to be fiirrounded by reefs, thiat ran two or three' 
miles into the fea. As we failed along the (hore,, 
which was cpvered with cocoa-nut-trees, we faw a few. 
huts, and fmoke in feveral parts of the country. Soon 
after we. hauled without.^ reef of rocks, to get round 
the lee-fide of, the..ifl^d, and at the fame time .fent 
out the boats to. found, and examine the coaft. 

The boats rowed cldfe along the (hore, and found 
it. rocky, with trees growing clofe down to the waters* 
fide. Thefe trees were of different forts, many of 
them very large, but had no fruit.: on the lee-fide, 
however, there were a few cocoa-nuts, but not a An- 
gle habitation was te be^feen. They difcovered feve^ 
ral fmall rills of water, which, by clearing,, might have 
been fixade to^ run in a larger ftream. Soon after they 
had got clofe to the (ho re, feveral canot^ c^itofc \r^ xc^ 


1767- them, each having fix or eight men on board* They 
"^" appeared to be a robuft, aSive people, and were quite 
naked, except a kind of mat that was wrapped round 
their middle. They were armed with large maces or 
clubs, fuch as Hercules is reprefented with, two of 
which they fold to the Matter for a nail or two, and 
fomc trinkets. As our people had feen no animal^ 
cither bird or beaft except fea-fowl, they were very 
defirous to learn of the natives whether they had ei- 
ther, but could not make themfelves underftood. It 
appears that during this conference, adefign was form- 
ed to feize our cutter, for one of the Indians fuddenly 
laid hold of her painter, and hauled her upon the 
rocks. Our people endeavoured, in vain, to make 
them defifl, till they fired a mufket crofs the nofe of 
the man that was moft aftive in the mifchief. No 
hurt was done ; but the fire and report fo affrighted 
them, that they made off with great precipitation. 
Both our boats then put off, but the water had ftllen 
fo fuddenly that they found it very difficult to get back 
to the ihip; for when they came into deep water they 
found the points of rocks (landing up, and the whole 
reef, except in one part, was now dry, and a great 
fea broke over it. The Indians probably perceived 
their diftrefs, for they turned back, and followed them 
in their canoes all along the reef till they got to the 
breach, and then feeing them clear, and making way 
faft towards the fhip, ihey returned. 

About fix in the evening, it being then dark, the 
boats returned, and the Mailer told me, th^t all with- 
in the reef was rocky ; but that in two or three places, 
at about two cables length without it, thefe was an- 
chorage in 18, 14, and 12 fathoms, upon fand and 
coral. The breach in ihe reef he found to be about 
60 fathoms broad, and here, if preffed by necelTity, 
he faid a fliip might anchor or moor 8 fathoms ; but 
that it would not be fafe to moor with a greater length 
than half a cable. 

When I had hoifted the boats ip, I ran down four 
miles to leeward, where we lay till the morning ; and 
then, finding that the current had fet us out of fight 
of the ifland, I made fail. The officei s did me the 



honour to call this ifland after my name. Walus's '7^. 
Island lies in latitude 13® 18' S. longitude 177® W, ^■«^- 
As the latitudes and longitudes of ail thefe iflands w!m7^ 
are accurately laid down, and plaas of them delivered '^'n*** 
in to the Admiralty, it will be eafy for any (hip, that 
fhall hereafter navigate thefe feas, to find any of them, 
either to refreih or to make farther difcoveries of their 

I thought it very remarkable, that although we found 
no kind of metal in any of thefe iflands, yet the inha* 
bitants of all of them, the moment they got a piece of 
iron in their pofleiHon, began to fharpep it, but made 
no fuch attempt dn brafs or copper. 

We continued to (leer N. wefterly, and many birds 
were from time to time fcen about the fhip till the 
28th, when her longitude being, by obfervation, 187^ Friday tf. 
24' W. we crofled the line into North latitude. A- 
mong the birds .that came about the ihip, one which 
we caught exadly refembled a dove in fize, fhape, and 
colour. It had red legs, and was web-footed. We 
alfo faw fever^l plantain leaves, and cocoa nuts, pafi 
by the fhip. 

On Saturday the 29th, about two oMock in. the af-Satard. t^ 
ternoon, being in latitude 2^ 50' N. longitude 188^ W. 
we crofled a great rippling, which ftretched from the 
N, E. to the S. W. as far as the eye could reach 
from the nuft-head. We founded, but had no bot- 
tom with a line oF two hundred fathoms. 

On Thurfday the 3d of September, at five o'clock Septemhcr. 
in the morning, we faw Und bearing E. N. E. diftant "r^"'^- 3- 
about five miles : in about half an hour we faw more 
land in the N. W. and at fix faw in the N. E. an 
Indian proa, fuch as is defcribed in the account of 
Lord Anfon's voyage. Perceiving that fhe flood to- 
wards us, we hoifled Spanifti colours ; but when flie 
came within about two miles of us, fhe tacked, and 
flood from us to the N. N. W. and in a fhort time 
was out of fight. 

At eight o'clock the iflands, which I jqdged to be 
two of the Pifcadores, bore from S. W. by W. to W. 
and to windward, from N. by E. to N. E. and had 
the appearance of fmall flat keys. They were diftant 
about three leagues ; but many others, mucVi ?^n\v^t 


SebtenLr. ^^' ^^^^ ^" ^S*^^' '^'^^ latitude of on^ of thde iflands 
{ J^^^ is 11^ N. longitude 192*^ 30' W. and the other ii® 
20'!^. longitude 192^ 58^ W. 

Monday 7. Qn the 7th, we faw a cifrlieu and a peivit; afld on 
the 9th we caught a land-bird, very much refembling 
a (larlinfi:. 

Thurfd. 17. On the 17th, we faw tvm gannets, and judged the 
ifland of Tinian to bear Weft, at about one and thir- 
ty leagues diftance ; our latitude being 1 5^ N; and our 

Friday 18. longitude 21 2^ 30' W. At fli o'clock, the n^t morn- 
ing, we faw the iftand of Sayjiaii, bearing W. by N. 
diftant about ten leagues. In th6 aftcmooti we faw 
Tinian, and made fail for jthe rOad ; where, at nine 

Satur. 19. o'clock in the morning of Sattirddy the 19th, we came 
to an anchor in two and twetity fathoms, fandy ground, 
at about a mile diftant frond the- ftibre, and half a mile 
from the reef. 

C Ha P; X. 

Sofrte Account of'tbeprefint Sthitofth IJlUnd of tinian ^ 
and our Employment there ; with what happened in 
the Run from thence to Bat iF(na^ 


S Toon as the Ihip >Vias fecured, I fent the boats 
on ftibre to erc^* tents, and bring off fbme re- 
freftiments ; and about noon they returned, with fome 
cocoa-nuts, limes, and oranges. 

In the evening the tents being ereQed> I fent the 
Surgeon, and all the invalids on fliore, with two months 
prbvifions, of every kind, for fbrty niien, the Smith's 
forge, and a cheft of Carpenter's tools, I then landed 
myfelf, with^the Firft Lieutenant, both of us being in 
a very fickly condition, taking with us alfo a mate, and 
twelve men, to go up the country and hunt for cattle. 
Sunday 2«. When we firft came to an anchor, thfe North part 
of the bay bore North 39 ^W. Cocoa' Point N. 
7*^ W. the landing-place N. E. by N. and th6 fouth 
end of the ifland S:28^E. but next morning the 
Matter having founded all the bay, and being of opi- 
nion that there was a better fituation to the fouth ward, 
we warped the fhip a little way up> moored with a 
cable each way. 


At fix in the evening, the hunters brought in a fine >7fi7« 
young bull, of near four hundred weight ; part of it ^^JTJ' 
we kept on ihore, and feni the reft on board, wifh 
bread-fruit, limes, and oranges. 

Early the next morning the carpenters were fet at Monday 21. 
work to caulk the (hip all over, and put every thing in 
repair as far as poilible. All the fails were alfo got on 
ihore, and the fail-makers employed to mend them : 
the armourers at the fame lime were bufy in repairing 
the iron-work, and making new chains for the rudder. 
The number of people now on (hore, fick and well, 
was fifty three. 

In this place we got beef,.pork, poultry, papaw ap- 
ples, bread-finiit, limes, oranges, and every refrefli- 
ment that is mentioned in the account of Lord An*- 
fon's voyage. The fick began to recover from the day 
they firft went on fhore : the air, however, was fo dif- 
ferent here from what we found it in King George's 
Ifland, that flcfli meat, which there kept fwcet two 
days, could here be fcarcely kept fweet one. There 
had been many cocoa-nut trees near the landing-place, 
but they had been all waftefully cut do wn for the fruit, 
and none being grown up in their flead, we were for- 
ced to go three miles into the country before a fingle 
nut could be procured. The hunters alfo fufFered in- 
credible fatigue, for they were frequently obliged toga 
ten or twelve miles through one continued tfiicket, and 
the cattle were fo wild that it was very difficult to come 
near them, fo that I was obliged to relieve one^arty 
by another ; and it being reported that cattle were 
more plenty at the north pnd of the ifland, but that 
the hunters, being quite exhaufted with fatigue when 
they got thither, were not able to kill them, much Icfs 
to bring them doAvi^ I fent Mr. Gore, with fourteen 
men, to eflablifh' themfelves in that partpf the ifland, , 
^r.d ordered that a boat fliould go every morping, at 
day-break, to bring in what they fl^ould kill. In the 
mean time, the (hip was laid by the flern to get at 
fome of the copper (heathing which had been much 
torn ; and in repairing the copper^ the Carpenter dif- ^ 
covered and flopped a large leak under the lining of the 
knee of the head, by which we had rcalTon to hope 
joaoft of the water tl^t the yeflel had late\v aAwva<i<i\T\^ 
Vol. L O \i^i 


»767- bad weather, came in. During our ftay here, I or- 
^^^^^.^^ dered all the people on ihore by turns, and by the 1 5th 
Thurf. 15. of OSober, all the fick being recovered, our wood 
and water completed, and the ihip made fit for the 
fea, we got every thing* off the fiiore, and embarked 
all our men frorri the watering-place, each having, at 
leafl, fivie hundred limes, and there being feveral tubs 
full on the quarter-deck, for every one to {queeze into 
his water as he ihoutd think fit. 
TH8. x6. At break of day, on Friday the 16th, we weighed, 

and failed out of the bay, fending the boats at the 
fame time to the north end of the ifland, to bring off 
Mr. Gore and his hunters* At noon, we received 
them and their tents on board, with a fine lai^e bulU 
which they had juft kilted. 

While we lay at anchor in this place, we had many^ 
obfervations for the latitude and longitude, firom which 
we drew up the followrng" table : 

Latitude of the ihip, as ihe lay at anchor 14^ 55' N^ 

Longitude ,, 214° 15'W. 

Latitude of the watering-place 14 59 N- 

Longitude of the body of Tinian 214 o W. 

Longitude of Tinian road 214 8 W. 

Medium of longitude,obferved at Tinian 214 7 

We continued a wefterly courfe, inclining fomewhat 

Wcdn. 21. to the North j till the 21ft, when Tinian bearing S. 
71** 40' E* diftant 277 leagues, we faw many birds ; 

Tharf. ai. and the next day, faw three refembling gannets, of 
the fame kind that we had feen when we were within 
about; thirty leagues of Tinian, 

Friiday %^. On the sjd wc had much thunder, lightning, and 
rain, with ftrong gales and a great fea. The ihip la- 
boured very much, and the rudder, being loofe again, 

Saturd. 14. fhook the ftern as much as ever. The next day we 
faw feveral fmall land birds, and the gales continuing, 
we fpUt the jib and main-top-maft- (lay-fail ; the wind 
increafed all the remainder of the day, and all night, 

Sunday 2$. ^nd on Sunday It blew a dorm. The fore-fail and 
mizeii-fail were torn to pieces, and loft ; and having 
bent others, we wore and flood under a reefed fore- 
fail, and balanced mizen. We had the mortification 
to find the ihip adm'M moie water than ufual. We got 


the toprgailant mafts down upon the deck» and took ^ ^fi- 
the jib-boom in ; ibon atter which a fea ftrnck theilup 
upon the bow, and wafhed away the round-houfes, 
with ail the rails of the head, and every thing that was 
upon the fore-caftle : we were, however, obliged to 
carry as much fail as the (hip would bear, being, 
by Lord Anfon's account very near the Bafheelflands, 
and, by Mr. Byron's, not more than thirty leagues, 
with a lee-fhore. 

• The next morning, we faw feveral ducks and (hags, lioaday t6. 
fome fmall land birds, and a great number of horfe- 
flies about the (hip; but had no ground with 160 fa- 
thoms. The inceflfant and heavy rain had kept every 
man on board xx>n(bintly wet to the (kin for more than 
two days and two nights ; the weather was ftill very dark, 
and the fea was continually breaking over the (hip. 

On the 27th, the darknefs, rftin, and tempeft con- Tuefd. %j. 
tinning, a mountainous fea that brc^e over us, (laved* 
all the half-ports to pieces on the (lar-board-fide, 
broke all the iron ftanchions on the gunwale, w^ed 
the boat oflF the (kids, and carriedmany things over-^ 
board. We had, however, this diay, a gleam of fun-* 
(hine, fuflficient to determine our latitude, which we 
found to be 20° 50' N. and the (hip appeared to be 
fifty minutes north of her reckoning. 

The v/eather now became: more moderate ; at noon, Wcdn. aS. 
on the 28th, we altered our courfe, fleering S. by W. 
at half an hour after one, we faw the Ba(hee If- 
lands bearing from S. by E. to S. S. E, diftant about 
fix leagues. Thefe iflands are all high, but the nor- 
thermdft is higher than the reft. By an obfervation 
made this day, we found Grafton Ifland to lie in the 
longitude of 239*^ W. and in latitude of 210 4' N. 
At midnight, the weather being very dark, with fud- 
den gufts of wind, we miffed Edmund Morgan, a 
marine taylor, whom wefuppofed to have fallen over- 
board, having reafon to fear that he had drank more 
than his allowance. 

From this time, to the 3d of November, we found November, 
the (hip every day from ten to fifteen miles north ofTuefdtyj. 
her reckoning. The day before we had feen feveral 
gannets ; but upon founding many times during iVv^ 
day and the next night, we had no ground >w\l\\\v\ \6<^ 

Q. 2 UvVvo\tw%. 


1767. fathoms. This morniflg^jat feven o'clock, we faw a 
^^^];;^^ ledge of breakers bearing S. W. at the diftance of about 
three miles : we hauled off from them, and at eleven 
faw more breakers bearing S. W. by S. diftant about 
five miles. At noop, we hauled off the eaft end of 
them, from which we were not diftant more than a. 
quarter of a mile. 

The firft ftioal lies in latitude 1 1^;8' N. longitude, 
from Bafhee Iflands, 8^ W. ' 

The fecond fhoal lie-in latitude 10^ 46' N. longi- 
tude of the N. E. end, from Bafliee Iflands, 8^13' W. 
We faw much foul ground to the S. and S. S. E. but 
had no bottom with 1 50 fathoms. Before one,, however^ 
we faw (hoal water on the larboard bow, and ftanding 
from it, pafled another ledge at two. At three, we 
Stndyifle. faw a low fandy point, which I called Sandy Isle, 
bearing N. i E. diftant about two miles. At five, we 
Small Key. fawafmalllilandyoyhich I called Sm ALL Key, bearing 
N. byE. diftant about iive miles ; and foon after, an- 
tbnglfland. other Ijirger, which I calledLoNcIsLAND, beyond it. 
At fix in the evenings the largeft ifland being diftant 
between two and three, leagues, we brought to, and 
ftood off and on from mid- night till breik of day, con - 
linually founding, but having no ground. 
Wcdnef. 4. At feven in the morning, of Wednefday, the 4th, we 
New Ifland. faw another ifland, which 1 called New Island, bear- 
ing S. K. by K. and a large reef of rocks bearing S.-^W. 
diftant fix miles. At ten, we faw breakers fromW. S. 
W. to W. by N. At noon, the north end of the 
great rtcfboreS.E. byE. diftant two leagues, and ano* 
ther reet bore W. N. W. at about the fame diftance. 
The latitudes and longitudes of thefe iflands and 
ftioals, appear by the following table : 





Sandy Ifle 





Small Key 





Long Ifland 





New Ifland 





Firft Shoal 





Second Shoal 





Third Shoal 





Soon after we faw another reef in latitude lo® 15', 
hi^gitude 248-^. 


1 he ii.exii. day we fotind ifte ihip, ; which bad.foF »767- 
fome rime been to the northward of her reckoning, *^^'"' '' 

Hright miles to th? fouthw«r<l. ;. .:r. ■ . . ThurJTd. 5. 

We continue our courfe, often fotrnding, but find- 
ing no bott^om. On the 7 th we ps^fled through fevej-^i Saturd. 7. 
ripplings of a current, and faw great quantities of 
drift-wood, cocoa-nut leaves,, things like cones of -fire^ 
and weed, which fwam in a ftream N. E. andS. W. 
We had now foundings and fixty-five fathoms, with 
brov^ n facd, fmall (hells, am} ; and at n^on, 
found the fliip again to the her reckon- 
ing ten miles, and had decreafe^r-^pr foundings to twen- 
ty eight fathoms, with the fazji^ groupd. Our latitude 
was 8^ 36' N, longitude 253® W. At two o'clock, wc 
.faw the tfland of Cqndore, from the «ia(l-head, bearing 
W. i N. At four, we had ground with twenty fa- 
thoms ; the ifland "bearing from W. to N. W, by.W. ., - 
diAant about thirteen leagues, ai\4 haying the appeaf'- 
anceof high hummocks. The latitud^of . this itilaitd 
is 8^ 40' N; longitude, |by pufirfetkoning, 254^ J'5^ 

We now altered our courfe ; and the next morning Sunday s. 
I took, from the petty officers and, fejamen, *U th^ log . . •• 
and journal books relative to (be yoytige. 

On the I oth, being in latitude 5^ ;2o'N. k)ngitudeTuei(iay 10. 
255^ W. we found ^ current. fetting four 
hour S. by W. and during puiroQwrfe -to the iflands 
Timoun, Arps,- and Befang,r which-wefaw about fix 
in the afternoon of the 13th, we .Were every day from Fnday 13. 
ten to twepty n)iles fouthward of our reckoning* 

On the 1 6th, 3.1 ten in the (norning, we croffed the Mond. 16. 
line again into ibuth latitude, inJongitude 255^ ; and 
foon after we faw two iflands, one. bearing S. by E. 
diftant five leagues, the other S*- by.W- diftant feven 
leagues. ^•:.: 

The next morning the weather became very dark Xucfd. 17. 
and tempeftuous,with heavy rain ; we therefore clew- 
ed all up, and lay by till we could fee about us.; Tphe 
two iflands proved to be Pulo Tpte, and Pulo Wef^^ ; 
and having made fail till one o'clockj we faw the Sev^n 
.Iflands. We continued our cpurfe till two the nextwcdncf. 18. 
morning, the weather being very dark, with heavy 
. fqualLs of vdnd^ ^nd much lightning and rain. While 
one of thcfe blafts was blowing with all its violence^ 


17571 atid the darknefs was fo thick that we could not fee 
Vo^^a^ froiti' one part of' the (hip to the oth^r, we fuddenly 
. difcovered, by a flafti of lightning, a large veffel clofe 
aboard of us. ■ The fteerfnian iiiftaiitly pift the helm 
' a- lee, and the (hip anfwering her rudder, we juft clear- 
ed each other; Thi« was the firft fhip we had feen 
fine© we parted with the Swallow ; and it blew fo hard, 
that not being- able to underftand any thing that was 
fatd, we could not learn to what nation (he belonged. 

At fix, the weather having cleared up, we faw a fail 
at anchor in the' E. S; E. and at no<>n, we faw land 
in the W. N. W; which proved to be^Pulo Taya, Pulo 
Tot^ bearing S. 35^ E. Pulo Wefte S. I3» E. At fix 
in the evening we anchored in fifteen fathoms, with 
fandy ground ; and observed a currerft running E. N. 
E. at the rate of five fathoms anhoiir. 
Thurf. 19. At fix in the 'morning we weighed and made fail, 
and foon after faw two veffels a-head ; but at fix in the 
evening, finding that we loA much ground, we came 
again to ap anchor in fifteen fathoms, with a fine fandy 


Friday x©. At fix o'clock the next morning, the current being 

flack, we hove fliort on the fmall bower, which foon 

' after parted at a third from the clench. We immedi- 

dately took in the cable, and perceived that, although 

we had fou:nded with great care before we anchored, 

and found the bottom clear, it had been cut through 

by the rocks. After fome time, the current becoming 

ftrong, a frefli gale fpringing up, and the (hip being 

a great way to the leeward, I made fail, in hopes to 

get up and recover the anchor ; but I found at laft 

that it was imppflible, without anchoring again ; and 

being afraid of the confequences of doing that in foul 

ground, I determined to ftand on, efpecially as the 

weather was become fqually. 

Satur. 21. W^ were, however, able to make very little way 

till the next day, when about three in the afternoon, 

we faw Monopin Hill bearing S. i E. and advancing 

very little, faw the coaft of Sumatra at half an hour 

Sund. 22. after fix the next morning. We continued to fuffer 

great delay by currents and calms, but on Monday 

Monday 30. the 30th of November, we anchored in Batavia Road, 




Tranfa^hm at Batavia, and an Account of the Pajfagt 
from tkenci to the Cape cf Good Hope. 

WE found here fourteen fail of Dutch Eaft-Indla 1767. 
(hips, a great number of fmall vefiels, and his December. 
Majefty's ihip the Falmouth, lying upon the mud Loa ^^'"^^'^ 
rotten condition.. .. 

I fent an officer on (hore, to acquaint the Governor 
of our arrival, to obtain his p^rmiilion to purchafe re- 
frelhments, and to tell him that I would falute him, 
if he would engage to return an equal number of guns. 
The Governor readily agreed ; and at fun-rile, on 
Tuefday the ift of December, 1 faluted him with thir-Tnefd. 1. 
teen guns, which he returned with fourteen from the 
fort. Soon after the Purfer fent oiBF fome frefli beef, and 
plenty of vegetables, which I ordered to be ferved im- 
mediately ; at the fame time I .called the (hip's compa- 
ny together, and told them tbat.l would not fuffer any 
liquor to come on. board, an<} lyould feverely punifli 
thofe who fhould attempt to bring 'any : and I toqk 
fome pains to reconcile them to this regulation, by 
affuring them that in this country intemperance would 
inevitably deftroy them. As a further prefervativc, I 
fufFered not a man to go on fhore, except thofe who 
were upon duty ; and took care that none, even of 
thefe ftraggled into the town. 

On the 2d I fent the Boatfwain and the Carpenter, Wedn. 2. 
with I he Carpenter of the Falmouth, to look at fuch of 
her ftores as had been landed at Onruft, with orders, 
that if any were fit for our ufe they fliould be bought. 
At their return, they informed me that all the (lores 
they had feen were rotten, and unfit for ufe, except 
one pair of tacks,, which they brought with them : the 
mails, yards, and cables were all dropping to pieces, 
and even the iron work was fo nifty that it was worth 
nothing. They alfo went, on board the Falmouth to 
examine her hulk, and found her in fo ftiattered a con- 
dition, that in their opinion fhe could not be kept to- 
gether during the next monfoon. Many of her ports 
were wafhcd iok^ne^ the ftern-poft was <\alle d^c2i^- 


^767- ed, and there was no place in her where a man could 
be (hcltered from the weather. The few people who 
belonged to her were in as bad a (late as their veffel, 
being quite broken and wori) down, and expefting to 
be drowned as foon as the monfoonfhould fet in. 

Among other neceflaries, we were in want of an an- 
chor, having loft t>vo, and of three inch rope for 
rounding the cables ; but the officers, whom I had 
fent to procure thefe articles, reported, that the price 
which had been demanded for them was fo exorbitant,' 
that they had liot agreed to give it. On Saturday the 
Saturday c. S^^> therefore, I went on (hore myfelf, for the firft 
time, and vifited the different ftorehoufesandarfenals, 
but found it impoflible to make a better bargain than 
my officers. I fufpefled that the dealers took advan- 
tage of our apparent neceflity, and fuppofing that we 
could not fail without wbaj we had ofitred to purchafe, 
determined to extort from us more than four times its 
value. I was, however, refolved tp make any (hift 
rather than fubmit to what 1 thought a fliameful impo- 
fition, and therefore' told them that I fliould certainly 
fail pn the next Tuefday ; that if they would agree 
to my terms in the mean time, I would take the things 
I had treated for ; if not, that I would fail without 

Soon after 1 returned onboard, I received a petition 
from t he W arrant-Officers of the Falitiouth, reprefent- 
ing, that there was nothing for them to look after : 
that t]ie Gunner had been long dead, and his (lores 
fpoiled, particularly the powder, which, by order of 
the Dutch, had been thrown into the fea : that the 
Boatfwain, by vexation and diftrefs, had loJT his fen- 
fes, and was then a deplorable objc6t in n Dulch hof- 
piral : that all his (lores had been long fpoiled and 
rotten, the roof of the (lorehoufe havirc^ fallen in dur- 
ing a wet monfoon, and left them expofed many 
months, all endeavours to procure another filace to }>ut 
"them in being incfFedual : that the Garpenter was in a 
dying condition, and the Cook a wounded cripnle. For 
theic rcafons, they rcqueftcd that I w(»iild take them 
liome, or at leaft difniifs ihem from their ch.-irt^c. It 
was with thegreatcft regret and compafficn tlat 1 told 
rlicfe unhappy people it was not in my powti to relieve 

\NavW n 


them, and that as they had received charge of ftores, '767- • 
they muft wait orders from home. They replied, that ^^^^^J^^' 
they had never received a fingle order from England 
(ince they had been left here, and earneftly intreated 
that I would make their diftrefs known, that it might 
be relieved. They had, they faid, ten years pay due, 
in the expeftation of which they were grown old, and 
which now they would be content to forfeit, and go 
home f weepers, rather than continue to fuffer the 
miferies of their preient (ituation, which were indeed 
very great. They were not fuJBFered to fpend a fingle 
night on (hore, whatever was their condition, and 
when they wer^ fick, no one vifited ihcm on board ; 
they were, bcfides, robbed by the Malays, and in per- 
petual dread of being deftroyed by them, as they had 
a fhort time before burned the Siam prize. I afTured 
them that I would do my utmoft to procure them 
relief, and they left me with tears in their eyes. 

As I heard nothing more of the anchor and rope 
for which I had been in treaty, I made all ready for 
fea. The (hip's company had continued healthy and 
fober, and been ferved withfrefh beef every day, from 
the time of our firft coming to an anchor in the road ; 
we had alfo fome beef, and a live ox, to carry out 
with us. We had now only one man upon the Tick lift, 
except a feaman, who had been affli<5tcd with rhcu^- 
matic pains ever fince our leaving the Strei2:ht of Ma- 
gellan : and at fix o'clock in the morning of Tuefday Tuefday 8. 
the 8th of December, after a ftay of juft one week, 
we fet fail. 

On the nth at noon, we were ofF a fmall ifland Friday n. 
called the Cap, between the coafts of Sumatra and 
Java, and feveral of oilr fy?opie fell down with colds 
and fluxes. The next day, a Dutch boat c\ me on Saturday 12. 
board and fold us fome turtle, which was ferved to the 
{hip's company. At night, being at the diftance of 
about two miles from the javafhore, wefaw an incre- 
dible number of lights u|:"h)b" the beach, which we fup- 
pofed were intended to draw the fifh near them, as 
we had feen the fame appearance at other places. 

On Monday the 14th, we anchored off Prince's Mond. 14. 
ifland, and began to take in wood and waier. The 
pext morning, the natives came in with turvV, \kO\A\.rj ^T^^til^v^ 


'T^T- and hog-deer, which we bought at a reafonable price. 
^J^^^ We continued here, fitting the (hip for the fea, till 

Saturday 19. the 19th, during which time many of the people be^ 
gan to complain of intermitting diforders, fomething 

Sunday 20. like an ague. At fix o'clock the next niorniiig, having 
completed our wood, and taken on board . fe ventjr-fix 
tons <4 water, we made fail. 

While we lay here, one of the feamen felt frpm the 
main- yard into the barge, which lay along-fide the 
fliip. His body was dreadfully bruifed, and many of 
his bones were broken : it happened alfo, that in his 
fall he (truck two other men, one of whom was fo 

Thurf. 24. much hurt that he continued fpeechlefs till the 24th, 

and then died, though the other had only one- of his 

toes broken. We had now no lefs than fixteen upon 

January, the fick lift, and by the firft of January, the number 

Fjnday 1. ^^^ increafed to forty ; we had buried three, among 
whom was the Quarter-Mafter, George Lewis, who 
was a diligent, fober man, and the more ufeful, as he 
fpoke both the Spanifii and Portuguefe languages. The 
difeafes by which we fuflFered, were fluxeS) and fevers 
of the putrid kind, which are always contagious, and, 
for that reafon alone, would be more fatal on board a 
fhip than any other. The Surgeon's mate was ;very 
foon laid up, and thofe who were appointed to attend 
the Tick, were always taken ill in a day or two after 
they had been upon that fervice. To remedy this evil, 
as much as it was in my power, I made a very large 
birth lor the fick, by removing a great number of 
people from below to the half deck, which I hung 
with painted canvafs, keeping it conftantly clean, and 
directing it to be waihed with vinegar, and fumigated, 
once or twice a day. Our water was well tafted, 
and was kept (jonftantly ventilated ; a large piece of 
iron alfo, ufed for the melting of tar, and called a 
loggerhead, was heated red hot, and quenched in it was given out to be drank. The fick had 
alfo wine inftead of grog, and falep or fago every 
morning for brcakfaft : two days in a week they had 
mutton broth, and had a fowl or two given them on 
the intermediate days ; they had, befides, plenty of 
rice and fugar, and frequently malt meflied ; fo that 
perhaps people in a fickly (hip had never fo many rc- 


freflimeDts before : the Surgeon alfo was indefatiga* 
ble ; yet^ with all thefe advantages, the iicknefs on 
board gained ground. In the mean time, to aggravate 
our misfortune, the fliip made more than three feet 
water in a watch ; and all her fipper works were very 
open and ioofe. 

By the loth of January, the fkknefs began, in fome Sunday 10. 
degree, to abate, but more than half the cocppany 
were fo feeble, that they could fcarcely crawl about. 
On this day, being in latitude 22<* 41' S. longitude, 
by account, 300** 47' W. we faw many tropic birds 
about the (hip. 

On the 17th, being in latitude 27® 32' S. longitude Sund. 17. 
310® 56' W. we faw feveral albatrofles, and caught 
fome bonettas. The (hip was this day ten miles to 
the fouthward of her account. » 

On the 24th, in latitude 33® 40' S. longitude, by Sund. 14. 
account, 328® 17' W. we met with a violent gale, 
which fpHt the main-top-fail and the main-top-maft- 
(lay-fail a\l to pieces. The fea broke over the (hip in 
a dreadful manner, the (larboard rudder chain was 
broken, and many of the bopms were wafhed over- 
board. Doring the dorm we faw feveral birds and 
butterflies ; and our firft attention, after it fubfided, 
was to dry the bedding of the fick : at the fame time, 
every one on board who could handle a needle was 
employed in repairing the fails, which were now in a 
Ihattered condition. 

On the 26tb and 2 7th, being in latitude 340 i6'andTuefd. %6, 
becalmed,. we had feveral obfervations, by which we^***"^**^ 
determined the longitude erf the (hip to be 323® 30' 
and it appeared that we were feveral degrees to the 
eadward of our reckoning. 

At fix in the evening, of the 30th of January, vwSatur. 30. 
faw land, and on the 4th of February we anchored in February. 
Table Bay, at the Cape of Good Hope. Thurf.4. 

Our run from Prince's Ifland to the Cape was, by 
our reckoning, 89 degrees longitude, which makes 
the longitude of the Cape 3450 W. but the longitude 
of the Gape being, by obfcrvation, 342*4' it appear- 
ed that the (hip was three degrees to the eaftward of 
her reckoning. 


C H :A. p. XIII. 

An Account of our Tranfacfions at the Cape of Good Hope ^ 
and of the Return of the Dolphin to England. - 

1768. A S foon as the fliip was at anchor, I feat an offi- 
^ e j-oyy. ^ £\^ ccr on (horc. With the ufual compliments, to the 
Governor, who received him with great civility, 
telling him that we were welcome to all the refrefh- 
nients and afTiilance that the Cape afforded, and that 
he would return our falute with the fame number of 

We found riding here a Dutch Commodore, with 
fixteen fail of Dutch Eaft Indiamen, a French Kaft 
India (hip, and the Admiral. Watfoti, Capn Qriffin, 
an Eaft India packet boat, for Bengal. We faluted 
the Governor with thirteen guns, and he returned the 
fame number ; the Admiral Watfon faluted us with 
eleven guns, and we returned nine ; the French fliip 
afterwards faluted us with nine guns, and vt returned 

Having got off fome mutton for the (hip's conipany, 
with plenty of greens, I fent the Surgeon on fhore to 
hire quarters for the fick ; but he could procure none 
for lefs than two fliillings a day, and a ftipulation to 
pay more, if any of them fhould take the fmall-pox, 
which was then in almoft every houfe, in proportion 
to the malignity of the difeafe. The firft expence be- 
ing great, a^d it appearing upon inquiry, that many of 
our people had never had the fmall-pox, fo that the in- 
creafe was likely to be confiderable, befides Jthe danger, 
I requeued the Governor's permiflion to ere6l a tent 
iipon a fpacious plain, at about two .miles diftance 
Irom the town, called Green Point, and to fend my 
people on fhore thither during the day, under the care 
of an officer, to prevent their ftraggling.. This pcr- 
miffion the Governor immediately granted, and gave 
orders that they (hould fuffer no moleftation. . 

In this place, therefore, I ordered tents to beereft- 

ed, and the Surgeon ar.d his mate, with proper officer?, 

xts attend; at the faine time flridly charging that no 

liquor (hould be biought to the tents. All the fick. 


except two, left the (hip early in the morning, with -^Jl 
their provifions and firing ; and for thofe that were re- i_ 
duced to great weaknefs, I ordered the Surgeon to 
procure fuch extraordinary provifions as he fiiould think 
proper, particularly milk, though it* was fold at an 
exceffive price. About fix in the evening they returned 
on board, and feenied to be greatly refreflied. At the 
fame time, being extremely ill myfelf, I was obliged 
to be put on ihore, and carried about eight miles up 
the country, where I continued all the time the (hip 
lay here : and when (he was ready to fail, returned on 
board without having received the leaft benefit. 

No time, however,* was loft in refitting the veffcl : 
the fails were all unbent, the yards and top*mafts 
ft ruck, the forge was fet up, the carpenters were em- 
ployed in caulking, the fail-makers in mending the fails, 
the cooper in repairing the caflcs, the people in over- 
hauling the rigging, and the boats in filling water. 

Bytheiothof February, the heavy work being 
nearly difpatched, twenty of the men who had had the 
fmall-pox, were permitted to go aftiore ar^the town, 
and others, who were ftill liable to the diftemper, were 
landed at fome diftance, with orders to go into the 
country, and return in the evening, which they punc- 
tually obeyed : this liberty, therefore, was continued 
to them all the while the veffcl lay at this port, which 
produced fo good an efie6^, that the ftiip's company, 
except the fick, who recovered very faft, had a more 
healthy and vigorous appearance than when they left 
England. We purchafed here the Tieceffaries that we 
endeavoured to procure at Batavia, at a reafonable 
price, befides canvas and other ftores ; we alfo procur- 
ed frefti water by diftillation, principally to fliew the 
captains of the Indiamen, and their ojfficers, that, upon 
an emergency, wholefome water might be procured at 
fea. At five o'clock in the morning, we put fifty-fix 
gallons of fait water into the ftill ; at feven it began 
to run, and in about five hours and a quarter afforded 
us fix and thirty gallons of frefli water, at anexpence 
of nine pounds of wood, and fixty-nine pounds of 
coals. Thirteen gallons and two quarts remained 
in the ftill, and that which came off had no ill tafte^ 
nor, as we had often experiei^ced, a.Tv>j VvwW^vJv 


'768. quality. I thought the (hewing this experiment of the 

■ *- - ^ more confequence, as the being able to allow plenty 
of water not only for drink, but for boiling any kind 
of provifion, and even for making tea and coffee, ef- 
pecially during long voyages, and in hot climates, 
conduces greatly to health, and is the means of faving 
many lives. I never once put my people to an allow- 
ance of water during this whole voyage, always ufing 
the ftill when we were reduced to five and forty tons, 
and preferving the rain water with the utn>oft diligence. 
I did not, however, allow water to be fetched away at 
pleafure ; but the officer of the watch had orders to 
give fuch as brought provifions of any kind, water 
fufficient to drefs it, and a proper quantity alfo to fuch 
as brought tea and coffee. 

TkurTd. 15. On the 25th, the wood and water being nearly 
completed, and the fhip almoft ready for the fea, I 
ordered every body to go on board, and the fick tents 
to be brought off; the people being fo well recovered, 
that in the whole (hip's com|>any there were but three 
men unable to do duty, and happily, fince our leaving 

Friday a6. Batavia, we had loft but three. The next day, and 
ur . 27. ^j^^ j^^^ following, the carpenters finifhcd caulking all 
the out-works, the fore-caftle, and the main-deck ; 
we got all our bread on board from the (here, with a 
confiderable quantity of ftraw, and thirty-four (he^p 
for fea-ftores. In the mean time I came on board, and 
having unmoored, lay waiting for a wind till the even- 
March, ing of Thurfday the 3d of March, when a breeze 
3. fpringing up, we got under fail. While we were on 
(hore • at Green Point, we had an opportunity of 
making many celeftial obfervations, by which, we de- 
termined Table Bay to lie in latitude 34° 2' S. longi - 
tude, from Greenwich, 18° 8' E. The variation of 
the needle, at this place, was i g° 30' W. 

Monday 7. On the 7th, being in latitude 29^*33' S. longitude, 
by account, 3470 38' the fhip was eiglit miles to the 
northward of her dead reckoning. 

Sunday 13. On the 13th, having failed weft ward 360 degrees 
from the meridian of London, we had loft a day ; I 
therefore called the latter part of this day Monday, 
March 14th. 





At fix o'clock in the evening, of Wcdnefday the »76«- 
1 6th, we faw the Ifland of Saint Helena*, at the dif- >jf ^'_f 
tance of about fourteen leagues ; and at one the next wediwC 16. 
morning, brought to. At break of day, we madcThurf. 17. 
fail for the ifland, and at nine, anchored in the bay. 
The fort faluted us with thirteen guns, and we re- 
turned the famie number. We found riding here the 
Northumberland Indiaman, Captain Milford, who 
faluted us with eleven guns, and we returned nine. 
We got out all the boats as foon as poflible, and fent 
the empty cafks to be filled with water ; at the fame 
time fevera! of the people were employed to gather 
purflain, which grows here in great plenty. About 
two o'clock, I went on flaore myfelf, and was faluted 
by the fort with thirteen guns, which I returned. The 
Governor and the principal gentlemen of the ifland 
did me the honour to meet me at the water-fide, and 
having conduced me to the fort, told me, that it 
was expe3ed I fliould make it my home during my 

By noon, the next day, our water was completed, Fndaj it. 
and the ftiip made ready for fea ; foon after flie was 
unmoored, to take advantage of the firft breeze, and 
at five in the afternoon, I returned on board. Upon 
my leaving the fliore, I was faluted with thirteen 
guns, and foon after, upon getting under way, I was 
faluted with thirteen more, both which I returned; 
the Northumberland Indiaman then faluted me with 
thirteen guns, fo did the Ofterly, which arrived here 
the evening before I made fail, and I returned the 
compliment with the fame number. 

On the iidy in the evening, we faw fevergl menMond. ai. 
of war birds ; and at midnight, heard many birds ^ "** 
about the ftiip. At five o'clock in the morning of the Wed^. »i. 
23d, we faw the Ifland of Afcenfion; and at eight, 
difcovered a ftiip to the eaftward, who brought to, and 
hoifted a jack at her main -top- mad- head, upon which 
we ftiewed our colours, and ftie then flood in for the 
land again. We ran down clofe along the north-eaft 
fide of the ifland, and looked into the bay, but feeing 
no ftiip there, and it blowing a ftiflF gale, I made the 
beft of my way. 


1768. On Monday the 28th, we croffed the equator, amd 
^^^^^' gQj agajij intQ north latitude. 

Mond. a8. On Wednefday, the 13th of April, we pafled a 
April, great quantity of gulp weed ; and on the I 7th, we 

^^^"Y l^'paffed agreat dealmore. On the 19th, we faw two 

Tuefday 19. flocks of birds, and obferving the water to be dif- 
coloured, we thought the ground might be reached, 
but, upon founding, could find no bottom. 

Sood. 24. At five o'clock in the morning of Sunday the 
24th, we faw the peak of the Ifland of Pico bear- 
ing N. N. E. at the diftance of about eighteen 
leagues. We found, by obfervation, that Fyal lies 
in latitude ^&^ 20' N. longitude 28*' 30' W. from 
May. . No incident worth recording happened till about 

Wcdncf. II. j^QQjj on the nth of May, when, being in latitude 
480 44' N. longitude 70 1 6' W. we faw a ihip in chace 
of a floop, at which ittie fired feveral guns. We bore 
away, and at three, fired a gun at the chace, and 
brought her to ; the (hip to windward, being near the 
chace, immediately* fent a boat on board her, and foon 
after, Captain Hammond, of his Majefty*s floop the 
Savage, came on board of me, tind told me that the 
veffel he had chaced, when he firfl faw her, was in 
company with an Irifli wherry, and that as foon as 
they d'fcovered hirn to be a man of war they took dif- 
ferent ways ; the wherry hauled the wind, and the 
other veflel bore away. That he at firfl: hauled the 
wind, and flood after the wherry, but finding that he 
gained no ground, he bore away after the other veffel, 
which probably .would alfo have cfcaped, if I had not 
flopped her, for that he gained ver) little ground in 
• the chace. She appeared to be laden with tea, brandy, 
and other goods, from Rofcoe in France ; and though 
ihe was fleering a fouth-weft courfe, pretended to 
be bound to Bergen in Norway. She belonged to 
Liverpool, was called the Jenny, and commanded by 
one Robert Chriftian. Her brandy and tea were in 
fmall kegs and bags; and all appearances being ftrongly 
{igainft her, I detained her, in order to be fent to 



At half an hour after five, on the 1 3th, we faw the ^7^^^ 
Iflands of Scilly ; on the 19th, I landed at Haftings ^^J^ 
in Suflex ; and at four, the next morning, the (hip 
anchored fafely in the Downs, it being juft 637 days 
fince her weighing anchor in Plymouth Sound. To 
this narrative, I have only 10 add, that the obje^ of 
the voyage being difcovery, it was my conilant prac- 
tice, during the whole time of my navigating thofe 
parts of the fea which are not perfectly known, to lie 
to every night, and make fail only in the day, that no- 
thing might efcape me. 









O F T H E 

Latitudes and the Longitudes Weft of London, with tlv 
Variation of the Needle, at feveral Ports, and Situations at Sea 
from Obfervations made on board his Majefty's Ship the Dolphin 
and her Nautical Reckoning during the Voyage which (he made roun 
the World in the Years 1766, 1767, I768, under the Conunaiu 
of Captain Samuel Wallis. 



Lizard — — 
FunchallRoad, Mad. 
Port Praja, St. Jago 
Port Defire • — — 
Cape Virgin Mary — 
Point PolTeffion — 
Point Porpafs — 

Port Famine — 

Cape Froward ~ 

Cape Holland 

Cape Gallant — 

York Road - 

Cape Quod — 

Cape Notch ~ 

'ape Upright — 

Cape Pillar — 

At Sea 

At Sea 

\t Sea 

At Sea 

At Sea 


Au. 22. 
Sep. 8. 
I— 24. 
Dec. 8 

- 17- 

- 23 

- 26. 

- 27 

Jin. 1 9. 

— 20. 

-■ 23. 
Feb. 4. 

- 17- 
Mar. 4 

— 18 
Ap. II. 

- 21 

VI ay 4 

- 20 

June I 


Latitude in. 

500 o'N. 

32 35 ^^ 
»4 53 N. 

47 56 S- 
52 24 S. 

52 30 S. 

53 8S. 
53 43 ^ 

54 3 S. 
53 58 S 
53 50 S. 
53 40 S. 
53 33 S. 
53 22 S. 

53 5S. 
52 46 S. 

42 50 s, 

12 S. 

o 8. 
20 S. 
38 S. 
30 S 





Long, obferved 
by Dr; Mafcu- 
linens Method. 

5014' W 

18 o W. 








— 7 .1 1 9 26 S 


76 O 

96 30 

99 o 
1 10 o 

116 54 

132 o 












1 60 40' w, 

66 24 W 

69 6 W. 

69 50 W 

71 30 w 

71 32 w. 


to6 47 
1 2 6 

»27 45 
129 50 







210 o'W 
14 loW 






20 w 
15 E. 
40 E. 
50 E. 
30 E. 

40 E. 
40 E. 
40 E. 
30 E. 
35 E. 

40 E 







5 40 b. 

6 oE. 








_ , _. _ k 


NAMES c: rL-.'-L. 

iccn , _«.■ 
[pnoxi: iLi- 1 
FofGi::;.' "Ii 
lofCirr.z. '.'..: 
rincc ^^' H. ."I 

laburg-. .Mi: 1 
[.Gcc": ', r I 

Liflan^- ; :: - 

f.of Yori : riiT 
rC. Sau-.iir: 
. lord Hj'..i"i ...i: 
ofcaw-r.'i riir : 

ifctdores "} " . I: : 
lOands |:;. I.: 

inian — 


— or ' 

rafton's Id-z 

\o Arce — 

rHcipara — 


incc's i 



t Sea 

■ape ofGozd H.z 

t Sea " 

t Sea 

t Helena — 
fcenfion — 





'Vt Sea 

At Sea 

•^t Sea 

^t. Azn. I,i?ht h';*;'' 

i.Z. -, 





• r 

> ■ 

/ / 

I 1 


. .,v 

• r 

«. a^mm 

'*■ *■ 


« n 

i ' 

'. \ 



. ' t 







t ■» 

' .»-i 




O P A 

VOYAGE round the WORLD, 




Commander of his Majesty's Sloop the Swallow. 

. \ 




.'X— . 










' } 

A ' 1 I ■ • * •. ■ ' 

/■> » • « ■ 

I ■ 


A N 

A C C O U N T 

O F A 

VOYAGE round the WORLD- 


The Run from Plymouth to Madeira^ and from thena 
through the Str eight of Magellan. 

{The longitude in this voyage is reckoned from London weftward to 

i8o> and eaftward afterwards.] 

SOON after I returned from a voyage round the 
world with the Honourable Commodore Byron, 
I was appointed to the command of his Majefly's 
iloop the Swallow, by a commiflion bearing date the 
ift of July 1766 ; the Swallow then lay at Chatham, 
and I was ordered to fit her out with all poiTible expe- 
dition. She was an old (hip, having been in the fer- 
vice thirty years, and was in my opinion by no means 
fit for a long voyage, having only a flight thin ftieath- 
ing upon her bottom, which was not even filled with 
nails to fupply the want of a covering that would more 
efFeftually keep out the worms. I had been given to un- 
derftand that I was to go out with the Dolphin ; but 
the difparity of the two ftiips, and the difference in 
their equipment, made me think that (;hey could not 
tre intended for the fame duty ; the Dolphin, which 
was Iheathed with copper, being fupplied with every 



1766. thing that was requifite for a long ^nd dangerous na* 
^Jl^l^ vigation ; and the Swallow having only a fcanty fupply 
of common neceffaries. However, I ventured to ap- 
ply for a forge, fome iron, a fmall (kifF, and feveral 
other things which I knew by experience would be of 
the utmoft importance, if it was intended that Ifhould 
make another voyage round the world ; but I was told 
that the veffel and her equipment were very fit for the 
fervicc (he was to perform, and none or the requiiites 
for which I applied were allowed me. I was therefore 
confirmed in my opinion, that, if the Dolphin was 
to go round the world, it could never be intended that 
I fliould go farther than Falkland's Iflands, where the 
Jafon, a fine frigate, which was, like the Dolphin, 
iheathed with copper, and amply equipped, would fup- 
ply my place. I was, however, deficient in junk, an 
article which is eflentially necefTary in every voyage, 
and for this I applied when I got to Plymouth ; but t 
was told that a quantity fufficient for botli the (hips 
had been put on board the Dolphin. 

Ffifby 22. On Friday the 2 2d of Auguft, 1 766, the (hip's 
company having the evening before received two 
months pay, I weighed, and made fail from Plymouth 
Sound in company with the Dolphin, under the com- 
mand of Captain Wallis, and the Prince Frederic 
ftore-fliip, commanded by Lieutenant James Brine, 
Wc proceeded together without any remarkable inci- 

SundT^" dent till the 7th of September, when we came to an 
anchor in Madeira road. 

While I lay at this place, not being yet acquainted 
with my deftination, I reprefented my want of junk, 
and tl'.e reply that had been made to my application 
for a fupply by the commiflioner at Plymouth, in ^ 
IcLier to Captain Wallis, who fent me five hundred 
wciirht. This quantity however was fo inadequate to 
niy wants, that I was foon afterwards reduced to the 
difagrcciible neceffity of cutting off fo^nc of my cables 
to favc my rigging. 

r^'ucfd. 9. On the 9th, very early in the morning, the Lieur 
tenant acquainted me that, in the night, nine of my 
bell men had fecreily fet off from the fliip to fwim on 
fliorc, having Gripped thcmfelvcs naked and left all 
fhcir clothes behind them, taking only their money. 


vhich they had fecured in a handkerchief that was tied '7^^ 
round their waift ; that they proceeded together till ^ 
they came very near the furf, which breaks high upon 
the ihorc, and that one of them, being tef rifled at the 
found, had fwam badL again to the fhip, and been 
taken on board, tet that the reft had ventured through. 
As the lofs of thcfc men would have been very fevere- 
ly felt, I immediately fat down to write a letter to the 
Conful, entreating his aiHftance to recover them ; but, 
before I had finifhed it, he fent me word, that all of 
them having, to the great aftonifliment of the natives, 
been found naked on. the beach, they had been taken 
into cuftody, and would be delivered up to my order. 
The boat was difpatched immediately, and as foon a3 
I heard they were on board, I went upon the deck. I 
was greatly pleafed to fee a contrition in their counte- 
nances, which at once fecrctly determined me not to 
inflift the punilhment by which they feemed moft hear- 
tily willing to expiate their fault ; but I ajfked them 
what could have induced them to quit the (hip,'' and de- 
fert the fervice of their country, at the rifle of being de- • 
voured by fliarks, or daftied to pieces by the furf againft 
the fhore ? They anfwered, that though they had in- 
deed at fuch rifks ventured to fwim on fhore, tliey ne- 
ver had any intention of deferting the (hip, which they 
were determined to ftand by as long as (he could fwim ; 
but that being well alTured they were going a long voy- 
age, and none being able to tell who might live, or 
who might die, they thought it hard not to have an op- 
portunity of fpending their own money, and therefore 
determined, as they faid, once more to ^ct a flcinful of 
liquor, and then fwim back to the (hip, which they 
hoped to have done before they were miffed. As I 
had refolved to remit their punifhment, I did not too 
feverely fcrutinizc their apology, which the reft of th^ 
ftiip's company, who ftood round them, feemed very 
much to approve ; but, obferving that with a flcinful 
of liquor they would have been in a very unfit condi^ 
tion to fwim through the furf to the (hip, I told them 
that hoping they would for the future expofc their lives 
only upon more important occafions, and that their 
condu6t would thenceforward giv^ me no caufe of com- 
plaint, I would for this time b^ faiisft^d v»\iV\V\v^ft\2itc\^ 


^*^^*Tfi''* and regret which I perceived they fuffered from a fenfe 

^J ^^ of their mifbehaviour : I then admonifhed them to put 
on their clothes, and lie down, as I was confident they 
wanted reft^; and added, that as I might poffibly dur* 
ing the courfe of the voyage have occafion for good 
fwimmers, I was very glad that I knew to whom I 
might apply. Having thus difmiflfed thefe honed fel- 
lows from their fears, I was infinitely gratified by the 
murmur of fatisfadion which inftantly ran through the 
fliip's company ; and was afterwards amply rewarded 
for my lenity, there being no fervice during all the 
toils and dangers of the voyage which they did not per- 
form, with a zeal and alacrity that were much to their 
honour and my advantage, as an example to the reft. 

Friday 12. We failed again on the j2th, and I was then firft 
acquainted with the particulars of our voyage by 
Captain Wallis, who gave me a copy of his inftruc- 
tions, and appointed Port Famine in the Streight of 
Magellan to be the place of rendezvous, if we (hould 
happen to be feparated. 

I was now convinced that I had been fent upon a 
fervice to which my veffel and her equipment were by 
no means equal, but I determined at all events to per- 
form it in the beft manner I was able. 

November. ^^ proceeded on our voyage without any remarka- 
ble event till we anchored off Cape Virgin Mary, 
where we faw the Patagonians, of which I have given 
fome account in a letter to Dr. Matty, which was 
publiflied in the fixtieth volume of the TranfaSions 
of the Royal Society, and which it is not neceffary 
here to repeat, as it is in general the fame as thofe 
which have been given by Commodore Byron and 
Captain Wallis. 

When we entered the Streight, I was ordered to 
keep a head of the Dolphin and the ftore-fhip, to pi'ot 
them through the (hoals; but my fhip worked fo ill, 
that we could but very feldom make her tack without 
the help of a boat to tow her round: however, with 
much labour, and at no inconfiderable rifk, we an- 

FrlcUy 26^ chored in Port Famine on Friday the 26th of Decem- 
ber. At this place we unhung our rudder, and added 
• a })iece of wood to it, in hopes that by making it 
bro'dikr, v/c ihould obtavw fotT\t ?idv?Lnta^c in working 

R Q U N IX T H E W O R L D. ^5; 

the fliip ; in which however we were altogether difap- J^^"^' 
pointed. ^ . 

After many difficulties and dangers, we got intOToefday 1; 
Ifland Bay on the 1 7th of February ; and before we 
made fail again, I reprefented the condition of my (hip 
by letter to Captain Wallis, and requefted him to con- 
fider what was beft for his Majefty's fervice, whether 
(he fhould be difmiiTed, or continue the voyage. Cap* 
tain Wallis replied, that as the Lords of the Admiral- 
ty had ordered the Swallow on this fervice, with the 
nature of which I was well acquainted, he did not 
think himfelf at liberty to alter her deflination. 

. We continued therefore for fome time to navigate 
the Streight together, and as I had paflfed it before, I 
was ordered to keep a-head and lead the way, with li- 
berty to anchor and weigh when I thought proper ; 
but perceiving that the bad failing of the Swallow would 
fo much retard the Dolphin, as probably to make her 
lofe the feafon for getting into high* fouthern latitudes, 
and defeat the intention of the voyage, I propofed to 
Captain Wallis, that he (hould lay the Swallow up in 
fome cove or bay, and that L (hould attend and aiTift 
him with her boats till the Streight (hould be paflfed, 
which would probably be in much lefs time than if he 
continued to be retarded by my (hip ; and I urged as 
an additional advantage that he might complete not on- 
ly his ftock of provifions and (lores, but his company, 
out of her, and then fend her back to England, with 
fuch of his crew as ficknefs had rendered unfit for the 
voyage : propofing alfo, that in my way home, I would 
examine the eafterncoaft of Patagonia, or attempt fuch 
other difcoveries as he (hould think proper. If this 
was not approved, and my knowledge of the South 
Seas was thought neceflfary to the fuccefs of the voy- 
age, I offered to go on board the Dolphin, and give 
up the Swallow to be commanded by the Firft Lieute- 
nant, whofe duty I Avould perform during the reft of 
the voyage, or to make the voyage myfelf with only 
the Dolphin, if he would take the Swallow back to 
Etarope ; but Captain Wallis was ftill of opinion that 
the voyage (hould be profecuted by the two (hips joint- 
ly, purfuant to the orders that had been givew. 


1767. The SwailoiY was now become fo foul, that with all 
\_ ^- f the fails (he could fet'flie could not make fo much way 
as the Dolphin, with only her top-fails and a reef in 
them : we continued in company, however, till Fri- 
Friday 10. day the loth of April, when the weftern entrance of 
the Streight was open, and the great South Sea in 
fight. Hitherto I had, purfuant to my diredions« 
kept a-head, but now the Dolphin being nearly a-brea(l 
of us, fet her forefail, which foon carried her a-head of 
tis ; and before nine o'clock in the evening, as (he 
(hewed no lights, we loft fight of her. We had a fine 
eaftern breeze, of which we made the beft ufe we 
' could during the night, carrying all our fmall fails^ 
even to the top-gallant ftudding fails, notwithftanding 
Sjiturdayii. the danger to which it expofed us ; but at day-break 
the next morning, we could but juft fee the Dolphin's 
top-fails above the horizon ; we could perceive, how- 
ever, that (he had ftudding-falls fet, and at nine o'clock, 
we had entirely loft fight of her ; we judged that (he 
was then clear of the Streight's mouth, but we, who 
were ftill under the land, had but light and variable 
airs. From this time, I gave up all hope of feeing the 
Dolphin again till we (hould arrive in England, no plan 
of operation having been fettled, nor any place of ren- 
dezvous appointed, as had been done from England to 
the Streight. I thought myfelf the more unfortunate 
in this feparation, as no part of the woollen cloth, 
linen, beads, fciffars, knives, and other cutlery-ware, 
and toys, which were intended for the ufe of both (hips, 
and were fo neceflfary to obtain refre(hments from In^ 
dians, had, during the nine months we had failed to- 
gether, been put on board the Swallow, and as we 
were not provided either with a forge or iron, which 
many circumftances might render abfolutely neceflfary 
to the prefervation of the (hip. I had the fatisfaftion, 
however, to fee no marks of defpondency among my 
people, whom I encouraged, by telling them, that al- 
though the Dolphin was the beft fhip, I did not doubt 
but that I (hould find more than equivalent advantages 
in their courage, ability, and good conduct. 

At noon, this day, we were a-brcaft of Cape Pillar, 

when a gale fpringing up at S. W. wc weie obliged 

to lake down our fmall (aWs, tett qux \.o\^>Cdlls and 


haul clofe to the wind : foon after it frefbened to the 
W. S. W. blowing right in from the fea, and after 
making two boards, we had the mortification to find 
that we could not weather the land on either tack. It 
was now almoft dark, the gale increafed, driving be- 
fore it a hollow fwell, and a fog came on, with violent 
rain ; we therefore got clofe under the fouth fiiore, and 
fent our boat a-head to find out Tuefday's Bay, which 
is faid by Sir John Narborough to lie about four 
leagues within the Streight, or to find out any other 
place in which we might come to an anchor. At five 
o'clock we OQuld not fee the land, notwithft^nding its 
extream height, though we were within lefs than half 
a mile of it, and at fix, th^ thicknefs of the weather 
having rendered the night fo dark that we could not 
fee half the (hip's length, I brought to for the boat, 
and was indeed, with good reafon, under great con- 
cern for her fafety : we hoifted lights, and evejfy now 
and then maje a falfe fire, but ftill doubting whether 
they could be feen through the fi-og and rain, I fired a 
gun every half hour, and at laft had the fatisfadion to 
take her on board, though fhe hod made no difcovery 
cither of Tuefday's Bay, or any other anchoring-place.. 
We made fail the reft of the night, endeavouring to 
keep near the fouth ftiore, and our ground to the weft- 
ward as much as poilible $ and as foon as it was light 
the next morning, I fent the Mafter again out in the Sunday t%, 
cutter, in fearch of anchorage on the fouth fide. I 
waited in a ftate of the moft painful fufpenfe for her 
return, till five o'clock in the afternoon, fearing that 
we fhould be obliged to keep out in this dangerous pafs 
another night, but I then faw her founding a bay, and 
immediately flood in afier her : in a fhort time the 
Mafter came on board, and to our unfpeakable comfort 
reported, that we might here come fafely to an anchor ; 
this, with the help of our boat, was eflFefted about 
fix o'clock, ^nd I went down into my cabin to take 
fgme reft ; I had, however, fcarcely lain down, before 
I was alarmed with an u^iiverfal ftiout and tumult 
among the people, all that were below running haftily 
upon the deck, and joining the clamour of thofe 
a^ove : I inftantly ftarted up, imagining that a guft, 
had forced the (hip from her anchor, and \\va\. i^e vi^% 


'7^7- drivijig out of the bay ; but when I came upon the 
^J^^l^ deck, I heard the people cry out, the Dplphin ! the 
Dolphin ! in a tranfport of fur prize and JQy, which ap- 
peared to be little (hort of diftraftion : a few minutes, 
however, convinced us that what had been taken for a 
fail was iiotbing more than the water which had been 
forced up, and whirled about in the air, by one of the 
violent gufts that were continually coming off the high 
land, and which, thr.Pugh the- haze, had a moil de- 
ceitful appearance. The. people were for ^ few minutes 
foraewhat dejeQed by their^difapppintment, but before 
I went down, I had the pteafure to fe^ their _ufual for- 
titude and cheerfulnef$. return.. 

The little bay, where we were now ;at anchor, lies 
about three leagues E. by Su fifom Cape Pillar : it is 
the firft place wlych has afiyi appearance of a bay with- 
in that Cape, .and bears, fe. by E. about four leagues 
from the ifland whic,h Sir John Narborough called 
Weftnainfler Hall, from. its refemblance to tliat build- 
ing inadiftant view. Thp.weftern poinl of this bay 
makes a very remarkable appearance, being a perpen- 
dicular, plane like the wall of a houfe. There are 
three ifland$ about two cables length within its en- 
trance, and within thofe iflands a very good harbour, 
with anchorage in betvi(een Iwenty-five and thirty fa- 
thoms, with a bottom of foft mud. We anchored 
without the ifland, the, paflage on each fide of them 
being not- tpore than one-fourth of a cable's length 
wide. Our little bay is. ^bout two cables length broad, 
the points bearing eaft and weft of each other : iu the 
inner part there is frorp fixteen to eighteen fathom?, 
but where we lay it is. deeper ; we had one anchor in 
feventeen fathoms, and, the other in forty-five, with 
great over-falls between them, and rocks in feveral 
places. Here we rodp out a very hard gale, and the 
ground being extremely uneven, we expe6ted our ca - 
blesto be cut in two every minute, yet when we weigh- 
ed, to our great furprize, they did not appear to have 
been rubbed in any part, though we found it very dif- 
ficult to heave them clear of the rocks. The land 
round this bay and harbours is all high, and as the cur- 
rent fets continually into it, I doubt not but it has ano- 
ther communication with the fea to the fouth of Cape 



Defeada, The Mafter faid he went up it four miles 'T^T- 
in a boat, and could not then be above four miles ^/^^^ 'j^ 
from the Weftem Ocean, yet he ftill faw a wide en- 
trance to the S. W. The landing is every where good, 
there is plenty of wood and water, and mufcles and 
wild geefe in abundance. 

From the north (hore jof the weftern end of the 
Streight of Magellan, which lies io about latitude 52* 
i S. to latitude 48s the land which is the weftern 
coaft of Patagonia, runs nearly north and fouth, and 
confifts wholly of broken iflands, among which are 
thofe that Sharp has laid down by the name of the Duke 
of York's Iflands ; he has indeed placed them at a con« 
iiderable diftance from the coaft, but if there had beea 
many iflands in that fltuation, . it is impof&ble but that 
the Dolphin, the Tamar, or the Swallow, muft hive 
feen them, as we ran near their fuppofed meridian, and 
fo did the Dolphin and the Tamar the laft voyage. 
Till we came into this latitude, we had tolerable wea- 
ther, and little or no current in ^ny dire^on, but when 
we came to the northward of 48*^, we found a current 
fetting ftrongly to the north^ fo that probably we then 
opened the great bay^, wfticlr is Did to be ninety 
leagues deep. We found her$ a vaft fwell fromt the 
N, WJand th6 tvinds generally blew from the fame 
qiiartef ; yet we were fet every day twelve or fifteen 
miles to the northward of our account. 

, 0;i Wednefday, the 15th, at about four o'clock in 
the morning, ^fter furmounting many dangers and dif- 
ficulties, w^e once nipre got* a-brea^ of Cape Pillar, 
with a light ' breeze ^t S. E. and a great fwell. Be- 
tween five and fix o'clock, j,uft as we opened Gape 
Defeada, the wind" fuddeiiiy fhifted to S. and S: by^ 
W. ^nd blew ft) hard that it was with great difficulty wft^ 
could carry. the reefed top-fails': \ the fudden changing^ 
of the wind^ aind its exceflive violence, produced a fea- 
$>'dreadfully.hollow, that great quantities of water were 
thrown in upon our deck, fo that we were in theut-- 
iTlofl: danger 6f foundering ; yet ' we did not dare - to 
fliorten fail, it being necefla.ry'to cirry all we could 
Ipread, in order to weather the rocky iflands, which * ' 
Sir John Narboropgh ha$ called the Iflands of Dircc- 
Cioji^ for 'we could not now run back again into the 
• ^ Streight, 


'7^7' Streight, without falling down among the broken land, 
1^-, ^ and incurring the dangers of the northern ihore, which 
.^ was to leeward ; towards this broken land, however, 
and lee fliore, the (hip fettled very fail, notwithfland* 
ing our utmoft eflForts : in this preffing emergency we 
were obliged to ftave all the water -cafks upon the deck, 
and between decks, to clear the vefTel, and to make 
her carry better fail, and at length happily efcaped the 
danger which threatened us. After we got clear of 
tliefe iflands, and drew off from the Streight's mouth 
and the land, we found the fea run more regularly 
from the S. W. iind the wind foon after coming from 
S. S. W. to S. S. E. we had by noon got a pretty good 
offing, about nine leagues from Cape ViSory, which 
is on the north fliore. Thus we cleared the weftern 
entrance of this Streight, which, in my opinion, is 
toadangerous for navigation ; a deliverance which hap- 
pened in the very crifis of our fate, for almoft immedi- 
ately afterwards the wind came again to the S. W. and 
if it had continued in ^ that quarter, our deftruftion 
would have been inevitable. 


The Pajfage from Cape Pillar ^ at the JVeJiern Entrjmci 
of the Str eights of Magellan , to Mafafuero ; with fome 
Account of that IJland. 

I TOOK my departure from Cape Pillar, which I 
make to lie in the latitude of 520 45' S. and in the 
longitude 75^* lo' W. of the meridian of London, and 
as (oon as I got clear of the Streight, fleered to the 
northward along the coaft of Chili. Upon examining 
what quantity of frefti water we had now on board, I 
found that it amounted only to between four and five 
and twenty tons, which I thought not fufficient for fo 
long a voyage as was probably before us ; I therefore 
hauled to the northward, intending to make the ifland 
of Juan Fernandes, or Mafafuero, that we might in- 
creafe our flock before we failed to the weftward. 
Thurf. 16. In the middle of the night of the i6th, we had the 
wind firft to the S. S. E. and then to the S. E. with 
which we kept away N. W. and N. N. W. in high 



fpirits, hoping that in a fliort time we fhould be in a '7^7* 
more temperate climate : we had the misfortune, how- ^^-^"^ 
ever, very foon to find ourfelves difappointed, for on 
the 1 8th, the wind came to the N. N. W. and blewSatur. i8^ 
diredly from the point upon which we were (leering. 
We had now got about an hundred leagues from the 
Streight's mouth; our latitude was 48^ 39' S. and we 
were, by account, 4* 33' W. of Cape Pillar ; but 
from this time till the 8th of May, the wind continu- 
ed unfavourable, and blew a continued (lorm, with 
fudden gufts Aill more violent, and much rain and 
hail, or rather fragments of half melted ice : at inter- 
vals alfo we had thunder and lightning,* moie dread- ' 
ful than all the pad, and a fea which frequently laid 
the whole veflel under water. 

From the time of our clearing the Streight, and 
during our paffage along this coaft, we faw a great 
number of fea birds, particularly albatrofTes, gannets, 
flieer -waters, and a thick lumpifh bird, about as big 
as a large pigeon, which the failors call a Cape of 
Good Hope hen : they are of a dark brown or black* 
ifh colour, and are therefore fometimes called the 
black gull ! we faw alfo a great many pintado btrds, 
of nearly the faitie fize, which are prettily fpotted 
with black and white, and conftantly on the wing> 
though they frequently appear as if they were walk- 
ing upon the water, like the peterels, to whi^h failors 
have given the name of Mother Carey's Chickens ; 
and we faw alfo many of thefe. 

In the evening of Monday the 27th, which was very Mond. ay, 
dark, as we were (landing to the weftward under our ' 
courfes, and a clofe reefed top-fail, the wind, in a hard 
fquall, fuddenly (hifted, and took the veflel right a- 
head ; the violent jerk with which the fails were in- 
ftantly thrown a-back, was very near carrying the mails 
away by the board, and overfetting the (hip : the fails 
being at this time extremely wet, and the gale in the 
higheft degree violenj;, they clung fo fad to the mafta 
and rigging, that it was fcarcely poflible toget them 
either up or down ; yet by the dexterous adivity of 
our people^ we got the main-fail up, clewed up the 
main top-fail, and got the (hip's head round without 
receiving much damage. The violence of the wind^ 

Vol. I. S continued 

■ ."'r^^' 


eboitiiMiidl fiMKb^ family, hnf Mbrt aioniiiiK i^ vmnd 
agaiii t«r 4taH Wi^ojiAictiidm^ in ilun qwner tSU 
the afterlMmqC tkriD ajytl^i^lvetfr k ik(^ aw«|fi imd iwi 
bad a dtad ttbh fb)* fii^ bom. DuriM tiua Mae wm 

{puutterit and bvele i^pMl Um (hap m a (bm^ fnaiif> 
Bc^ oiakbg lief coll wkh fe'iriiikat nad MdeUt ifc flM« 
tim^- thiitl caqpcft^ etaiy. QKnoent lorlefe owr mdli^ 
The wtfdr tftcfwmrds' ^Irmg up nt W- & W. whwh 
was. fi»ir»: mA. yrt^ caviiml ^ die fail #a «ouU (tt Hn 
flBoLe the moA of ic , tt U^jir imji hftrd itf this diMr-« 
lioii^ with heavy rava Sin « few hean^but'bjffr nocnom 
'^^' 3^ the 30th, tl retuiMi to muAmI ftaitap^ the. R W^ 
and w!aa fo vioteht: as* Cp hxho^ iti< agjuii imdcr wr 
courfes, there being at thcfimatmia a |K»digicliu CwdSU 
t^i "^^^ fnqwsn^ brobfe «ver in. Al five ei'cWdt the 
next mormngf a« we: wm^ lying, tor waiw tba: redmL 
matn^fittl and balaitaedl Bbi%en» a vhA fe^^ bnaha over 
the qnarter where thfi Attp'i oafs. wf ne-laibeid^iiid ees-ir 
md: a,way fix ofi tbain* wjib t\m. wtatber<*ctathi it altor 
broke the mtzen ffaBbdok where this fiMl wtti rciafed^ 
: and the iron &a?ap«fQnQ:Qf.themaHv.d4adeyQ$ylAyiagi 
the whefe veflel feribane time ondev. water ; we were: 
however fortunate enough to- haul up the main-fair 
without fplitting, though' it blew a hiirricatie» and a- 
;; . : tf^ deluge of rain> or rather of half melted ice, at the 
^^^^' f""^ *™^ poured down qpon us. The wind foon after 
■^^ ^'•t'ir./ fbifted again from N. W. to S» W. and for about ao. 
hour blew, if poflible, ftronger than ever. This wind 
made the (hip come up with her head right againft tthe 
viaA fea which the north weft wind had raifed^ and at 
every pitch which fhe: made againft it, the end of the 
bowfprit was undicr waler^ and the furge broke over 
the forecaftbe as far aft as the main-mafty in the fame' 
manner as it would have broke over a rock> fo that 
there was the greateft reafon to^ apprehend flie would 
founder. With all her defeds flie was indeed a good 
fea boat, and if ftie had not, it would have been in^ 
poilible for her to have outlived this ftorm, in which^. 
as well as the fevend' other occafioniy.we experienced 
the benefits of the butk-head» which we had fixed on 
the fore-part of the half deck, and to the after part 
«f the fbnecaftle. 


Notwithftanding this wind was fair, ^we dufft ribt ^^i* 
venture to put the fhip before it, for if in wearing, ^JSLj 
any of thefe enormous fcas had broken on her fide, it ^ 
woiffd inevitafcty have carried away all before it. Af- 
ter fome time, however, it became more moderate, 
^'hd we then got up our yai^d^ and made fail, fteeripg 
N. by W. and now the mfeh having beefi up all ni^t, 
and being w6t to the fkin, 1 ordered everyone of them 
a dram. 

By the fWxt hiorning, thfe 2d of May, the wted came Saturd. •« 
agarrt' to the N. W. and the N. N. W. btft b^ tWi 
tinfe we hafd gol: down the broken mxttfi ga'ff, repair- 
ed it as ^^eft as we could, got it up agaJh ift its pkce, 
at^d bent the fail to it ; bti't we now moft fcfnflbty feW 
the ^amt of 4 foYge' and ?^on. 

Ofe the 3d, rft day-fi'reak, we found thfe rddd^i*- ^^^^^J V 
thafti brofceh, and upon this" occafK)n we agairt thbtf 
feefingly regretted the vC^ai^t of a forge ; v^e Aiade, h'oM^- 
€vtt, the bed ftift we c6uld, and the riext rfay, tht Monday 4. 
tvearher being mOfe moderate, thotigh the wind ^as 
ftilf contrary, w6* repaired our rigging, aftd t\i6 caf- 
p6htei*s.fi3t:ed a ri6W dead*6ye vehefe the old one had 
been broken'; tht Sail-friak^i* ilffo y^as bufy in hieft'd* 
ing the fails that had been fplit. 

Oh th^* 5tli, we vfttt agsliri ferOUght under owTuef. 5. 
eburfes by a hurri^arte from the N. by W. arid T^. N. 
W. artd'the ffip wai^ t'offed about v^ith fuch vibleric^ 
th^t we had ho cbmmarid of her. During tliis dorm, 
two of our chain-plates were broken, and we continu- 
ed toiling in a confufed hoftow fea till midnight, when 
i, light gale fpf ung up at N. W. which foon ble\^ Very 
hard ; but at two in the morniftg, we v^ere again taken Wednef. 6 
right a-head fey a fudden and violent fquail at weft, 
whiefi at once tlirew all our fails a-back, and before we 
coutd get the fhip round, was vdry near carrying all by 
the board. With this gale we ftood north, and in the 
/orenoort the carpenters fixed new chain- plafes to the 
main flirbnds, and one to the for6 fhrouds, in the place 
of thofe which had been broken in the fquail during 
the night. This was another occafion on which it was 
impomble hot to regret the Want of a forge and iron. 

The galelcohtinued in this dirieSion t'lll eight iatl\|5iTWx^.*i» 
morning of the 7th, when it rcturoedto lYveTJ^.'^* 

S 2 N^'V^-V 


with unfcttled weather. On the 8th, it came to foiUb^ 
and this was a fine day, the fir ft we had feen after out 
FridiyTr' leaving the Streight of Magellan. Our latitude at nooa 
was 36® 39' S. and we were about five degrees to the 
Stturd. 9 weftward of Cape Pillar. The next day we made the 
Sunday 10. -jj^j^j ^f Mafafuero, and on the 10th, the ifland of 
Juan Fcrnandes : in the afternoon we got clofe to the 
eaflermoft part of it^ and foon after hauled round the 
north end, and opened Cumberland Bay. As I did 
not know that the Spaniards had fortified this ifland, 
I was greatly furprifed to fee a confiderable number of 
men about the beach, with a houfe and four pieces of 
cannon near the water fide, and a fort about three hun- 
dred yards farther from the fea, juft upon the rifing pf 
the hill, with Spanifli colours flying on the top of it. 
This fort,, which is faced with ftone, has eighteen or 
Iwenty embrafures, and within it a long houfe, which 
I fiippofed to be barracks for the garrifon : five and 
twenty or thirty houfes of difierent kinds are fcattered 
round it» apd we faw much cattle feeding on the brow 
of the hills,^ which feemed to be cultivated, as many 
fpots were divided by enclofurcs from each other : we 
faw alfo two large boats lying on the beach. The gufts 
of wind which came right out of the bay, prevented, 
my going fo near as I intended, for they were fo vio- 
lent as to oblige us many times to let fly our top-fail 
flieets, though the fails were clofe reefed ; and I think 
It is impofffble to work a fliip into this bay when the 
wind blows hard from the fouthward. As we flood 
crofs the bay to the weftward, one of the boats put off 
from the fhore, and rowed towards us ; but perceiving 
that the gufts, or flaws, made us lie at a confiderable 
diftance from the land, flie went in again. We then 
opened Weft Bay, on the eaft part of which, clofe to 
the fea fide, is a fmall houfe, which I took for a guar d- 
houfe, and two pieces of cannon mounted upon their 
carriages, without any works about them We now 
wore, and ftood about for Cumberland Bay, but as 
foon as we opened it, the boat again put ofl^, and made 
towards us : as the hard gufts would not permit us to 
come any nearer to the land than before, we ftood a- 
long it to the eaftward, the boat ftill making after us 
till /he was very far out of the bay : at length it grew 


dark, and we loft fight of her, upon which we made 
all the fail we could to the eaftward. 

During all this time I hoifted no cdooFs, having 
none but Englifti on board, which at this time I did 
not think it proper to (hew. 

A* I was difappointed of wood and water at this 
•place, and of the refrefhments, of which, after the dan- 
gers and fatigue of our voyage through the Stretght, 
and our pafTage from it, we flood in the moft preffing 
need, I made all the fail I could for the ifland of Ma- 
fafuero. On the 1 2th of May we arrived off the fourh Tuefl. m. 
eaftetnmoft part of it, but it blowing hard, with a great 
fea, we did not dare to come near it on this fide, and 
therefore went round to the weft fide, where, in the 
evening, we caft anchor upon an excellent bank, fit to 
receive a fleet of ftiips, which, in the fummer, might 
iride here with great advantage. I fent out both the 
boats to endeavour to get fome water, but they found 
it impoifible to land, for the beach is rocky, and the 
furf at this time was fo great, that<he fwimmers could 
not get through the breakers : this was the more mor- 
tifying, as we faw a fine run of frefti water from the 
ihip, with "plenty df trees fit for fire- wood, and a great ^ 
number of goats upon the hills. 

The next morning, as foon as it was light, I fertt Wedner.ii. 
the boats out again, to examine any place where they 
could get on ftiore. They returned with a few cafks 
of water, which they had filled at a fmall rill, and re- 
ported, that the wind being at S. E. blew fo ftrong on 
the eaft fide of the ifland, and raifed fo gr-eat a fea, 
that they could not comt near the ftiore. 

Wcvcontinued here till the i 5th, at day-break, and Friday 15. 
then, the weather being more moderate, we weighed, 
and in the evening, juft at fijn-fet, we anchored on tire 
•eaft fide of the ifland, in the fame place where Com- • 
modore Byron had anchored about two years before. 
We loft no time, but immediately got off fifteen cafli'S 
of water, and fent a number of men on ftiore with 
others, that were empty, to be filled againft the next 
morning, and a ftrong party to cut wood : but it hap- 
pened that about two o'clock in the morning a hard Saturd. 16 
gale of wind came on from the N. W". with violent 
gufts from the ftiore, which drove us off iK^ Vi^.\^^ 


though wfi had two anchors a-head, which were mi the 
utmoll danger of being loft ; we got them upi how«- 
ver, with great difficulty, and iaunedia;tely fet the fails^ 
and wprked under the lee of the iiland, keeping as near 
the (here as we could ; the weather foon afterwards 
bikan^e more moderate, fp that we could carry double 
ret^.d top-faiU ; we had alfo very fmooth water, yet 
we Qs>n\d not make the (hip ^tack, and were forced to 
sfffifLT her every time we wantjed to go about. 

At day-break, though we were ajt a good diilance 
from the (bore, I fent the cutter .to get off a load of 
water, before the furf 0)ould be fo great upon the beach 
.as tq prevent the landing. About ten o'clock, the 
wmd c^nie to the N. N. £. which enabled us to get 
within a little difiance of the watering-place, and we 
might have recovered pur anchoring ground upcxi the 
l)ank frpm which we had been driven, but the weather 
jbad fo bad an appearance, and the gale frefhened fo 
faft, ^hat we did not think it prudent to venture : we 
t>rQught tp, however, as pear the fhore as pofl*.ble, for 
the a(lvantage of fmooth water to unlpad the cutter, 
which foon after came along-fide with twelve cafks of 
water. As foon as we had taken thefe on board, I 
fent the cutter again for another freight, and as we 
were at a very little diftance from land, I ventured to 
feqd our long-boat, a clumfey, heavy, four oared vef- 
fel, with provifions fpr the people on fliore, and orders 
to bring back a load of water, if (he could get it : as 
foon as thefe boats were difpatched, we made a tack 
off to keep pur ground. At noon it blew hard, with 
heavy rain and thick weather, and at one, as we were 
ftanding in again, we faw the boats running along the 
ihore, for the lee part of the ifland, the fide being 
open to the wind ; we therefore followed them, and 
brought to as near the fhore as poflible, to fjavour their 
coming pn board : they prefently made towards us, 
and we hoifted them in, but the fea was now rifen fo 
high, that in doing it they received confiderabje damage, 
and we foon learnt that they found the furf fo great as 
nor to be able even to land their empty water cafks. 
\Vc continued to lie to, under a balanced mizen, off 
the lee part of the ifland all the afternoon, and al- 
fhaugh all hands had beep conftantly epnployed ever 


fince Ac fliip had been rfrivtn off hw anchoring ground^ *J^j 
the carpenters worked all night in repairing the botts. ^^^^^ 
At four o'clock in the m^iung^ the ifland bore weft Sundajr 17. 
of us, being four leagues diftam, and right to wind- 
ward : we had now a fine gale and fmooth water, aiki 
about ten o'clock we fetched very near to the foulk 
part of it, and with the help of tfae boat made the 
ihip tack. As it was not probable thai with fuch i 
i^efTel we could regain the anchoring-greund, I took 
advantage of our being fo near the ftiore, though at a 
good diftance from the watering place, to (end the cut- 
ter for another load» In the mean tifne I ftood on and 
off with the (hip, and about four o*clock in the after- 
noon the cutter brought her freight of water on boarxi. 
I enquired of the Lieutenant after the people on (hore^ 
and he told me, that the violent rain which had falleti 
in the night, had fuddenly brought down fuch torrent 
of water through the hoWovr or guHy whtre they had 
taken up their Aation, that they were in the utmoft 
danger of being fwept away before it, and though with 
great difficulty they faved themfelves, iev^ral of the 
cafks were intirely loft. It was now too late for the 
boat to make another turn to the place where we had 
hitherto got our water ; but Mr. Erirfirius Gower, the 
Lieutenant, whofe diligence and ability in all our dan^ 
gers and diftrefs I cannot fufficiently toktittiend, hav- 
ing, as he returned with the cutter, observed that ma- 
ny runs of water had been made by the night's raiti, 
on that part of the ifland which was neareft to lis, and 
knowing how impatient I was of delay, offered to go 
thither with the boat, and fill as many cafks as (he 
could bring back. I gladly accepted this offer ; Nfr^ 
Gower went away in the boat, and in the mean tinrie 
I made a tack off with the ihip ; but before they had 
been gone an hour, the weather began to grow gloomy, 
and the wind to freflien, a heavy black cloud at the 
fame time fettled over the ifland fo as to hide the tops 
of the hills, and foon after it began to thunder and 
lighten at a dreadful rate : as thefe appearances were 
very threatening, I flood in again towards the ifland, 
in hopes of meeting with the boat ; but though we ran 
in as clofe as we durfl, we faw nothing of her. In the 
mean time night came on, which the thickuefe o{ iVv^ 



IfTfuther reiiidered extremQly ^arky the gale tncreafieiif 
%sA it begsinto rain i^rith great violence : in this iitii^ 
ation I la^fT to under a balanQf^l mizen^ firiog^ns, and 
l^urping ialfe fires, as a guide to the boat ; aiid not be«r 
tjig able to fiiccQunt for her delay^ I fuffered the moft 
tibftrefsftil anxiety, and Had indeed but too much rea- 
fon to fear ^that (he was loft. About- feven c^clodE:, 
^QW<&v^r^' to my upfpeakable fatisfadion (he .came (afe 
Hlong'-f^de^ and as I had long feen a florm gathering'^ 
y^hich I e:|pe6ked every moment to burft upon us, we 
^ot hen. in with all poffiUe expedition. It was imleed 
happy for us all thatlno time was loft, for before (he . 
could be got into her place, the fquatl came on, which 
in a moment laid the (hip downjn a furprifing manner, 
^uid broke the mixen gaff juft where the. fa'il was reefed ; 
fo that if another mioute had paflfed before the boat had 
.]^en gpr in, we muft inevitably have loft her, and eve- 
ry (bul on board would have peri(hed. This wind and 
feather iqontinued here till midnight, when it became 
fpaiewhatimore moderate, fo that we were iA)le to fet 
our cpurfes and top -fails. In the mean time 1 had en- 
/{uired of Mr. Gower how it came to be fo long before 
he returned to the fliip; and he told me, that after he 
had got to the place where he intended to fill the cafks, 
three of the boat's crew had fwam a(hore with them for 
that purppfe; but that within a few minutes, the furf 
had rifen fo high, and broke with fuch fury on the 
4hore, that it was impoiCble for them to get back to 
the boat: that being unwilling to leave them behind, 
efpecially as they were ftark naked, he had waited in 
hopes thai an opportunity might be found for their 
jcoming on board; but that being intimidated by the 
appearance of the weather, and the uncommon dark- 
neis of the night, he had at laft, with whatever reluc- 
tance, been pbliged to come on board without them. 
The (ituaticn of thefe poor fellows now furnifhed ano- 
ther fubjeS of folicitude and anxiety ; they were naked, 
upon a defolate ifland, at a great diftance from the wa- 
tering-place where their (hip-mates had a tent, with- 
, out food, and without (belter, in a night of violent 
and inceffant rain, with fuch thunder and lightning as 
in Europe is alu^ether unknown. In the evening of 
the 19th, however, I had the fatisfadion to receive 


ihem on board, and to have an account of their ad- 
ventures from their own lips. As long as it was light 
they flattered themfelves, like their friends in theboat, 
that they (hould find an opportunity to return on 
board her ; but afterwards when the darknefs of 
the night was only broken by the flaflies of lightning, 
and the tempeft became every moment more vio- 
lent, they knew that to reach the boat was impofTible, 
if it ftill remained in its ftation ; and that moft proba- 
bly the people on board had provided for their own 
fafety, by returning on board the ihip : to reach the 
tent of their (hip-mates, during the darknefs and tem«- 
peft, was equally beyond their power, and they were 
reduced to the necefiity of pafiing fuch a night, in fuch 
a place, without the lead defence againft either the 
rain or the cold, which now began to be feverely 
felt. Neceffity is fald to be ingenious, and they con- 
trived to procure a temporary fuccedaneum both for 
apparel and a (hed, by lying one upon another, each 
man alternately placing himfelf between the other two; 
in this fituation it may eafily be believed that they 
longed moft ardently for the dawn, and as foon as it 
appeared they fet out for the tent : they were obliged 
however to snake their way along the fea ftiore, for 
the inland country was impaflable ; nor was this the 
word, for they were frequently flopped by high fteep 
bluff points, which they were obliged to fwim round 
at a confiderable diftance, for if they had not taken a 
compals, they would have been dafhed to pieces againft 
the rocks by the furf, and as it was> they were every 
moment in danger of being devoured by a fhark. At- 
bout ten o'clock in the morning, however, they reach- 
ed the tents, almoft perifhed with cold and hunger, 
and were received with equal furprife and joy by their 
(hip-matesy who immediately fhared with them fuch 
provifions and clothes as they had. When they came 
on board, I gave orders that they (hould have fuch 
refrefhments as were proper, and remain in their 
hammocks the whole night. The next day they 
were as hearty as if nothing had happened, nor did 
they fuffer any farther inconvenience from the acci- 
dent. Thefe were three of the honeft fellows who 
had fwam naked from the fhip at the 'AaitvA o^ ^-a.- 


'7^7- deira to get a &inliil of iiqubr. I now- rehirii to ray 
^^^' . narrative in the order of time. 

MoadtyiS. On the i8th, the weather was raodemtfiy atid in 
the evening we were within half a mile of the anchor^ 
ing*ground from which weha4 been driven ; but the 
wind fud^nly failing, and a current makii^ againft 
us, we couid-not reacivit ; we tock advantage how* 
ever of being fo near the waterer'a tent to^epd a boat 
•on (hore to enquiw after tht dirte men wMk adventure 
has been juft related, and loon after Ae brought then» 
on board. The carpenters were all this time employedi 
in making a new mizen-gaflF, out of a gib-boom, and 
in the mean while we wet^ oU^ed to make a Ihift with 
the old one, keeping the fait balanced. It cominued 

tneft If. a ftark calm all the night, (b that in the moraing we 
found the current and the fwell had driven us no lefs 
than nine miles from the l«id : the weather however 
being good, I fent die cutter for a (oad of water, which 
•flie brought on botf rd about one o^clock. Soon after a 
breeze fprung up at N. N. W. and as we'now ap- 
proached the land very fad, I fent the boat on (hore 
again for water ; it happened, however, that before 
we could reach our anchoring ground, it again fell calm, 
and we were again kept off by the current : the boat in 
the mean time, as (he rowed along the fhore, caught 
as much fifh with hook and line as ferved all the (hip's 
company, which was fome alleviation of our difappoint- 
ment. At eight o*clock in the evening, it began again 
to blow hard with fudden fqualls, fo that we paflfed 
another toilfome and dangerous night. In the morn- 
Wednef.20. j^g, having a (lifF gale at N. W. we made towards our 
anchoring-ground with all the fail we could fpread, 
and happily regained it about four o*clock in the after- 
noon, when we anchored, at two cables length from 
the beach, in eighteen fathoms, with a bottom of fine 
fand, and moored with a fmall anchor in fliore. By the 
time the (hip was properly fecured, it was too late to 
proceed with our watering ; the long-boat however 
was fent along the (hore to fi(h, and though before 
feven o'clock it blew fo hard that (he was obliged to 
return, (he brought fi(h enough on board to ferve all 
the people. In the night we bad foul weather, with 



hard fqualls and much raif?; and in the morning, the ^7^- 
wind blowing with great violence along the (here, we ^ *Z^ 
frequently drove, though we had no lefs than two Thurf. %u 
hundred fathoms of cable out ; for the bank is a loofe 
fine fand that eafily giv«6 way. We rode out the dorm 
however without damage, but the rain was fo violent, 
and the fea ran fp high, that nothing could be done 
with the boats, which was the mojre mortifying, as it 
was for the fake of completing our watierlng that we 
had endured almoft inceflfant Is^XHir for five days and 
flights to regain the fituatlon in which we now lay. 
About eight in the evening, the wind became more 
moderate, and though it was then too late to fetch off 
any water, wc got out one of the bo^ts, and fent three 
men on (hore, right a-breaft of the (hip, 10 kill feals, 
and make oil of their fat, for burning in lamps and 
other ufes on board the fliip. 

The wind blew very hard tha n«[t morning, as it Friday *i. 
had done all night, but being at W. N. W. which 
was off the land, we fent the boats away fpon after it 
was light, and about ten, they retiimed with each of 
them a load of water, and a great number of pintado 
birds : thefe birds they got from the people on fhore, 
who told them, that when a gale of wind happened in 
the night they flew fader into their fire than they could 
well take them out, fo that during the gale of the laft 
night, they got no lefs than feven huraired of them. 
The boats were employed in getting water on board 
all this day, although the furf was fo great that feveral 
of the ca(ks were (laved and loft ; they were fent out 
again a little before it was light the next day, and by saturd. 13. 
feven o'clock a few caiks only were wanting to com- 
plete our ftock. The threatening appearances of the 
weather made me now very impatient to get the people 
on board, with the calks that were flill at the watering- 
place ; as foon therefore as the boats were cleared of 
their loading, I difpatched them again, with orders to 
bring off all the hands, with the tent, and every thing 
elfe that was on (hore, with all poffible expedition. 
From this time the wind increafed very faft, and by 
eleven o'clock it blew fo hard, with violent gufts from 
the land, that the (hip began to drive off the bank : we 


.1767- heaved the finall aticbor iip, and got it in out of the 
^^^ way of the other ; the gale ftill iiiciieafed« but as it was 
right oflT the landj I was 10 no pain about the fliipf 
which continued to drive, itiU dragging the anchor 
through the fand, with two hundred &t horns of cable 
out ; for being very folicitous to give the boats time to 
bring all on board before we were quite oflF the bank, 
I would not weigh. At two o'clockf however; the 
anchor was quite off the ground, and the ihip was in 
deep water; we were now therefore obliged to hrtng* 
the cable to the capftem, and with great difficulty we 
got the anchor op. The gufts off the land were fo 
violent that, not daring tq (hew any canvas, we lay to 
under our bare poles, and the water was frequently 
torn up, and whirled round in the air much higher 
^tban our mafts heads. As the ihip now drove troai 
the ifland at a great rate, and night was conaing on, I 
b^n to be b great pab for the boats, in which, be- 
fiiks my Lieutenant, there v^ere eight and twenty cff 
my beft men ; but juft in the duft. of the evening, I 
perceived one of tlvem fcudding before the Teas, and 
making towards the ihip : this proved to be the long- 
boat, which in fpite of all the efforts of thofe on board, 
had been forced from her grappling, and driven off the 
land. We took the beft opportunity that offered to get 
her on board, but notwithftanding all our care, fhe re- 
ceived coniiderable damage as we were hoifting her in. 
She had on board ten of my people, who informed me, 
that when they were firft driven from the fhore, they 
had fome (ire wood on board, but that they wereobligp- 
ed to throw that, and every thing elfe, into the fea, 
to lighten the boat. As we had yet feen nothing of 
the cutter, and had reafon to fear that (he alfo, with 
the tents, and the other eighteen people, befides the 
Lieutenants, had been driven off the ifland, I gave her 
up for loft ; knowing that if the night, which was now 
at hand, fhould overtake her in fucha ftorm, fliemuft 
inevitably perifli. It was however poflible that the 
people might be afhore, and therefore that if the boat 
ihould be loft, they might ftill be preferved ; for this 
reafon, I determined to regain the land as Toon as poffi- 
ble. At midnight, the weather became more mode- 
r^te, fo that we could carry our courfes and top^fails. 

R O U N D T H E W O R L D, 271 

and at four o'clock in the rooming we crovvded all the "7*7- 
fail we could make. At ten o'clock we were very near . ll^_f 
the (hore ; to our great concern, we faw nothing of the Sanday 14. 
cutter, yet wje continued to ftand on till about noon, 
when we happily difcovered her at a grappling, clofe 
under the land : we immediately ran to our glafles, by 
the help of which we faw the people getting into her, 
and about three o'clock, to our mutual and inexpreifi- 
ble joy, (he came fafe on board with all her people : 
they were however fo exhaufted with fatigue, that they 
could fcarc^ly get up the (hip's fide. The Lieutenant 
told me, that the night before he had attempted to 
come off, but that as foon as he had left the ihore, a 
fudden fquall fo nearly filled the boat with water, tliat 
{he was very near going to the bottom ; but that all 
hands bailing with the utmoft diligence and a3ivtty, 
they happily cleared her : that he then made for the land 
again, which, with the utmoft difficulty, he regained, 
and having left a fuificient number on board the boat, 
to watch her, and keep her free from water, he with 
the reft of the people went on ihore. That having 
pafled the night in a ftate of inexprefiible anxiety and 
diftrefs, they looked out for the (hip with the firft 
dawn of the morning, and feeing nothing of her, con^ 
eluded that (he had periihed in theftorm, which they 
had never feen exceeded. They did not however fit 
down torpid in defpair, but began to clear the ground 
near the beach of buihes and weeds, and cut down 
feveral trees, of which they made rollers to ailift them 
in hauling up the boat, in order to fecure her ; intend- 
ing, as th.ey had no hope of the (hip's return, to wait 
till the fummer feafon, and then attempt to make the 
ifland of Juan Fernandes. They had now better 
hopes, and all fenfe of the dangers that were before us 
was for a while obliterated by the joy of our efcape 
from thofe that were paft. 

From the 1 6th, when we were firft driven from our 
anchoring ground, to this time, we fufFered an unin- 
terrupted feries of danger, fatigue, and misfoitunea. 
The (hip worked and failed very ill, the weather was 
dark and tempeftuous, with thunder, lightning, and . 
rain, and the boats, which I was obliged to kcei^ %.V^ 


g<7* wayt c to f l e y oclt eves when iiire were under £i3^ to 
( li!!^ proewe at watery Wef<e in ccwi&iuaicbH^ef of Mug 
. loft^ as #dlby llie hard gaki which ccmftanft^rUew^ 
as by the iuMe* gdfts which frecfMOtly raftred^tt|MKi 
tfs with a violence thai is fearcely tff be ciMceiyed; 
This dtflrefii was ihe fhcHNt fcvere s» it ^m iMMpifi^ 
ed| for I had ezperilniced vdry diffeieift wisff tlf^rio Aetl 
{MHTts- about twd years before wii9h CoMMfoibiit ByMM. 
It has genetaily been thAught^ thef ti^ thiv toifl 
the winds are cdalUnti|f.froitv tte S^ fo'flie S. W* 
though FHazjier meMfoiia his Hatii^ had tMetf^ |jitea 
and hi^h fees from the N. N^ W.aMtNvW^<J\»aAcrfi 
wbkh was nnfaip^Iy n*y cafe. 

Having, odco niorer g«^ iiiy ^eo^ aifd fe 
board, I niade foil fi^ this turtxil^fllr ^KtflMfy Ml 
thosght hj^yfelf fortiiikafe not t<y fibve kft tmjfMik^h^^ 
htnd fide except the woot^ wfaidi ew {^10 b«l 6ul 
. F9f ■ftng* 

. . Theifland df Maikfuerdlie»hif lafjtlide 13^ 4f^ 
longitude So'' ^Sf W. of London. Im fitowiott: il^weft 
of Juan FeYnandesy both beiii|$ n&iAf lA^ t^ f^mltf 
iatttude, and by nhe gM>ery it i» difta^t^ i^<3^t' fAiii^* 
one leagueis. It i^ very hi^ and tfnotMibiriousy atid at 
a didance appears like one hill or rock : it id of a frianh* 
gular form, and aboitt feven or eight hfagn^s in ci^-* 
cumference« The fouth part, w&tdv we few wh^h wd 
firft made the ifland, at the diftance of three and tfwen^' 
ty icfagues> is nnich the htgheft : on the nonfh end 
tbei^e are feverai ^ts of. clear gfootid, which pertiaps 
ft)ight admit- of cultivation. 

The author of the jBcooont of Lord- Arifon's ^yag« 
mentions only one part of this iiland as afF6t<ding' an- 
chorage, which is on the north fide,- andindee^ \^atef, 
but we faw no part where there was not aritb6l»ag^': on 
the weft fide in particular there is atlthorage at about 
a mile from thefhore in twenty fathonis, arid about two 
miles and a haif in fbrty, and forty- fifvefethonls, with 
a fine black faild at the bottbnil. This author atfo 
fays, that ^* there is a reef of nodkis running off tlvi 
eaftern point of the iiland aboutf two miles in length, 
which may be feen by the fea's breaking over them ; 
but in this he is miftaken : there is no reef of rocks^ 
Of ihoal running off the eaftern point, but there is a 



reef of rocks and find runniog off the weftern G^e^ near 
the foutb end of it. He is atfo miftaken as to the dif- 
t.^nce of this tfland from Juan Fernandes, and its di- 
region ; for he fays the diAance is twenty-two leagues, 
and the diredion W. by S. but we found the diftance 
nearly one- third rnore^ and the dire£Uon is due weft, 
for, as I have before obferved, the latitude of both 
iflands is nearly the fame. The goats that ht men- 
tions we found upon it in the fame abundance, and 
equally eafy to be caught 

On the fouthrweft point of the iiland there is^ re- 
markable rock, witha hole, in ity which is a good mark 
to come to an anchor on the weftern fide, where there 
is the beft bank of any about the place. About a mile 
and a haUf (a the northward of this hole, there is^ 
a low point of land, and from this point runs the reef 
that has been juft mentioned,, in the diredioa of W. 
by S. to the diftance of about three quarters of a mile, 
where the fea continually breaks upon it. To anchor, 
runin till the hole in the rockts ftiut in,, about a' cable's, 
tengith upon this low point of lai^, then bearing. S. by 
£• f £. and anchor in twenty and twenty-two fathoms^ 
fine black iand and ftielk:. there is anchorage alfo at 
feveral places on the. other fides of the ifland,. particu- 
larly off the north point, in fourteen and fifteen fathom^, 
with fine fand. 

There is plenty of wood and water all round the 
ifland^ but they are not to be procured without much 
difficulty ; a great quantity of ftones, and large frag- 
ments of the rock have fallen from the high land all 
round the ifland^ and upon thefe there breaks fuch a 
furf that a boat cannot fafely come within a cable's 
length of the fiiore ; there ts therefore no landing here 
but by fwimming from the boat, and then mooring her 
without the rocks, nor is there any method of getting 
off the wood and water but by hauling them to the 
boat with ropes: there are however many places where 
it would be very eafy to make a commodious landing- 
by building a wharf, which it would be worth while 
even for a Tingle fliip to do if ih^ was to continue any 
time at the ifland. 



• , . ■ ■ « • ■ 

' This pan of Mabfuero h a very good plaCi; (or re-' 
freihment^ efpecialljr id the funmier feafoa : tUs goats 
have betomentioted already, and there is all totuid the 
ifland fucfa.plenty o( fi(h» that a boat inays witli'three 
hoob and fines, catch as much as will ferve an hun- 
dred people : among pthe^ we catight exo^Deikt coal- 
fi(h, .caVallies, cod, faallibuti and cray-fifh, W^took 
ar king-fiiher that weielted e^ty-feven ^unds, and 
was five feet and aa hw lobg» and the fliarks w^re fo 
ravenous, that when we were founding, ope qf them 
fwaltowed the leiid, by whiclh we haul^ HUf/, above 
water, but as he theh'difgorged it^ weteftinm. The 
feals were fo numerdos, that I verily think irmsMify 
thoiiTafids of them wtitr killed in a nighr^ they Would 
not be mifled in the tnohiing : we were bbt£g|ed to kill 
great taumbers of them^ ai^ when we w^tKetf the (hore^ 
they were continually nimiing againft us^ inkkjii^ at the 
fame time a inoft horribl^^tioife. Thefef ^miu^^ yield' 
excellent tniiin oil, and fhdr hearHpH|i| fio^are^ery^ 
good eating, being in tdlr fodm^('li)LCf itltife |df a. 
hc^, and their flcins are covidred with the fineft ftif 'I 
ever faw of the kind. There are many birds here, and 
among others fome very lar^ hawks. Of the phitado 
birds, our people, as I have ^fore obferved, caught 
no iefs than feven hundred in one night. We had not 
much opportunity to examine the place for vegetable 
produdions, but we faw feveral leaves of the mpun . 
tain cabbage, which is a proof that the tree grows, 

CHAP. in. 

The Pajfage from Mafafuero to ^ten ' Cbariotte^t 
Ifland \ feveral Mi flakes correSfed concerning Davis* s 
Landf and an Adount of fome fmall Iflandsy fuppofed 
to be the fame that were feen by ^iros., 

WHEN we took our departure from Mafafuero, 
we had a great fea from the N. W. with a 
fwell of long billows from the fouthward, and the 
wind, which was from the S. W. to the W. N. W. 
obliged me to (land to the northward, in hope of get- 
ting the fouth-eaft trade-wind, for the (hip was fo dull 

a failer. 


a failer, that there was no making her go without a >7^* 
ftrong wind in her favour. Having thus run farther to ^J^ 
the northward than at firft I intended, and finding 
myfelf not far from the parallel of latitude which has 
been affigned to two iflands called Saint Ambrofe and 
Saint Felix, or Saint Paul, I thought I {hould perform 
an acceptable fervice by examining if they were fit for 
(hipping to refrelh at, efpecially as the Spaniards hav- 
ing fortified Juan Fernandes, they might be found 
convenient for Great-Britain, if (he (hould hereafter 
be engaged in a Spanifli war. Thefe iflands are laid 
down in Green's charts, which were publifhed in the 
year 1753, ^^^^ latitude 26® 20', to 27® S. and ft'om 
x^i to 2o| W. of Mafafiiero ; I therefore hauled up 
with i defign to keep in that latitude, but foon after- 
wards confulting Robertfon's Elements of Navigation, 
I found the ifland of Saint Ambrofe there laid down 
in latitude 25° 30 Si. and 82® 20' longitude weft of 
London, and fuppofing that iflands of fo fmall an ex- 
tent might be laid down with more exadnefs in this 
work than in the chart, I bore away more northward 
for that latitude; the event, ho\x^ever, proved that I 
(hould not have trufted him fo far: I mifled the iflands, 
and as I faw great numbers of birds and fi(h, which 
are certain indications of land not far off, there is the 
greateft reafon to conclude that I went to the north- 
ward of them. I am forry to fay that upon a farther 
examination of Robertfon's tables of latitudes and lon- 
gitudes, I found them erroneous in many particulars :: 
this cenfure, however, if I had not thought it neceflary 
to prevent future mifchief, fliouldhave been fuppreflfed. 
Upon examining the account^hat isgiven by Wafer, 
who was Surgeon on board Captain Davis's (hip, I 
think it is probable that thefe two iflands are the land 
that Davis fell in with in his way to the fouthward from 
the Gallapago iflands, and that the land laid down in 
all the fea charts under the name of Davis's Land, has 
no exiftence, notwithflanding what is faid in the zc- 
count of Roggewein's voyage, which was made in 1 722, 
of land that theycanedEaftemlflahd, which fomehave 
imagined to be a confirmation of Davis's difcovery, 
and the fame land to which hb name has been given* '* 
Vol. I. T It 




It it manifeft from Wafer's narrative^ tbat Uttktte- 

• — due to the account ktgt on board Davk^^s flup^ 
except with refpeft to the latitiide» for he admowledgia 
tha^.tbey hadl^Eie to £»feperiflied by their maldiig aa 
aUowance for the variation o£ the needle weft ward, ia* 
ftead pf eaftward : he tclb us alfo that they fieend & 
by E.fEi from the Gal(qpagosi tiU they flMde Uoi 
m lat)t«4^ a 7^ ao' ,& butit it eyidentthat ftidi a cOfurfe 
vrottid .car^ tfacm not the weflward but to the eaftward 
of die Gal|apagp8, and' fet them at about th$ diflaace , 
of two hundrtBjdleagiiQi from Capiapo, aivl notfivehun* 
dred leagues as hehasalkgedi for the variation here ta 
not more than half a point to the eaftward now, and it 
naifift have been ftiU lefs then, it having been ikicteafifig: 
to.^ eirflwan|^>a all this coaft. The courfethat Dm^ 

3*ifttfH^.the>«fom» ifji^ diflaace b^ween the iftaoda 
,&^AmlnHrfe«DdSt;,£^lix>ai^ as, 

t|iddovra|aaH.fK|r fea .^arts, bright, naufl hsEva 
brought h^m vi^ S^\A of St. AmbMe a«d St* F^x; 
wbffi.he.1iad nm. thi^iiKflMce hcanemi^ns. The trakh 
is,: lh<A if thevt M beea any fuch place asDafis'a 
Ii«and in the ^tu^tiQiiwhiich has been allotted to it inottr. 
fe^ ctiarts, i mtift have fiiiied ^ver it j or at leaft have 
fcea it, as will appear in the courfe of this narrative. 

I kept between the Miiude 25* 50^ ajid 250 3c/, in 
ff^Fch of the ifl^Mids I intended to examine, till I got 
five degrees to the weft ward of our tieparture, and then 
feeing no land,, and the birds having left us, I hauled 
more. to the fouthward, and got into latitude 2^^ %o' S.- 
where I continued tiU we got between feventeen and 
eighteen degrees to the well ward of our departure. la 
this parallel we bad light airs and foul winds, with a 
ftrong nortbefriy current, which made me conje£ture 
Shat we were, near this Davis's Land, for which wb 
looked out wi^h grea^t .diligence ; bujt a fair wind fpting- 
ing up again, we fleered weft by fouth, which gradu- 
ally brought us into the latitude of 28^ ^ jS. fo that it is 
evident I muft have failed over this land, or at leaft 
have feen it if theie^ad b^^ any teb place. I after** 
wards kept in th^ ;)MiMe <>fa8? lor forty degrees to 
th^W^ward of '.my departure, cir,': sectoring to my 
acc^Uf^, I0|.dc^mf .ivcft. iif LoDdoti,. this being 



die higheft fouth latitude the wiikis and weather wouM 
permit me to keep^ fo that I maft have gone to tht 
foothward of die iituation afligned to the ru|>pored 
continent called Davis's Land in all our charts. 

We continued our fearch tiU Wednefday the 1 7th jane, 
of June, when, in latitude 28® S. longitude 1 1 20 W. Wfdncf.^7. 
we faw many fea birds, which flew th flodcs, and fome 
rock weed, which made me coxajeSurethat we were 
approaching, or had pafled by fome land^ At this 
time the wind blew hard from the northward, which 
made a great fea, but we hadnotwithftanding long roll* 
ing billows from the fouthward, fo that whatever-land 
th^e was in that quarter, could be only fmall rocky 
iflands ; and I am inclined to believe that if there was 
land at all it was to the northward ; poffibly it might be 
Roggewein^s exftern ifland, which he has placed in- la* 
titude 2 70 S. and whidti fome geographers have iup-i> 
pofed to be about feven hundred leagues diftant from 
the continent of South America^ if indeed any credit 
is to be given to his account. • . • 

It was now the depth of winter in thefe parts, anld 
we had hard gales and high feas' that frequently 
brought us under our coiirles and lowfails :' the vKnds ' 
were alfo variable^ an<| though we -were near the trol 
fie, the weather ^vas darkji liaty^* and cold, with 
fiiequent thunder and lightning, fleet and rain. The 
fun was above the horizon about ^eii hours in the foui^r 
and twenty, but we frequently paflfedmany days toge*- 
ther without feemg him ; and' the weather was fo 
thick, that when he was below the horizon the dark« 
neis was dreadful ;- the glootninefs of the weather wits 
indeed not only a difagreeaUe but a moft dangerous 
circumfiance, as we were often long without being 
able to make an obfervation, and were, notwithfliand- 
ing, obliged to carry all the (iil we could fpread, day 
and night, our (hip being fo bad a failer, and our 
voyage fo long, to prevent our perifliing by hunger» 
whidi, with all its concomitimt horrors, would other- 
wife be inevitable. 

We continued our courfe weftward till the evtfttiog joly, . 
of Thurfday the 2d of July, Wjjen we difcovered land Tkuff. a. 
to the northward of us. Upon^Hipproaching it the next 
day, it appeared like a great rock rifing out of the fea : 
it was not more than five miles in circumference, . and 

T 2 {(KSDS& 

9^ CilSTADi:CJ^iTSEV&VCXrti^ 

i j ^^ ^ vriiktrpesy flid mrfiifirv « imall ftmin^of' frdh water 

' vimm^Aown 0tA 6^ o li-woddtjisrre hmded 

ppon ity but itheduifyriiiirbidi at' thuKflbtfoii broke apoa 

. Y tfiwjtk greatrvkM^cg ron^red^it impoffibie. I got 

.\x .::^.L'f/ f<H)iiidings <m;tljii,fii!dl 6At of Jt, at fecn^Kat left than 
a mUefroi|k.tbfiftbia^Qmttitat]ri-fivbte with a 

tK>ttfWi pf coml ankl4iuiMb( jmd k ia pr6bable that in fine 
fimtMr wMtilev.4«ikii9ghAtt miiy oQlmlybepiai^^ 
l^ttnit <MfyvvW«iawte gneatiUiiniber^ibabirck hover- 
i|g,^^ar4tv!4^fef>invJ«lt IcA tlwA a tnile franf the 
j^V imi tb^ifia bj^-^fcefltafLtaliawfifii.' It lies id 
l^^t Z.CP afi;S. kftigifcadc J33P ai':»SF. and abontra 
fb9^IMld Wgacn IQ jdtoj weft ward of. :the conttnent of 
Anil^ jlt' jif it^if^ we faw it at the diftance of 

t^^i9^ff*^WSflf^^^ foo t6 Majoc Pitcaim of the 
Mcanft lM(|i^*;.)Vha>%>ii9 toifenwiately^Joft in the Aurora^ 

While we were bthe.neighbou|^bcM>d.'of.'thi>ifland» 
^ ^miher l^».mtnilmlf^ tenpiteftUous^ with Ibng 
<!^^ IhVo^ ]from>thil .(bathward, larger, and higher 
(^r^j\lhmi\ffml befow- iXhe. winds .were variable, 
bujb yew chiefl^/feomfjhe: S..S. W. W. and W. N; 
W.. We h^d/very:l^l{lo^ a>gaie to the eaAward, fo 
that we were prey^ted' from keeping ioia high fouth 
lat4tude> and were continually driving to the north- 
ward.- ■ ■; \::r ■ ■ . ■. v !vt' . 
Satiini.4. : Qn the 4tb^ wfc IpHUjd ; that thefliip made a good 
^^oi water^ for hating izfeen fo long labouring in high 
an4 turbulent feas> (b^ was become very xrazy ; our 
failsi alfo beipg much worHf were continually fplitting, 
fo- that it was becondQ/i^fieflTary to keep the fail-maker 
cppftaqtly at werl^. . %l^ .people bad) hitherto enjoyed 
g9i$d healthy but. they, tJiQW began-ito be. affected with 
the fcurvy. While wijwere in the Streight of Magel- 
lan, jLcaufed a little -awning made» which I co- 
.vef^d with a cleai\painted can vas» that had been allow- 
ed me for a floor-cloth to my cabin^c4l]id with this we 
^augjbit fo i^uch fM^.-if^^, with but little trouble or at- 
.lu.d ^e9^%nce, that, the people Were ne^^ pf]t to a (hort al- 
lowance of thia itoporta^t article : . the awning alfO af- 
f^r^ed.ihelter frooii the inclemency ol;th^ weather ; and 
^ • • to 

t .r 



to thefe precautions I imputed our having efcaped the 
fcurvy fo long, though perhaps it was in (omemeafure 
owing to the mixture of fpirit of vitriol with the water 
that was thus preferved, our Surgeon putting a fmall 
quantity into every cafk when it was filled up. 

On Saturday the nth, we difcovered a fmall low^Satuid. iz. 
flat ifland, which appeared to be almoft level with the 
water's edge, and was covered with green trees : as it 
was to the fouth, and direSly to windward of us, we 
could not fetch it. It lies in latitude 22^^ S. and lon- 
gitude 1410 34 W. and we called it the Bishop OFofmbureh 
Osnaburgh's Island, in honour of hisMajefty.'sifland. 
fecond fon *. 

On the 1 2th, we fell in with two more fmall iilands, SujuUy 12. 
which were covered with green trees, but appeared'to 
be uninhabited. We were clofe in with the fouther- 
moft, which proved to be a flip of land in the form of 
a half moon, low, flat, and fandy : from the fouth 
end of it a reef runs out to the diftance of about 
half a mile, on which the fea^ breaks with great fury. 
We found no anchorage, but the boat landed. It had 
a pleafant appearance, but afforded neither vegetables 
nor water ; there were however many birds upon it, 
fo tame that they -fuffered themfelves to be taken by 
hand. The other ifland very much refembles this, 
and is diflant from it about four or five leagues : they 
lie W. N. W. and E. S. E. of each other. One of 
them is in latitude 200 38' S. longitude 146** W. the 
other 200 34' S. longitude 1^6^ 1 5' W. and we called 
them the Duke of Gloucester'sIsland's ; thcoukeof 
variation here is five degrees eaft. Thefe Iflands are Giouccftcf s 
probably the land feen by Quiros, as the fituation is^^***^'- 
nearly the fame ; but if not, the land he faw could not 
be more confiderable : whatever it was he went to the 
. fouthward of it, and the long billows we had here con- 
vinced us that there was no land near us in that direc- 
tion. The wind here being to the eaft ward, I hauled 
to the fouthward again, and the next day, Monday Monday 13. 
the 13th, in the evening, as we were fleering W.S.W. 
we obferved that we loft the long foutherly billows 


• There is another Idand of this name, among thefe 
that were difcovered by Captain Wallis. 


p^' wAiihkt we fot iisem i§ib $k feveo b^clock die iwatt 
Jl^i^ ixf. When we loi£ them we wmin ietkttie n^ 7' 
S. longitiide 147^ 4 ^* ^ whev we got them mbi 
we ^were in Isthv^ ai^^^S. loiijptiide Y49»48r W. 
fo that I ima(pm there Wts then fone land to Ap • 
iimthwftrd^ ait far dcfttnt. 

Tiinriai^ pitmi tins ^gm, t« the lAh^ the wmdt wibpe m- 
ridbte from N. E. roum} bj theN. the N. W.nd 8. 
'W. and blew Ttry hard, iirttlt violeflt gufts^ one of 
HiinA was terj near beiog fiitd to OS, with thkk wet- 

I Ati- and hard rain, We were then in latttude uo S« 

Iftid f o«^ 30' W. of ontdepartttre^ where we found the 
variation 6* 30' £• and the tempeftuous gales were 
fecccfeded by a dead calm« After feme time, however^ 
the wind fprong op agam at wed, and at length fet- 
;tkd in the W^ S. W. ^vrtiich fooo drore os again to 

IfMtr %oi the Borthwtrdy fo that on the lotk we^wcre tn latittide 
t^ B. longitnde 75* 50' W. of onr dcqpnture : the 
sanation wm heie (S^ E. 

VMaisC j^ On the^ad, we were got into latkisde iS^ S. ioagi- 
tude |6fo W. which was abont one thoufand eight 
hufklred lei^es to the wefttirard of the continent of 
America, and in all this track we had no indication of 
a continent, The men now began to be very fickly, 
the (curvy having made great progrefs among theno, 
' ^nd as I found that all my endeavours to keep in a 

high fouthern latitude at this time, were inefFe3ual, 
and that the badnefs of the weather, the variablenefs 
of the y^inds, and above all the defed:sof the (hip, ren- 
dered our progrefs flow, I thought it abfolutely necef- 
fary to fix upon that courfc which was mod likely to 
preferve the veffel and the creW ; inftead therefore of 
attempting to return back by the fouth eaft, in which, 
ponfidering our condition, and the advanced feafon of 
the year, it was fcarCely poflible that we (hould fucceed, 
I bore away to the northward, that I might get into 
the trade-wind, keeping ftillin fuch a track as, if the 
pharts were to be trufted, Wa&moft likely to bring me 
to fome ifland, where the refreflimenrs of which we 
flood fo much in need might be procured; intending 
then, if the fliip could be put into a proper condition, 
to have purfued the voyage to the fouthward, when 
the fit feafon (hould return, lo Vvvie ^XXsttv^ted farther 


difcoveries in this track ; and, if I fhould difcover a I7^- 
continent, and procure a fufficient fupply of provifions . j^* ^ 
there, to keep along the coaft to the fouthward till the 
fun had crofled the equinodial, and then, getting into 
a high fouthern latitude, either have gone weft about 
to the Cape of Good Hope, or returned to the eaft . 
ward, and having touched at Falkland's Iflands if ne* 
ccflary, make the beft of my way from thence back to 

When I got into latitude 1 6^ S. and not before, I 
found the true trade-wind ; and as we proceeded to the 
north-weft, and the northward, we found the variati- 
on increafe very faft ; for when we had advanced to 
latitude i &** 15' S. and were in longitude 80® f W. 
of our departure, it was 70 30' E. We had bad wea- 
ther, with hard gales, and a great fea from the eaft- 
ward till the 25th, when being in latitude 12^ 15' S. satuidtyxs. 
we faw many birds flying in flocks, and fuppofed our- 
felves to be near feme land, particularly feveral iflahds 
that are laid down in the charts, and one which was 
feen by Commodore Byron in j 765, and called the 
ifland of Danger ; none of thefe iflands however could 
we fee. At this time it blew to hard that, although 
we went before the wind, we were obliged to reef our 
top-fails, and the weather was ftill very thick and 
rainy. The next morning, being in latitude lo^ S. Sunday i€. 
longitude 167® W. we kept nearly in the fame paral- 
lel, in hopes to have fallen in with fome of the iflands 
called Solomon's Iflands, this being the latitude in 
which the fouthermoft of them is laid down. We had 
here the trade wind ftrong, Avith violent fqualls and 
much rain, and continuing our courfe till Monday the 
3d of Auguft, we were then in latitude iQOiS'S. Aag«ii 
longitude by account 1 7 7° i E. our diftance weft from ^^^^^y 3- 
the continent of America about twenty-one hundred 
leagues, and we were five degrees to the weftward of 
the fituation of thofe iflands in the charts. It was not 
our good fortune however to fall in with any land ; 
probably we might pafs near fome, which the thitk 
weather prevented our feeing ; for in this run great 
numbers of fea-birds were often about the fliip : how- 
ever, as Commodore Byron in his laft voyage failed 
over the northern limits of that pan ol iVi^ oc^^.\^^a^ 
which the iflands of Solomon atetavA lo\v&> «x^^ ^'^^ 


17671 failed over the fouthern limits without, fedag then, 
/^!^\ ^ tliere is great reafon tp conclude that^ if there are apjf 
^^^^^THz, focb iflands^ their fituatibo ia all our charts is erroik- 
oufly laid down. 

From the latitude 1 4<» S. lonptude i6y> 4fif W. we 
had a ftrong gale from the S.£« which made a great 
' fea after us^ and from that time I did not obftrve the 
long billows firoiti the foiithward till we got into lati- 
tude 10® 18' S. longitude 177^ 3o!E. and then it re- 
turned from the S. W. and S. S. Wv and we found a 
current fetting .to the fouthward, although a current 
in the contiiiary diredion had attended us almoft all the 
way from the Streight- oiF Magellan ; I conje&ure4 
therefore that here the paflage opened between New 
Zealand and New Holland The variation here was 
WadaeCs* II** 14^- On the 5th being in latitude iOoi& 
loii^tude 1 750*44 E. the variation waa .11® 15' £• 
and on the Itbf m latitude 1 1^ S. Ipngitude 171^ 14' 
Pitar; 8. About thb time we fcnind our ftock of log-lines 
neaiiy expended^ though we had already converted all 
our mhing lines to the fame ufe. I was feme time in 
great perplexity how to fupply this defed^ but upon a 
very diligent inquiry found that we had> by chance a 
few fathoms of thick untarred rope* This, which 
in our iituation was an ineftimable treafure, I ordered 
to be untwifted ; but as the yams were found to be 
too thick for our purpofe, it became neceflary to pick 
them into oakum : and when this was done, the moft 
difficult part of the work remained ; for this oakum 
could not be fpun into yarn, till, by combing, it was 
brought into liemp, its original ftate. This was not 
feamens work, and if it had, we fhould have been at 
a lofs how to perform it for want of combs ; one diffi- 
culty therefore rofe upon another, and it was neceffary 
to make combs, before we could try our (kill in mak- 
ing hemp. Upon this trying occafion we were again 
fenfible of the danger to which we were expofed by 
the want of a forge : neceffity, however, the fruitful 
mother of invention, fiiggcfted an expedient. The 
firmourer was fet to work to file nails down to afmooth 
point, with which we produced a tolerable fucccdaneum 
for a ^omb; and one of the Qpartermafters was found 



fofficiently Ikilled in the ufe of this inftrument to rcn- J^^ 
der the oakum fo fmooth and even that we contrived y^^^j 
to fpin it into yarn> as fine as our coarfe implements 
would admit ; and thus we made tolerable log-lines> 
although w^ found it much more difficult than to make 
cordage of our old cables, after they had been convert- 
ed into junk> "which was an expedient that we had been 
obliged to pradife long before. We had alfo long be- 
fore ufed all our fewing fail twine, and if, knowing 
that the quantity with which I had been fupplied was 
altogether inadequate to the wants of fuch a voyage, I 
had not taken the whole quantity that bad been put on 
board to repair the feine into my owncuftody, this de- 
ficiency might have been fatal to us all. 

C H A P. IV, 

jtn Account of the Dijcovery of^een Charlottes IJlands^ 
with a Defcription of them and their Inhabitants, and 
of what happened at Egmont Ifland. 

THE fcurvy ftill continued to make great progrefs 
among us, and thofe hands that were not rendered 
ufelefs by difeafe, were wore down by exceffive labour; 
our veflel, which at beft was a dull failer, had been 
long in fo bad a condition that (he would not work ; 
and on the loth, to render our condition flill more Monday iq. 
diftrefsful and alarming, (he fprunga leak in the bows, 
which being under water it was impoffible to get at 
while we were at fea. Such was our fituation, when 
on the 1 2th, at break of day, we difcovered land : the^g^^,,^ 
fudden tranfport of hope and joy which this infpired, 
can perhaps be equalled only by that which a criminal * 
feels, who hears the cry of a reprieve at the place of 
execution. The land proved to be a clufter of iflands, 
of which I counted feven, and believe there were many 
more. We kept on for two of them, which were right 
a-head when land was firft difcovered, and feemed to 
lie clofe together ; in the evening we anchored on the 
north-eaft fide of one of them, which was the largeft 
and the higheft of the two, in about thirty fathoms, 
with a good bottom, and at the diftance of about three 
cables length from the fliorc. We foon^ after faw two 


of the natives, who were black, with woolly heads, 
and ftark naked ; I immediately fent the Mailer ottt 
with the boat to fix upon a waterir^-place, and fpeak 
to them, but they difappeared before (he could reach 
the fliore. The boat foon after returned with an ac- 
count that there was a fine run of fre(h water a-breaft 
^f the (hip and dofe to the beach, but that the whole 
country in that part being an almoft impenetrable fereft 
quite to the water's edge, the watering would be very 
difficult, and even dangerous, if the natives fhould 
come down to prevent it : that there were noeiculent 
vegetables for the refreihment of the fick, nor any 
habitations as far as the country had been examined, 
which was wild, forlorn, and mountainous. 

Having confidered this account, and finding that a 
fwell, which came round the eaftern part of the bay, 
would render watering troublefome and inconvenient, 
exclufive of the danger that might be apprehended from 
the natives, if they Ihould attack us from ambuflies in 
the wood, I determined to try whether a better fitua- 
tion cauld not be found, 
Tburf. i«. 'pjjg „g3^j morning, therefore, as foon as it was 
light, I difpatched the Mafter with fifteen men in the 
cutter, well armed and provided, toexamin^thecoaft 
to the weftward, our prefent fituation being on the lee 
of the ifland, for a place where we might more conve- 
niently be fupplied with wood and water, and at the 
fame time procure feme refrefliments for the fick, and 
lay the (hip by the ftern to examine and (lop the leak. 
I gave him Tome beads, ribbons, and other trifles, 
which by chance I happened to have on board, to con- 
ciliate the good- will of the natives, if he (hould happen 
to meet with any of them ; but at the fame time enjoin- 
ed him to run no rift, and gave him particular orders 
immediately to return to the (hip if any number of ca- 
noes (hould approach him which might bring on hofti- 
lities ; and if He fhould meet the Indians in fmall par- 
ties, either at feaor upon (hore, to treat them with all 
poilible kindncfs, fo as to eftabli(h a friendly intercourfe 
with them ; charging him, on no account to leave the 
boat himfelf, nor to fufFer more than two men to go 
on (hore at a time, while the reft flood ready for their 
defence ; recvrnmending to him, in the ftrongeft terms. 


an application to his dnty^ without regarding any other 
objed, as the finding a proper place for the (hip was 
of the utmoft importance to us all ; and conjuring him 
to return as foon as this fervice (hould be performed, 
with all poflible fpeed. 

Soon after I had difpatched the cutter on this expe- 
dition, I fent the longboat with ten men on board well 
armed to the fhore, who before eight o'clock brought 
off a tun of water. About nine I lent her off again ; 
but foon after feeing fome of the natives advancing^ 
along the ihore towards the place where the men land- 
ed, I made the fignal for them to return, not know- 
ing to what number they would be expofed, and hav- 
ing no boat to fend off with aiSftance if they (hould be 

Our men had not long returned on board, when we 
faw three of the natives fit down under the trees a-brea(t 
of the (hip. As they continued there gazing at us till 
the afternoon, as foon as the cutter came in (ight, not 
caring that both the boats (hould be abfent at the fame 
time, I fent my Lieutenant in the longboat, with a 
few beads, ribbon^, and trinkets, to endeavour to 
e{labli(h fome kind of intercourfe with them, and by 
their means wilii the reft of the inhabitants ; thefe 
men, however, before the boat could reach the (hore, 
quitted their ftation, and proceeded along the beach. 
As the trees would foon prevent their being feen by 
our people who were making towards the land, we 
kept our eyeS fixed upon them from the (hip, and very 
foon perceived that they were met by three others. Af- 
ter fome converfation, the firft three went on, and 
thofe who met them proceeded towards the boat with a 
hafty pace. Upon this I made the (ignal to the Lieu- 
tenant to be upon his guard, and as foon as he faw the 
Indians, obferving that there wereno more than three, 
he backed the boat into the (hore, and making figns 
of friendihip, held up to them the beads and ribbons 
which I had given him as prefents, our people at the 
fame time carefully concealing their arms. The In- 
dians, however, taking no notice of the beads and 
ribbons, refolutely advanced within bow-ftiot, and 
then fuddcnly difcharged their arrows, which happily 
wept over the boat without doing any mifchief ; they 

. dvi 


didnotfi^refor a fteohd dikhBtgtg hat inStmsAf 
ran away into the woodt^ and our people difchaf]pl 
fame mafquets after them^ but none of thttawat 
wounded' by the (hot. Soon after this happened, the 
cutter came under the fliip's fide^ and the firft perfim 
that I piarttcalarly noticed was the Matter, nirith three 
arrows flicking in lus .b<3^T« No other evidence waa 
necef&iy to coimft him cf 'ha^ng a£ted contnury to 
my ordertf, which appeared in4etd moie fulty from hk 
own account of the matter, which it is reafonaUe to 
fuppde was as favourable to lumfelf as he couM make 
it. He faid, that ^vii^ feen fome indiv hoofes with 
only five or fix of the ihhabttants, at a place about 
fourteen or filteeh miles to the wdftward of the flup'ft 
llation where he had founded fome bays, he came to a 
moling, and Veered the boat to the beach, where he 
landed witli four men, armed -with mt]d*quets and 
piflots': that the Indians at firft were afraid of him» 
and retired, Imt that fobn after they came down to him^ 
and he gave thdn fome beads and other trifles, vMtt 
which they feemed to be much pleafed : that he then 
made figns to them for fome cocoa-nuts/ which they 
brought him, and with great appearance of friendfhip 
and hofpitality, gave him a br^ilM fifli ahd fome boil- 
ed yams : that he then proceeded with his parry to the 
boufes, which, he faid, were not more than fifteen or 
twenty yaads from the water fide, and foon after faw 
a great number of canoes coming round the weftern 
point of the bay, and many Indians among the tree : 
that being alarmed at thefe appearances, he haftily left 
the houfe where they had been received, ' arid with the 
men made the beil of his way towards the boat ; but 
that, before he could get on board, the Indians attack* 
cd as well thofe that were with him as thofe that were 
in the boat, both from the canoes and the fhore. 
Their number, he faid, was between three and four 
hundred : their weapons were bows and arrows the 
bows were fix feet five inches long, and the arrows 
four feet four, which they difcharged in platoons, as 
regularly as the bed difciplined troops in Europe : that 
it being neceffary to defend himfelf and his people 
when they were thus attacked, they fired among the 
Indians to favour their getting into the boat, and did 



Ijreat execution^ killing mmy and wounding more : 
that they were not however difcouraged, bnt conti- 
nued to prefs forward, ftill dilcharging their arrows by 
platoons in almoft one continued flight : that the grap- 
pling being foul, occafioned a delay in hauling off the 
boat, during which time he, and half of the boat's 
crew, were defperately wounded : that at laft they 
cut the rope, and ran off under their fere-fail, ftill 
keeping up their fire with blunderbufles, each loaded 
with eight or ten piftol balls, which the Indians re- 
turned with their arrows, thofe on Ihore wading after 
them breaft high into the fea : when they had got 
clear of thefe, the canoes purfued them with great for- 
titude and vigour, till one of them was funk, and the 
numbers on board the reft greatly reduced by the fire, 
and then they returned to the (bore. 

Such was theftory of theMafter, who, with three 
of my bed Teamen, died foroe time afterwards of the 
wounds they had received ; but culpable as he appears 
to have been by his own account, he appears to have 
been ftill more fo by the teftimony of thofe who fur- 
vived him. They faid, that the Indians behaved with 
the greateft confidence and friendftiip till he gave them 
juft caufe of offence, by ordering the people that were 
with him, who had been regaled in one of their houfes, 
to cut down a cocoa-nut tree, and infifting upon the 
execution of his order, notwithftanding the difpleafure 
which the Indians ftrongly exprefled upon the occa- 
sion : as Ax)nas the tree fell, all of them except one, 
who feemed to be a perfon of authority, went away ; 
and in aftiort time a great number of them were ob- 
ferved to draw together in a body among the trees, by 
a Midftiipman who was one of the party that were on 
ftiore, and who immediately acquainted the Mafter 
with what he had feen, and told him, that from the 
behaviour of the people he imagined an attack was in- 
tended : that the Mafter made light of the intelligence, 
and inftead of repairing immediately to the boat, as he 
was urged to do, fired one of his piftols at a mark : 
that the Indian who had till that time continued with 
them left them abruptly, and joined the body in the 
wood : that the Mafter, even after this, by an infa- 
tuation that is altogether unaccountable, continued to 



Ji& ^"^ ^^^f ^ ^^ ^ fbfWk toBA^d not'tttonpt t» 
rfTtrrrr thif htrt^ *iH tfarr nttirk wbt ^1^q^■fc 

At die cspiBduiQuto fiad a bcttcr-fliEB 6»! tbeAif 
hod ilfoed ihus. unhapptly, Ldetcnmnod to trf : whii^ 

M% s4* ooold be done, where we i»jt tbe n^^ct dajr, tber^fors^ 
the Ihip was brought dQwn by theflefn^ m hrm^wat 
could effed: it* tnd the Gerpentery the eolf .oae 9C the 
^ crew, who was in toksrable health, caulked thrbewi» 
as far down as he could tooie at the bottom'; moi 
though be did not quite; ftop the leak, he very much 
reducedlt. In the afteraoooafrdlhgakiieti^htinio 
the bay, ¥rfaich made the fiiip ride with her fledi ntrj 
near .the Ihore, and we obfemda great nunber ofthie 
natives fcniking among the trees iq>oa die beach, who 
pfobaUy expeoed diat the wind woidd have fococd tiw 
fhip on flibre, 

artscd. 15. The next mombg, the weadber being- fihe^ we 
veet^ the flup dofe- in fluMtv with a fpring upos onr 
cabk^ fo that we tarpught oor broadfide to bea r up on 
the wateruig-j^ace,.for thefifOloBftioa of the boats that 
isrere ta be employed tfaiare. As there wu Jrcafen to 
fuppofe.that the natives whom we iiad feen among the 
trees the night before were not now far diftant, I fired 
acouple of fliot into the wood, beforel (ent the waterers 
aihore ; I alfo fent the Lieutenant in the cutter, well 
manned and airmed, with the boat that carried them, 
and ordeerd him and his peoj^e to keep on board, 
and lie clofe to the beach to cover the wateiing-pboait 
while (he was loading, add tb keep difcharging mof* 
quets into the wood on ciach fide of the party that were 
filling the water. Thefe orders were well executed, 
the beach was fieep, fo that the boats could lie dofe to 
the people that were at work, and the Lieutenant from 
the cutter fired three or four voUiesof fmallarms into 
the woods before any of the men went on Ihore, and 
none of the natives appearing, the waterers landed and 
went to work. But notwithfianding all thefe precau- 
tions, before they had been on (hone a quarter of an 
hour, a: flight of arrows was difcharged amoi^ them, 
one of which dangeroufly wounded a man thit was fill- 
ing water in the breaft, and another ftuck into a bareca 
on which Mr. Pitcairn was fitting. The people on 
board thecutter iounediatdy fined feveral votlies of fmall 



arms into that part of the wood from which the arrows >7^- 
came, and I recalled the boats that I might mow . ^'^ ^ 
eSedcuMj drive the Indians from their ambufcades "^ 
with grape-fhot from the ihip's guns. When the 
boats and people i^ere on boards we began to fire, and 
foon after faw about two hundred men rufh out of the 
woods, and run along the beach with the utmoft pre>* 
cipitation. We judged the coaft to be now effedually 
cleared, but in a littk time we perceived that a great 
number had got together on the weftermoft point of 
the bay, where they probably thought themfelves be- 
yond our reach : to convince them therefore of the 
contrary, I ordered a gun to be fired at them with . 
round fhot ; the ball jufl: grazing the water rofe again, 
and fell in the middle of them, upon which theydif- 
perfed with great hurry and confufion, and we faw no 
mor6 of them. After this we watered without any 
farther moleftation, but all the while our boats were 
on ihore, we had the precaution to keep firing the 
fhip'sguns into the woods on both fides of them, and 
the cutter which lay clofe to the beach, as (he did be<- 
fore, kept up a conftant fire of fmail arms in platoons 
at the fame time. As we faw none of the natives during 
all this firing, we ihould have thought that none <rf' 
them had ventured back into the wood, if our peofrie 
had not repohed that they heard groans from feveral 
parts of it, like thofe of dying men. 

Hitherto, though I had been long ill of an inflam- 
matory and bilious diforder, I had been able tolceep 
the deck ; but this evening, the fymptoms became fo 
much more threatening that I could keep up no longer, 
and I was for fome time afterwards confined to my bed. 
The mafter was dying of the wounds he received in 
his quarrel with the Indians, the Lieutenant alfo was 
very ill, the Gunner and thirty of my men incapable, 
of duty, among whom were feven of the moft vigo- ^ 

rous and healthy, that had been wounded with the ' 

Mafier, and three of them mortally, and there was no 
hope4f obtaining fuch refrefhments as we moft need* 
ed in this place. Thefe were diij;:ouraging circum«* 
ftances, and not only put an end to my hopes of profe- 
cuting the voyage farther to the ibuthward, but greatly / 
difpirited the people ; exoept myfelf, the Mafter, and / 



^96 CAPTAIN &Af&CtP§ 

ir<7* the LieuteiiBiitf thece wat -na iKKly on b6«tl dtpafale 
J^yf*^ of navigating the (hip hoiAe ; the M^^fcjF FM kwim 
to be a dying man» and the reco^eiy of thyfelf and tfaie 
Lieutenant was very doobtfuL ■ I'would however ham 
, made.a further effort tp obtain^ if I 
hadbeenfurniflied with any toys,, iron tools, or cut* 
lery-ware,. whichnught have enabled me to recover 
, the good-will of the natives, and eftaUiih a traffic with 
them for itich necefiaries* as they could have fiimiihed 
us with ; but I had nofuch wrtides, and but very few 
others fit for an Indian trade, and not being in a con- 
dition to riik the lofs any more of the few men who 
were caj|>able of doing duty, I w;eighed anchor at day- 
aiMidtj. i7.lMreak on Monday the 1 7th and ftood along the (hore 
for that part of the ifland to which I had fentthe.cut* 
ten^Bt ter* To the ifland I had given the name of Eg- 
"^' MONT Island, m honour c^ the Earl : it certainly is 
the iame to which the I^MUitards have given the name 
Cff Santa Cni%, at appears by the accounts which their 
writers have given of it^ and I called the place in which 
wchad lain. Swallow Bat. From the eaftermoft 
point of thb bay, which I called Swallow Point, 
to the north-eaft point of the ifland which I called 
Hanway's Point, to Cape Byron, is about ten or 
eleven miles. Between Swallow Point and Hanway's 
Point, in the bottom of the bay, there is a third point, 
which does not run out fo far ; and a little to the weft- 
ward of this point is the beft anchoring*place, but it is 
neceflary to give it birth, as the ground near it is flioaly. 
, When we were at anchor in this bay. Swallow Point 

bore E. by N. and Hanway's Point W. N. W. From 
this Point there runs a reef, on which the fea breaks 
very high : , the outer part of this reef bore N. W. by 
W. and an ifland, which has the appearance of a vol- 
cano, was juft over the breakers. Soon after we had 
pafled Hanway's Point, we faw a fmall village, which 
ftands upon the beach, and is furrounded by cocoa- 
nut trees. It is (ituated in a bay between Hanway's 
Point and another, to which I gave the name of How's 
Point. The dift^nce from Hanway's Point to How's 
Point is between four and five miles : clofe to the 
fliore there is about thirty fathoms of water, but in 
croiling the bay at the diftaoce of about two miles, we 



had no bottom. Having paflied How's Pointy we 1767* 
opened another bay, or harbour, which had the ap- /^°g^; 
pearance of a deep lagoon, and which we called Car- 
lisle Harbour. Over-againft the entrance of Car- 
lifle Harbour, and north of the coaft, we found a fmali 
ifland, which we called Portland's Island. On 
the weft fide of this ifland there is a reef of rocks that 
runs to the main, the paflage into the harbour there- 
fore is on the eaft fide of it, and runs in and out E. 
N. E. and W. S. W. it is about two cables length 
wide and has about eight fathoms water. I believe 
the harbour within it to be good, but a ihip would be 
obliged to warp both in and out, and would after ail 
be in danger of an attack by the natives, who are bold 
even to temerity, and have a perfeverance which is not 
common among undifciplined favages. When the fliip 
was a mile from the ihore, we had no ground with fifty 
fathoms. About four or five miles weft fi-om Portland's 
Ifland, is a fine, fmall, round harbour, juft big enough 
to receive three fliip's, which wecallcd "By Ron's Har- 
bour. When we were a-breaft of the entrance of it, it 
bore from us S. by E. 7 E.. and the Volcano Ifland 
bore N. W. f W. Our boat entered it, and found 
two runs of water, one frefh and the other fait ; by the 
run of fait water we judged that it had a communica- 
tion with Carlifle Harbour. When we had proceeded 
about three leaghes from the harbour, we opened the 
bay where the cutter had been attacked by the. Indians, 
to which for that reafon, we gave the name of 
Bloody Bay. In this bay is a fmall rivulet of frefli 
water, and here we faw many houfes regularly built: 
clofe to the water-fide flood one much longer than 
any of the reft, which feemed to be a kind of con)- 
mon-hall, or council-houfe, and was , neatly built 
and thatched. This was the building in which our 
people had been received who were on fliore here with 
the Mafter, and they told me that both the fides 
and the floor were lined with a kind of fine matting, 
and a great number of arrows, made up into bundles, 
were hung up in it ready for ufe. They told me alfo, 
tha,t at this place there were many gardens, or plantati- 
ons, which were enclofed by a fence of ftone, and 
planted with cocoa-nut trees, bananas, plantains. 
Vol. L U >}2ccci^> 


. ■ * 

}i^» yains» and other TegetaUes : the ccx^iMiiit trees we 
(iiw from the ihip^ in great ntmiben among the houfw 
of the Tillage. About three miles to the weftward of 
this town^ we faw another of confiderabie extent ia 
the front of ^bicbj next to the water-fide, there was 
a breaft-woric of done, sAnnit four feet fix inches h^h^ 
not in a ftndt Itne^ but in an^, like a fortification i 
and there is great reaibn to foppofoyfirom the weapons 
of thefe peopte 9 and thdr niilitary courage^ which mtfft 
in great meafure betbeeflEedof habtt^ that they have 
ffeqnentr wars among themfelTes. As we proceeded 
"weftward from this place, we found, at tte daflance 
■of two or three miles, a finall bight, forming a kind 
of bay, in which a river empties itfelf. Upon taking 
a-view of this rtver from the maft*head, it appeared to 
run very far into the eoimtry, and at the entrance^ at 
teafi to be navigable for finaH veflels. Thb river 
we cdled.GRAKTiLLit^s Rivbr, and to the weft- 
ward of it is a pointy to which we gave the name of 
F^iik£lt*t PoiMiT. From this pobt the land forms 
a large bay, and near it* is '^a town of great eirtent, 
which feemed to iWarm Kke a bee-hive : an incrediUe 
multitude came out as the (hip pafled by, holding 
fomethif^ in their hands which locked like a wifp of 
green grafs, with which they feemed to (Iroak each 
other, at the fame time dancing, or running in a ring. 
About feD^en miles to the weftward of Point Ferrer? is 
another, that was called Carteret Point, from 
which a reef of rocks, that appears above water, runs 
out to the diftance of about a cablets length. Upon this 
point we faw a large canoe; with an awning or fhade 
built over it ; and a little to the weftward another 
large town, fronted^ and probably furrounded, with 
a breaft-work of ftone like the laft : here alfo the peo- 
ple thronged to the beach as the (hip was pafling, and 
performed the fame kind of circular dance. After a 
little time they launched feveral canoes, and made to- 
wards us ; upon which we lay to, that they might 
have time to come up, and we conceived great hopes 
thai we fliould prevail upon them to come on board ; 
but .when they came near enough to have a more 
diftinft view of us, they lay upon their paddles and 
gazed at us, but feemed to have no defign of advancii^ 



farther^ and therefore we made fail and left them be- 
hind us. About half a mile ^m Carteret Point, we 
bad fixty fathoms, with a bottom of fand and coral. 
From this point the land trends away W. S. W. and 
S. W. forming a deep lagoon, at the mouth of which 
lies an ifland, that with the main forms two entrances 
into it: the ifland we called Trevanion's Island. 
This entrance is about two miles wide, and the lagoon^ 
if there is anchorage in it, is certainly a fine harbour 
for Oiipping. After crofling the firfl: entrance, and 
coming off the north- weft part of Trevanion's Ifland, 
which we called Cape Trevanion, wefaw a great 
rippling, and therefore fent the boat off to found ; 
we had, however, no bottom with fifty fathoms, the 
rippling being caufed only by the meeting of the tides. 
Having hauled round this Cap^ie, we found the land 
trend to the fouthward, and we continued along the 
fbore, till we opened the weftem paflage into the la- 
goon between Trevanion's Ifland and the main. In 
this place both the main and tb6 ifland appeared to 
be one continued town, and the inhabitants were in- 
mimberable. We fent a boat to examine this entrance 
or paflage, and found the bottom to be coral and rock, 
with very irregular foundings over it. As foon as the 
natives faw the boat leave the (hip, they fent off feve- 
ral armed canoes to attack her : the firft that came 
within bow -(hot difcharged her arrows at the people 
on board, who being ready, 'fired a volley, by which 
one of the Indians was killed, and another wounded ; 
at the fame time we fired a great gun from the ihip, 
loaded with grape-ifaot among them, upon which they 
all pulled back to the flior^ with great precipitation, 
except the canoe which began the attack, and that 
beii^ fecured by the boat's crew, with the wounded 
man in her, was brought to the fliip. I immediately- 
ordered the Indian to be taken on board, and the Sur- 
geon to examine his wounds : it appeared tluit - one 
ihot had gone through his head, and that his arm was 
broken by another : the Surgeon was of opinion that the 
wound in his head was naortal, 1 therefore ordered him 
to be put again into his canoe, and notwithftanding his 
condition^ he paddled away towards ^he (bore. He 

U z was 


vf9^^ youog many with a wooUy headf like that of (ke 
negroes^ and a fmall b^uxl, but he was well-featured^ 
and not fo black as the natives of Guinea : he was of . 
the common ftature^ and like all the reft of the people 
whom we had feen up6» this iflandy quite naked His 
canoe' was very fmali, and of rude workmadhip, be- 
ing nothing more than part of a trunk of a tret made 
hcrflow ; tt had,, however^ an outrigger, but none^f 
them had fails. ' 

i' We found this pkce to be the weftem eztrenuty of 
the ifland on the north fide, and that it lay in exadly 
the lame latitude as*the eaftern extremity cm the fame 
fide. The diftance between them b about fifty miles 
due oaft an4 weft, and a ftrong current fets weftward 
along the fliore. ^ 

■■' i was ftill confined to my bed, and it wasMfith infi* 
m^ regret that Igave up4he hopes of obtaining refreih- 
ment^'at this plaee, efpecially ,as our people told me 
they fitwbogs and poultry in great plenty as we failed' 
along -the ihore, widi«coooa-mit trees, plajatains,. ba- 
nanas^ and a variety -of other veget^le produSdons, 
which wodd foon have reftored us to the health and 
vigour we had loft, by the fatigue and hardfliips of m 
long voyage ; but na friepdly intercimrfe with the na-' 
lives could now be expeded, and I wa^ not in a fitua* 
tion to obtain what I wanted by force. I was myfelf 
dangeronfly ill, great part of my crew, as I have already 
obferved, was difabled, and the reft difpirited by dif- 
appointment and vexation, and if the men had been 
all in faeakh and fpirits, I had not officers to lead 
them on or dired them in any enterprize, nor even to 
fuperintend the duties that were to be performed on 
board the fhip. Thefe difadvantages, which prevent- 
ed my obtaintng refreftunents at this ifland, prevented 
me aUo from examining the reft that were near it. 
Our Kttk ftrength was every minute becoming lefs ; I 
was not in a conditbn to purfue the voyage to the 
fouthward, and was in danger of lofing the monfoon, 
fo that no time was now to be loft ; I therefbr&gave 
orders to fieer nortbwai'd, hoping to refrefh at the 
country which Dampier has called Nova Briiannut, 
I ^U,. however, give the beft account I can of the 

* • . appearance 


appearance and iituation of the iflands that I left be-" ^J^ 
hind me. a - - ■ 

I gave the general name of Queen Charlotte's 
Islands to the whole cluftre, as well to thofe that 
I did not fee diftindly, as thofe ^that I did ; and I 
gave feveral of them particular names as I approached 

To the fouthermoft of the two, which when we firft 
difcovered land were right a-head, I gave the name of 
Lord How's Island, and the other was Egmont 
Ifland, of which fome account has already been given. Lord HoV$ 
The latitude of Lord How's Ifland is iio lo' S. lon-'"*~*- 
gitude 1 64^ 43' E. the latitude of Cape Byron, the 
north- eaft point of Egmont Ifland, is lo® 40' S. Ion-' 
gitude 1-640 40' E. The eaft fide? of thefe two iflands, 
which lie cxaSly in a line with each other, about N. 
by W. and S. by E. including the pafl*age between 
them, extend about eleven leagues, and the paflage is 
about four miles broad ; both of them appear to be 
fertile, and have a pleafant appearance, bekvg covered 
with tall trees of a beautiful verdure. Lord How's 
Ifland, though more flat and even than the other, is 
notwithflanding high land. 'About thirteen leagues 
W. N. W. f N. by compafsj from Cape Byron, there 
is an ifland of a fiupendoos height, and a conicat 
figure. The top of it is fliaped like a funnel^, from 
which we faw fmoke ifliie, though no flame ; it is, 
however, certainly a volcano, and therefore I called it 
Volcano Island. To along flat ifland that, whenvokan» 
How's^nd Egmont's Ifland« were right a-head, fcore ^'^*"*^- 
N- W; I gave the name of K£PP£l'$ Island. ItKeppei's 
lies in latitude 10° 15' S. longitude by account, .16^^^^^'^^' 
4'E. The largeft of two others to the S. E. I called 
Lord Edgecomb's Island, the fmail one I. called Lord Edge- 
Ourry's Island. EdgeCqmb's Ifland has. a fine J^^^* 
pleafant appearance, and lies in latitude ii® 10' S.iOurry's 
longitude.1 650 1 4' E. The latitude of Ourry's Ifland ^^^P*^- 
is ii<» 10' S. longitude 165® 19' E. The other iflands, 
of which there were feveral, I did not particularly- 


The Inhabitants of Egmont Ifland, whofe perfons 
have been defcribed already, are extremely nimble, vi- 
gorous, and aftivc, and feem to be almoft as >Ke\\ c^^.- 


lified to live in the wati^ as upon the hodf (or they 
were in and out of their canoes aknoft every imnutt. 
The caaoc^ that came out againft us from the weft end 
of the iflandy were all like that which our people 
brought on board, and might probably, upon occafion, 
ciarry about a dozen men, though thiee or foui* manage 
f hem with amazing dexterity : we faw, however, others 
of a laige fize upon the beach, with awnings or (hades 
over tbsm. 

W^ got two of their bows, and a bundle of their 
arrows, froiro the canoe that was taken with the wound- 
ed man ; and with tfaefe weapons they do execution at 
an incredible dift«ice. One of them went through the 
' IkMt^s'wafliboard, and ^dangeroufly wounded a nAA'^ 
ihipmah iii the thigh. Their arrows were pointed 
vrith flint, and 3we faw amoi^ them no appearance of 
"^M any metal. The country in general i^ woody and 

mountainpus, with ouny Vallies intermixed ^ feveral 
fimll rivers flow from the interior piirt of the country 
itite the iea^ and tKere are many harbours upon tlw 
ooaft.' TlieVariationherewasaboutii(>i5'E. 

C H A P. V. 

DepartUTi from Egvunt Ifland, and Pajfage to Nova 
Britannia ; witi a Defcriptios of feveral other IJlands, 
and their Inhabitants. 

Tiip«. iS. TTIT^'^ m^Ae fail from this ifland in the evening of 
VV Tuefday the i8th of Auguft, with a fre(h 
trade-wind from the eaftward, and a few fqualls at 
times. At firft we only hauled up W. N. W. for I 
was not without hope of falling in with feme other 
iflands, where we might be more fortunate than we 
had been at thofe we teft^ before we got the length of 
Nova Britannia. 

Thorf. 20. On the aoth, we difcovered a fmall, flat, I w^flan4# 

. and got up with it in the evening : it lies in latitude 

7« 56' S. longitude 158® 56' E. and I gave it the 

Gower*8 name of Gower's Inland. To our great mortifica- 

Ifland. tion we found no anchorage here, and could procure 
only a few cocoa-nuts from the inhabitants, who were 



much the fame kind of people that wc had feen at Ifle .'^^J 
Egmont, ill exchange for nails and fuch trifles as w£ ^_ -_ -'_j> 
had ; they proraifed, by figns, to bring lis more the 
next day, and we kept off and on ail night : the night ^ 
was extremely dark, and the next morning, at day- Friday tu 
break, we found that a current had fet us confiderably 
to the fouthward of the ifland, and brought us within 
fight of two more. They were fituated nearly eaft and 
weft of each other, and were diftant about two mttes. 
That to the eaftward is much the fmalleft, and this 
we called Simpson's Island : to the other, which ^^"*p^°**'' 
is lefty and has a ftately appearance, we gave the name carterct's 
of Carteret's Island. The eaft end of it bears ifland. 
about fouth from Gower's Ifland, and the diftance be- 
tween them is about ten or eleven leagues. Carteret's 
Ifland lies in about the latitude of S^ a 6' S. longitude 
1 590 14' E. and its length from eaft to weft is about 
fix leagues : we found the variation here 8* 30' E» 
* Both thefe iflands were right to windward of us, and 
we bore down to Gower's Ifland. It is about two 
leagues and a half long on the weftem fide, which 
makes in bays : the whole is well wooded, and many 
of the trees are cocoa-nut. We found here a confide- 
rable number of the Indians, with two boats or canoes, 
which we fuppofed to belong to Carteret's Ifland, and 
to have broug'ht the people hither only to fifla. We 
fent the boat on fliore, which the natives endeavoured 
to cut off, and, hoftilities being thus commenced, wo 
feized their canoe, in which we found about an hun- 
dred cocoa-nuts, which were very acceptable ; we faw 
fome turtles near the beach, but were not fortunate 
enough to take any of them. The canoe, or boat, was 
large enoggh to carry eight or ten men, and was very 
neatly built, with planks well joined : it was ^idorned 
with fliell-work, and figures rudely painted, and the 
feams were covered with a fubftance fomewhat like our 
black putty, but it appeared to me to be of a better 
cbnfiften^. The people were armed with bows, ar* 
rows, and fpears ; the fpears and arrows were pointed 
with flint. By fome figns which they made, pointing 
to our muflcets, we imagined they were not wholly 
unacquainted with fire arms. They are much this 
fame kind of people as we had feen at Egmont l(lak.^d. 


vf€7. Md, like them^ wisre quite naked ; bnt their caiioes ' 

Jv^^ were of a very difiereiit flra£hire» and a much larger 

fize, thouj^ we didlnol difcoverthat any of them iud 

iatb. The cdcoa-nuts which we got here, and at Eg- 

mont Ifland) were of tnfimte advantage to the ikk. 

From the tfane of our leaving Egmond Ifland, we 

had obferted a current fetting ftrongljr tb the fouth- 

ward, and in the neighbourhood of thefe iilands we 

found its force greatly encreafed : this determined tnt, 

when I failed finbm Gow^s Iflarid, 'to fteer N. W. 

' fatting we might other wife (all in with the main land 

' too far to the fouthward ;' for if we had got into any 

gulph or deep bay, our crew was fo (ickly, and our 

Slip fo bad, that it would have been impoflible for us 

to have got out agaim 

9«mr. ft^ Atidut eight o'clock in the mornii^ of the aad, as 
we were continuing our courfe with a fine fre(h |^e, 
Patrick Dwyer, ;dne of ^e mariners, who was doii^ 
ibmething over the fhip's <}uarter, by fonie accident 
nriifled his hold and- wll into the fea ; we inftantly 
threw over*board- the canoe which we had feized at 
GowePs lillahd, brought the (hip to, and hoifled out 
the cutter with all poffible expedition ; but the poor 
fellow, though remarkably flrong and healthy, funk at 
' once, and we faw him no more. We took the canoe 
on board again, but Ihe had received fo much damage 
by ftriking againft one of the guns, as the people were 
holding her over-board, that we were obliged to cut 
her up. 

Monday 44. In the night of Monday/ the 24th, we fell in with 
nine iflands ; they ft retch nearly N. W. by W. and 
S. E. by E. about fifteen leaguer,, and lie in latitude 
4036' S. longitude 1540 lyf.E. according to the 
ihip's aocount. T imagine thefe to be the iflands which 
are called Ohang Java, and were difcovered by Taf- 
man ; for the fituatien anfwers very nearly to their 
place in the French chart, which in the ju|i; 1756 
was corre3ed for the King's fliips. The offlnHands, 
Carteret's, Gowcr's, and Simpfon's I befifeve had 
never been feen by an European navigator before. 
There is certainly much land in this part of the ocean 
•hot yet known. 




One of thefe iflands is of confiderable extent^ the 
other eight are fcarcely better than large rocks ; but 
though they are low and flat, they are well covered 
with wood, and abound with inhabitants. The peo- 
ple are black and woolly-headed, like the negroes of 
Africa : their weapons are bows and arrows ; and 
tbey have large canoes which they navigate with a fail, 
one of which came near us, but would not venture 
on board. 

We went to the northward of thefe iflands,and (leer- 
ed W. by S. with a (Irong fouth wefterly current. At 
eleven o'clock at night we fell in with another ifland 
of a confiderable extent, flat, green, and of a pleafaDt 
appearance ; we faw none of its inhabitants, but it ap- 
peared by the many fires which we faw in the night to 
be well peopled. It lies in latitude 4** 50' S. and bears 
weft fifteen leagues from the northermoft of the Nine 
Iflands, and we called it Sir Charles Hardy's sir chari« 

At day-break the next morning, we difcovered ano- 
ther large high ifland, which, rifing in three confide- " *^* 
rable hills, had, at a diftance, the appearance of three 
iflands. We gave it the name of Winch else a's winchd- 
IsLAND ; it isdiftant from Sir Charles Hardy's Ifland ^"»*8 lflan«l- 
about ten leagues, in the direftion of S. by E. We 
had here the wind fqually, with unfettled weather, 
and a very ftrong wefterly current. 
. About ten o'clock in the morning of the 26th, we 
faw another large ifland to the northward, which I ^*^"* *^' 
fuppofed to be the fame that was difcovered by Schou- 
ten, and called the ifland of Saint ^hn. Soon after 
we faw high land to the weftward, which proved to 
be Nova-Britannia, 2Pnd as we approached it we found 
2 very ftrong S. S. W. wefterly current, fetting at the 
rate of no lefs than thirty-two miles a day. The next'^^"'^- *7- 
day, having only 'light winds, a north wefterly current . 
fet us into a deep bay or gulph, which proved to be 
that which Dampier has diftinguiflied by the name of 
Saint George's Bay. ^y 

On the 28th, we anchored in a bay near a little Friday *t. 

Iflund. I found the latitude of this Ca^^ lo V^e. 

ifland at the diftance of about three leagues to the ._ 

W. of Cape Saint George, which was called WallflP;{^^*»''t 


about 5^ S. and its longitude by account 1520 i^ E. 
which is about two thdufauds five hundred leagues due 
weft from the continent of America^ and about one 
degree and half more to the eaftward than its place 
in the French chart which has been juft mentioned. 
In the afternoon I fent the cutter to examine thecoaft, 
and the other boat to get fome cocoa nuts, and haul 
the feine. The people in the boat caught no fifh, but 
they brought on board about an hundfed and fifty co« 
coa-nuts, which were diftributed to the men at the 
Surgeon's difcretion. We had feen fome turtles as we 
were coming into the bay, and hoping that fome of 
them might repair to the ifland in the night, efpecially 
as it was fandy, barren, and uninhabited, like the 
places thefe animals mod frequent, I fent a few men 

S<w- *9- on ftiore to watch for them, but they returned in the 
morning without fuccefs. 

We anchored here only to wait till the boats could 
find a fit place for our purpofe, and feveral very good 
harbours being difcovered not far diftant, we now 
endeavoured to weigh anchor, but, with the united 
ftrcngtb of our whole company, were not able : this 
was an alarming proof of our debility, and with heavy 
hearts we had recourfe to an additional purchafe ; with 
this afliftance, and our utmoft efforts, we got the an- 
chor juft clear of the bottom, but thefhip caftingin 
jlhore,ilalmoft immediatelyhooked again in foul ground. 
Our taik was now to begin again, and though all hands 
that were able to move applied their utmoft force, the 
whole remaining part of the day, with the greateft pur<r 
chafe we could ntake, we were not able to ftir it : we 
were very unwilling to cut the cable, for though it 
was much worn, we could at this time ill fuftain the 
lofs of it, as we intended to make a fmall cord, which 
we much wanted, of the bed part of it. We therefore, 
with whatever reludance, dcfifted for the night, and 

Sunday ^. the ncxt day, having a little recovered our ftrength, 
i^/ "V we were more fuccefsful ; we got the anchor up, but 
•/^5.' we found it fo much injured as to be wholly unfer- 
'" • viceablc, the palm being broken. 

From this place we failed to a little cove about 
t^rec or four miles diftant, to which we gave the name 



of ENGLISH Cove : here we anchored^ and immedi- 
ately began to get wood and water, which we found 
in great plenty, befides ballaft ; I alfo fent the boat 
out every day to different places with the feine, but 
though there was plenty of fifli, we were able to catch 
very little ; a misfortune which was probably owing in 
part to the cleamefs of the water, in part to the rocki- ■ 
nefs of the beach, and perhaps in fome degree alfo to 
our want of (kill : we plied this labour day and night, 
notwithflanding the watit of fuccefs, and at the fame 
time had recourfe to the hook and line ; but to our 
great mortification not a Tingle fiih would take the bait. 
We faw a few turtles, but they were fo (hy that wc 
eould not catch one of them ; here therefore we were 
condemned to the curfeof Tantalus, perpetually in the 
fight of what our appetites moil importunately craved, 
and perpetually difappointed in our attempts to reach 
it. We got, however, from the rocks at low water, 
a few rock oyflers, and cockles of a very large fize ; 
and from the (bore fome cocoa-nuts, and the upper 
part of the tree that bears them, which is called the 
cabbage : this cabbage is a white, crifp, juicy fubftance, 
which eaten raw, tafies fomewhat like a chefnut^ but 
when broiled b fuperior to the beft parfijip ; we cut it 
fmall into the broth that we made of our portable 
foup, which was afterwards thickened with oatmeal, 
and made a mod comfortable mefs : for each of thefe 
cabbages however wc were forced to cut down a tree, 
and it was with great regret that we deftroyed, in the 
parent flock, fo much fruit, which perhaps is the moft 
powerful antifcorbutic in the world ; but neceflity has 
no law. This fupply of frefli vegetables, and efpeci- 
ally the milk, or rather the water of the nut, recover- 
ed our fick very faft. They alfo received great benefit 
and pjeafure from the fruit of a tall tree, that refem- 
bles a plum, and particularly that which in the Weft 
Indies is called the Jamaica plum ; our men gave it 
the fame name ; it has a pleafant tartifh tafle, but is a 
little woody, probably only for want of culture : thefe 
plums were not plenty, fo that having the two qua- 
lities of a dainty, fcarcify and excellence, it is no won- 
der that they were hfeld in the higheft eftimation. 


The ibore ^bout this place if'rockyy ll^fid the coiiiu* 
try hig^ and mountainousj but cxnrered with trees of 
various- ktnds^ (bme of which are of an jenormous 
growth, and probably would be ufeful for many jHir* 
pofes. Aliiong others, we found the nutmq[^tree in 
great plenty, and I gathered a few ofthe^imts^ but 

' they were not ripe : they did not appev^ to be ^ heft 
fort, but perhaps that is owing^r^y lo their grontrii^ 
wild, and partly from theif being^too much in the fliade 
of taller trees. The cocoa*nul tree it in great perjfec- 
tion, but does 90t abound. Here are, I believe, all 
the different kinds of palm, with- the beetle-nut tree, 
various ijpecies of the aide, canes, bamboos, and rat- 
tans,- with many trees, ihndis and plants ^together 

. onknowil^ to me ; but ho' dTciilent vegetable of any 
kind. Tht woods abound with pigeons, doves, rooks,' 
parrots,- and a laige bird with bladu plumage, that 
makes a coife ibnMsw;faat 1^ the barkii^ of a dog ; 
yfith many others whidi 1 cairneither^iuuiie nor de- 
ferSie.- Our people law no quadruped biut two of a 
fiairil i&e that they took for dogs, the Carpenter and 
another' man got a tranfient glimpfe of them in the 
wobds as they were cutting fpars for the fliip's ufe, and 
faid they were very wild, and ran away the mo- 
ment they faw them with great fwiftnefs. We faw 
centipteds, fcorpions, and a few ferpents of different 
kmds ; but no inhabitants. We fell in however with 
feveral deferted habitations, and by the (hells that were 
fcattered about them, and feemed not long to have been 
taken out of the water, and feme flicks half burnt, the 
remains of a fire, there is reafon to conclude that the 
people had but juft left the place when we arrived. If 
we may judge of the people by that which had been 
their dwelling, theymuft ftand low even in thefcale of 
a ravage life ; for it was the mofl miferable hovel we 
had ever feen. 

While we lay here, having cleared and lightened the 
Ihip, we heeled her fo as to come at the leak,which the 
Carpenter flopped as well as he could ; we found the 
iheathing greatly decayed, and the bottom much eaten 
by the worms, but we payed it far as we could get at 
it with a mixture of hot pitch and tar boiled together. 
The Carpenter alfo cut down many fpars, for fludding- 


fail booms, having but few left of thofe which he had 
brought from England. 

Englifli Cove lies N. E. | N. three or four mile« 
from Wallis'slfland ; there is a fmall ihoal on the ftar«- 
board hand going in, which will be eaHly feen by the 
fea's breaking upon it.. The water ebbs and flows once 
in four suid twenty hours ; the flood came in about 
nine or ten o'clock, and it was high water between 
three and four in the afternoon, after which it ebbed all 
night, and was low water about fix in the morning. 
The water rifes and falls between eight or nine feet, 
fometimes more, fbmet'unes lefs ; but I doubt whether 
this fluduation is not rather the effed of the fea and 
land breeze, than of a regular tide. We anchored here 
with our beft bower in twenty-feven fathoms water, 
with a bottom of fand and mud ; we veered into the 
cove a cable and a half from the anchor, moored head 
and flern with the dream anchor, and fteadied with 
hawfers on each bow ; the fhip then lay in 10 fathoms, 
at the diftance of a cable's length from the fliore at the 
bottom of the Cove, Wallis's Point bearing S. W. 
f S. diflant about three or four miles. At this place 
there is plenty of excellent wood and water, and good 
fhingle ballaft. The variation was 6® | E. 

On Monday the 7 th of September, I weighed an- September, 
chor, but before I failed,. I took pofleffion of this coua- Monday 7. 
try, with all its iflands, bays, ports, and harbours, 
for his Majefl:y George the Third, King of Great" 
Britain ; and we nailed upoa a high tree a piece of 
board, faced with lead, on which was engraved the 
Englifh Union, with the name of the (hip, and her 
Commander, the name of the Cove, and the time of 
her coming in and failing out of it. While we lay here, 
I fent the boat out to examine the harbours upon the 
coaft, from one of which expeditions flie returned with 
a load of cocoa-nuts, which (he procured in a fine lit- 
tle harbour, about four leagues W. N. W. fronx the 
ftation we were in. The officer on board reported 
that the trees grew where he had gathered the fruit in 
great plenty ; but as he had obferved that feveral of 
them were marked, and that there were many huts of 
the natives near them, I did not think it proper that 
the boat ihoutd return: but the refreihment whicK 
now oflFered was of fuch importance to iVvt ftcV., \}c\2\\ 


^Tgr determined to go into the harbour with the dakp, And 
'^^^T^' place her fo as to proted the men who ihould be emr 
ployed to fell the treei^ an) cut off tl^ ctbbages and 
the fnut. We faited from Ei^lifli Qyvd with the 
land breeze early in the mornings and in the evening 
fecured the (hipa-^breaft of the grove^ where, the cocoa* 
nuts had been gathered* at a very little diftance from 
the fliore. Here we procured above a thoufand coc6a« 
nutSy and as niany of the cabbages as we could nfe 
while they were good ; and I would have fiaid long 
enough to have given my people all the refineflunenta 
s they wanted) but the feaibn of the year, made the fliort- 
eft delay dangerous. There was too much reafon to 
fuppbfe that the lives of all on board depended upon 
our getting to Batavia while the monfoon continued to 
blow from the eaftward ; there was in^deed time enough 
for any other (hip to ha ve gone three times the di(lance# 
but I knew it was fcarcely fufEcient for the Swallow in 
her prefent condition : and that if we ihould be obliged 
to continue here anodier feafon^ it would probably be* 
come impoffible toniiigate her at aU, efpecially as ihe 
had but a fingle flieathing, and her bottom-was not 
filled with hails, fo that the worms would have eaten 
through it ; beddes that dur provifion would long be* 
fore that time have been totally exhauded. I therefore 
weighed anchor and quitted this ftation, which was 
much the beft that had been our lot during the whole 
WedoeC 9. run from the Straight of Magellan, on the 9th in the 
morning, at break of day, with a light breeze from 
the land. 

To this place we gave the name of Carteret's 
HARbOUR ; it isabout W. N. W. four leagues from 
Englifh Cove, and formed by two iflands and the main ; 
Cocoa-not the largeft, which' is to the N. W. we called Co c o a- 
iJ^.g NUT Island, and the other, which is to the S. E. we 
Ubntf. called Leigh's Island. Between thefe two iflands 
there is (hoal water, and each of them forms an en- 
trance into the harbouc ; the fouth-^aft or weather en* 
trance is formed by Leigh's Ifland, and in this there 
is a rock that appears above water, to which we gave 
the name of Booby Rock; the paflage is between 
the rock and the ifland, nop is the rock dangerous, 
there being deep water clofe to it. The north-weft, 
or lee-entrance, is formed by Coco»-niK Ifland, 



atid this is the bcft, becaufe there is good anchor-^^^|7^ 
age in it, the water in the other being too deep : we 
entered the harbour by the fouth-eaft paflage, and 
went ovit of it by the north-weft. At the fouth-eaft 
end of the harbour there is a large cove, which is fecure 
from all winds, and fit to haul a (hip into. Into this 
cove a river feemed to empty itfelf, but our boat did 
not examine it. In the north-weft part of the harbour 
there is another cove, which our boat did examine, 
and from which ihe brought us very good water . 
this alfo is fit for a (hip to haul into, and very con- 
venient for wooding and watering : fhe may He in 
any depth from thirty to five fathoms, and any diftance 
fi-om the fhore, with a bottom of foft mud. The 
harbour runs about S. E. by S. and N. W. by N. and 
is about three miles long, and four cables length broad. 
We anchored in thirty fathoms, near the north- weft 
entrance, and a-breaft of the trees on Cocoa-nut Ifland. 


Difcoveryofa Sir eight dividing the Land eallld Nova 
Britannia into two IJlands, with a Defcription of ff 
veralfinall I/lands that lie in the Pajfage, and the 
Land on each Side, with ihe Inhabitants. 

WHEN we got about four leagues ofF the land, 
after leaving this harbour, we met with a 
ftrong gale at E. S. E. a direSion juft contrary to that 
which ^ould have favoured our getting round the land 
and doubling Cape Saint Maria. We found at the 
fame time a ftrong current, fetting us to the N. W. 
into a deep bay or gulph, which Dampier calls Saint 
George's Bay, and which lies between Cape Saint 
George and Cape Orford. As it was impoffible to 
get round the land, againft both the wind and current, 
and follow the track of Dampier, I was under the ne- 
ceflity of attempting a paffage to the weftward by this 
gulph, and the current gave me hopes that I (hould 
fucceed. When I had got, therefore, about five miles 
to the fouth-weft of Cocoa-nut Ifland, I fteered to the 
N. W. and the N. N. W. as the land trends, and had 
foon good reafon to believe that what has been called 
Saint George's Bay, and thought to be formed by two 



ilfZl P^i^^ ^f ^ fame ifland, was indeed a cbaniiel be* 
tween two iflands, and fo tbeevent proved it to be. 

Before it was dark, we found this tbannel divided * 
by a pretty large iflandy whichi called the Dukb of ' 
York's Island, and fome fmaller iflands that were 
fcattered about it. On the foutbermoft fide of the 
main, or the largeft of the two iflands that are divided 
by the channel or ftreighti wluch I left in pofleffion 
of its andent nanoe. New Britain^ there is fome high 
land, and three remarkable hills dofe tio^ each other, 
which I called the Mot HER akd DAUOHT£.R8.The 
Mother is the middlemoft and largeft, and behind them 
we faw a vaft column of fmoke^ fo that probably'one 
of them is a volcano : they are «afily feen in clear wea-* ' ^ 
ther at the diflance of twenty leagues, and will then, 
by thofe who do not know them^ tNe taken for iflands : 
they feem to lie far inbmdf uid the Mother beats 
about wtfl: from the Duke of York's. Ifland. Ta the 
eaft of thefe hills thenb is a point making like a cape . 
land, which I called CapbPalliser ; and another 
to the weft¥rard, which I called Cape Stephens. 
Cape Stephens is the northermoft part of New BritaiiL. 
North of this Cape is an ifland, w:hich I called the 
Ifleof Isle of Man. Cape Paliifer and Cape Stephens bear 
**■"• about N. W. and S. E. of each other ; and between 
them is a bay, the land of which near the water- fide is 
low, pleafant, and level, and gradually rifes, as it re- . 
tires towards the Mother and Daughters, into very 
lofty hills, in general covered with vaft woods, but 
having many clear fpots like plantations intermixed. 
Upon this part of the country we faw many fires in the 
night, and have therefore reafon to fuppofe that it is 
well inhabited. The Duke of York's Ifland lies be- 
tween the two points. Cape Paliifer and Cape Stephens. 
As it was not fafe to,attempt either of the pafiages into 
which the Streight was divided by this ifland in the 
dark, we brought to for the night, and kept founding, 
but had no ground with one hundred and forty fa- 
thoms. The Streight here, including the two paflages, 
is about fifteen leagues broad. The land of the Duke 
of York's Ifland is level, and has a delightful appear- 
ance : inland it is covered with lofty woods^ and near 
the water- fide are the houfes of the natives, which ftand 



not far from each other, among groves of cocoa-nut i;^?' 
trees, fo that the whole forms a profpe^: the moft »2^!r ?4[l f 
beautiful and romantic that can be imagined. We faw 
many of their canoes, which are very neatly made, 
and in the morning, foon after I made fail, fome of 
them came off towards the (hip ; but as we had a 
frefli gale at that time, we could not (lay for them. Thurfd. i^ 
The latitude of this ifland is 4® 9' S. longitude 
151° 20' E. and it is five and twenty leagues diftant 
from Cape George. As I coafted not New Britain, 
but the northermoft coaft of the Streight, I pafled 
through the paffage that is formed by that coaft, and 
the corrcfponding fide of the Duke of York's Ifland, 
which is about eight leagues broad, and may beconfi- 
dered as the Firft Narrow of the Streight ^ and then 
fleering N. W. by W. all night, we found at day-break Friday li. 
that we had loft fight of the fouthermoft ifland, or 
New Britain, and having now afcertained the fuppofed 
bay to be a ftreight, I called it Saint George's St. Gcor. 
Channel, and to the northern ifland I gave the ^*^*°'*^** 
name of Nova Hibernia, or New Ireland. New 
The weather being hazy, with a ftronggale and fud-^**^"^ 
den gufts, I continued to fteer along the coaft of New 
Ireland, at about the diftance of fix leagues from the 
Ihore, till I came ofT the weft end of it, and then, 
altering our courfe, I fteered W. N. W. I could plainly 
perceive, that we were fet along the fhore by a ftrong 
wefterly current. At noon, we found by obfervation 
that we were much to the northward of the log ; but 
as it was impoffible the current could fet due north, 
as that would be right againft the land, I was obliged, 
for the correSion of my account, to allow no lefs than 
four and twenty miles W. N. W. which is nearly as 
the land lies along the ftiore. At this time we had 
about half a point eaft variation ; and at night we 
difcovered a fine large ifland, forming a ftreight or 
paffage with New Ireland. As it was very dark and 
fqually, with rain, we brought to, not knowing to 
what danger the navigation of this Streight might 
expofe us. The night was tempeftuous, with much 
thunder and lightning, but about two in the morning Satwd. 1^ 
the weather cleared : the gufts fettled into a light 
breeze, and the moon flione very bright. At this time 
Vol. I. X therefore 


.»7^- therefore we made failagain^ and foiind a ftrofigcar- 
f^^*^* rent fetting us to the weftward, throuj?h the pallage of 
the Second Narrow^ which is about five teagu^ wide. 
The iiiand, which has a pleaf^nt appeahinc^, and it 
8«ad«nd^ very, {lopulousy I called Sandwich Islai9&, in bo- 
Ifloid. nour of the Earl, dqw firfl Lord of the Admiralty : it 
}s larger, than the Duke of TorkV Ifland, and there, 
feem tp be fome, good bajs .and harbours upon the 
coaft. On the north part pf it there is a remarkable 
.^ peak, like a, fugar loaf ;, and bppoiite to it, upon the 

coaft of New Ireland^ tliere is juft fuch another : the^ 
are diftant about five leagues, in the diredton of S. by 
R { E. and N. by W. f W, AH the while we lay to 
oflF this ifland, we heard an .mpeflant noife injfehe nighty 
like the beating of a drypn :. and being becalmed juft as 
we got through the Straight, ten canoes put off from 
..New Iretandt with about s>ne hundred and fifty niM 
on board, and.roWed towards the ftiip ; they came near 
enough tp. exchange fome trifles with us, which were 
i^onveyed at the aid of a long ftick, but none of theixi 
would venture on board. . They Teemed to prefer fuch 
iron as we gave them to every thing elfe, though none 
ei it was manufa£lured except nails ; for, as I obferved 
before, we had no cutlery ware on board. The canoes 
were very long and very narrow, with an outrigger, 
aud feme of them were very neatly made : one of them 
. could not be lefs than ninety feet long, for it was very 
little Ihorter than the jQiip ; it was, notwithftanding, 
formed of a fingle tree ; it had forae carved ornaments 
about it, and was rowed or paddled by three and thirty 
men : we faw no appearance of fails. The people 
are black, and woolly-headed, like Negroes, but have 
not the flat nofe and thick lips ; and we thought them 
much the fame people as the inhabitants of Egmont's 
. Ifland : like them, they were all (lark naked, except a 
few ornaments made of {hells upon their arms and legs. 
They had, however, adopted a pra£bice without which 
none of our belles and beaus are fuppofed to be com- 
pletely dreft, for the hair, or rather the wool upon 
their heads, was very abundantly powdered with white 
powder : the falhion of wearing powder, therefore, is 
probably of higher antiquity than it is generally fup- 
pofed to be, as well as of more extenfive influence ; it 



is indeed carried farther among thcfe people than 1767. 
among any of the inhabitants of Europe, for they pow- ^^^P^^ ^g*"- 
der not only their heads but their beards too. Their ' 
heads however were decorated with more (howy orna- 
ments, for I obferved that mod: of them had, jufl: 
above one ear, ftuck a feather^ which appeared to have 
been taken from the tail of the common dunghill cock ; *? . 

fo that thefe gentlemen" are not without . poultry for 
their table. They were ^med with fpears, and long 
flicks or poles, like the quarter-ftaff ; but we did jnot 
fee any bows and arrows among them : poffibly they 
might have them on board, and think proper to keep 
them out of fight. On my part, I kept every body at 
their quarters while they were hovering about the fhip, 
end I obferved that they had a very watchful eye upon 
our guns, as if they apprehended danger from them ; 
fothat poflibly they are not wholly unacquainted with 
the eiFefits of fire-arms. They had fifliing nets with 
them, which, as well as their cordage, feemed to be 
very well made. After they had been fome time with 
«s, a breeze fprung up, and they returned to thefliore. 
The peak upon Sandwich Ifland lies in latitude 
2° 53' S. longitude 1490 17' E. After the Indians had 
l^ft us, we fleered nearly weft, and foon after faw a 
point of land, which proved to be the fouth-weft ex- 
tremity of New Ireland, to which I gave the name of 
Cape Byron : it lies in latitude 2® 30' S. longitude Cape Byron. 
149** 2' E. Over-againfl the coaft of New Ireland, to 
the weftward of Cape Byron, lies a fine large ifland, 
to which I gave the name of Nevt Hanover. Be-NewHano- 
tween this ifland an4 New Ireland there is a ftreight '^*''- , 
or paflage, which turns away to the N. E. In this 
paflage lie feveral fmall iflands, upon one of which there 
is a remarkable peak : this ifland I called Byron's Byron's 
Island, and the paflage, or flreight, I called Byron's^^*"^- ■ 
Streight. The land of New Hanover is high ; it is 
finely covered with trees, among which are many 
plantations, and the whole has a qiofl beautiful ap- 
pearance. The fouth-weft point of it, which is a high 
blufF point, I called Queen Charlotte's F9RE- 
LAND, in honour of her majefty. This foreland, and 
the land about it, is remarkable for a great number 
of little hummocks or hills, but night comiog. on, 

X 2 wltKs 


1766. ^jtj^ thick weather, hard fqualls, and much rain, wc 
r^ '^"^ ^ '^ could not fee more of it diftinftly enough to defcribe 

its appearance. 
Suiuli^ 13. , We fteered weilward all night, and in the morning, 
the weather being (lilt thick, our view^ of New Ha- 
noven was very imperfeS ; but we faw, about eight 
leagues to the weilward of it, fix or feven fmall iflanck^ 
Puke of which I called the Duke of Portland'sIslands, 
Uandst ' ^^° ®^ which are pretty large. I now perceived by 
the fwell of the fea that we were clear of all the land, 
and I found Saint George's Channel to be a much 
better and (horter paflage, whether from the eaftward 
er the wedward, than, round all the land and iflands 
to the northward ; the diftrefs therefore which puflicd 
me upon this' difcovery , may probably be„ m its con- 
fequences, of great advantage to future navigators, cf- 
pecially as there can be no doubt but that refrefhments 
of every kind may eafily be procured from the natives 
who inhabit either of the coafts of the channel, or the 
iflands that lie near them, for beads, ribbands^ looking- 
glafles, and efpecially iron tools and cutlery-ware, of 
which they are immoderately fond^ and with which, to 
our great misfortune, we were not furnifhed. 

Queen Charlotte's Foreland, the fouth-weff part of 
New Hanover, lies in latitude 20 29' S. longitude 
148° 27' E. and the middle of Portland's Iflands in la- 
titude 2° 2/ S. longitude i4&^ 3' E. The length of 
this fl:reight or channel, from Cape Saint George to 
Cape Byron, the fouth-weft extremity of New Ire- 
Land, is above eighty leagues ; the diftance from Cape 
Byron to Qyeen Charlotte's Foreland is about twelve 
kagues, and from the Foreland to Portland's Iflands 
about eight leag^ues ; fo that the whole length of Saint 
George's Channel is about one hundred leagues, or 
three hundred miles. 

Though we cleared the Straight in the morning of 
Sunday the 13th of September, we had no obfervation 
of the fun till* the i 5th, which I could not but greatly 
regret, as it prevented my being fo exa£t in my lati- 
tude and longitude as might be expeftcd. The defcrip- 
tion alfo of tlie country, its pr©du6tions and people, 
would have been much more full and circumftantiaf, 
if I bad not been fo much infeebled and difpirited by 



ikknefs, as almoft tq fink under the duty that for '767- 
want of officers devolved upon me, being obliged, /^^^^V^ 
when I was fcarcely able to crawl, to keep watch and 
ihare othtr -duties wiih my Lieutenant, wliofe health 
alfo was greatly impaired. 


The Fajfage from St. George's Channel to the I/Ian J of 
Mindan<20y with an Account of many Iflands that wer-e 
feen, and Incidents that happened by tfoe JVay, 

AS foon as we had cleared Saint George^s Chan- 
nel, wc fleered weft ward, and the next day we 
difcovered land bearing W. N. W. and hauled up, for 
it ; it proved to be an ifland of confiderable extent, 
and foon afterwards we faw another to the north-eaft of 
It^ but this appeared to be little more than a large 
rock above water. As I had here ftrong currents, and 
for feveral days l^d not been able to get an obfervatioa 
of the fun, I cannot fo exactly afcertain the (ituation 
of thefe iiiands as T might otherwife have done. As we 
proceeded to the weft ward, we difcovered more land , 
confifting of many iflands lying to the fouthward of the 
large one which we had firft difcovered. As the nights 
were now moon-light, we kept on till eleven o'clock^ 
and the Lieutenant, who was then officer of the watcb^ 
finding that the courfe we were fleering would carry 
us among them, and not being willing to awaken tne 
till it was ray turn to watch, hauled oflF S. by E. and 
S. S. E. 1 came upon deck about midnight, and at 
one in the morning, perceiving that we were clear of Tuefd. i<. 
them, 1 bore away again to the weflward with an eafy 
fail : the iflands, however, were not far diftant, and 
about fix o'clock, a confiderable number of canoes, 
with feveral hundred people on board, came off, and 
paddled towards the fhip : one of them, with feven 
men on board, came near enough to hail us, and made 
us feveral figns which we could not perfeQly under- 
ftand, but repeated, as near as we could, to fhew that 
whatever they meant to us we meant to them : how- 
ever, the better to befpeak their good- will, and invite 
them to come on board, we held up to them feveral 




>7<i^. of the few ttUI« wc had': upon this they drew nearer 
^^^ytpthe fliip, and I flattered myfelf that they were coin- 
itigbn hoard; but on the contrary, as foon as they 
catne within rteuA'of us they threw their lances, with 
great force, where we (lood thickeft upon the declt. 
As t thought it better to prevjsnt than reprefs a general 
attack, in which, as the number wt)uid be more, the 
mifchief would be greater, and having no doubt o( 
tKelt- ho^lHib^ idtehtiofis, I'fired fortie nqiufkets and one 
jdf t*^ iWivfel gilris, lipon Which, fortie of thfem being 
killed or Wotina^di th^/ rowed off* and joined the 
other canoes, of which there Were twelve or fourteen, 
WftHY^vefal Hiiiid^d rdtn on board. I then brought 
tb^ waiting tlitf iflue, and h^d the fatisfa£iion to fee^ 
tliiit^' after Havhig l&tig confulted together, they made 
M the'l^Lbri;: that I nlight ftill farther intimidate 
AfeHt -ifad more iffefitually prevent their return, I" 
jSpEJd'a'rodiidihdt froni 6ne6f my fix pounders, fo as 
Vofeli intbthie Water beyorid them: this feemed to 
ha^ka'gbiMefi^ar,^if tiley nbtonlyufed' their paddles 
fhofg tlUnbty, ;Btl( hbld^ed i^il, ftill ftanding towards 
the fhore. $och after, h'owever, ftveral more canoes 
put 6([ froth aiiolrh^f jSart <Jf the ifland, difd came 
towards us very fkft' : they flopped at about the fame 
diftance a's the others had done, and one of them alfo 
in the fame manner came forward : to the people ort 
board this veffel we made all the figns of friendftiip 
we could devife, fliewing them every thing we had 
which we thought would pleafe them, opening our 
arms and inviting them on board : but our rhetoric 
was to no effeft, for Jls foon as they came within a 
caft of the (hip, they poured in a (hower of darts and 
lances, which, however, did us no harm. We re- 
turned the aflUult by firing fome muflcets, and one man 
being killed, the reft precipitately leaped into the fea, 
and fwimming to the others who waited at a diftance, 
all returned together from whence they came. As 
foon as the canoe was deferted, we got out our boat 
and brought. ii^oiri' board: it was full fifty feet long, 
though one of the fmalleft that came againft us; it 
was very rudely made out of one tree, but had an 
outrigger. We found in it fix fine fifti, and a turtle, 
fomc yams, one cocoa-nut, and a bag full of a fmall 



kind of apple or plum, of a fweetifh taftc and farinacc- 17^7- 
ous fubftance ; it had a flattifti kernel, and was wholly ^P^**""*'- 
different from every thing we have fccn cither before or ' " 
iince : it was eatable raw, but much better boiled, or 
roafled in the embers : we found alfo two large earthen 
pots, fliaped fomewhat like a jug, with a wide mouth, 
but without handles, and a confiderable quantity of • 
matting, which thefe people ufe both for fails and 
awning, fpreadirg it over bent (licks, much in the fame 
manner as the tilts of the London wherries. From the 
contents of the veflel we judged that it had been fi(h- 
ing, and we obferved the people had a fire on board, 
with one of their pots on it, in which they were boil- 
ing their provifion. When we had fatisfied our curio- 
fity by examining it, we cut it up for fire-wood. 

Thefe Indians were the fame kind of people that wc 
had feen before on the coafb of New Ireland, and at 
Egmont Ifland : they were of a very dark copper colour, 
nearly black, with woolly heads. They chew beetle- 
nut, and go quite naked, except the rude ornaments 
offhells (Irung together, which they wear round their 
legs and arms ; they were alfo powdered like our laft 
vifitors, and had, befides, their faces painted with white 
ftreaks ; but I did not obferve that they h&d any beards. 
Their lances were pointed with a kind of bluiih flint. 

Having difengaged ourfelves from this fierce and un- 
friendly people, we purfued our courfe along the other 
iflands, which are between twenty and thirty in num- 
ber, and of confiderable extent ; one in particular 
would alone make a large kingdom. I called them the 
Admiralty Islands, and fliould have been glad to Admiralty 
have examined them, if my fhip had been in a better '^"^■' 
condition, and I had been provided with fuch articles as 
are proper for an Indian trade, efpecially as their ap- 
pearance is very inviting : they are cloathed with a moft 
beautiful verdure ; the woods are lofty and luxuriant, 
interfperfed with fpots that have been cleared for planta- 
tions, groves of cocoa-nut trees, and houfes of the na • 
tives, who feem to be very numerous. Nothing would 
be more eafy than to eftablifli an amicable intercourfe 
with them, as they would foon be fenfible that our fu- 
periority would render cohtcft vain, and traffic advanta- 
jgeous. I judge the middle of the largeft to lie in lati- 

I ■ 


Satur. 19. 





tude 2<^ 1 8' S. longitude 146^ 44' £. and at the diftance 
of five and thirty leagues from Qgeen Charlotte'5 
Foreland in New Hanover, m the direSion of W. | N# 
On the fouth fide of this ifland, there is a fmall one, 
which rifes conically in a high peak. The latitude of 
this peak isl^ifS. and it lies five degrees and an half 
97eft ward of qipe Saint George in New Ireland. As we 
r^n along the foUth fide of the large ifland, we^ound it 
to be eighteen leagues long, in thedire&ion of eaft and 
weft ; how. far it runs to the northward, I do not know, 
but by its appearance there is reafon to fuppofe a very 
confiderable diftance. I think it probable, in th^ higheft 
degree, that thefe iflands produce many valuable arti- 
cles of traide, particularly fpices, efpeciaily as they lie 
^n the fame climate and.latitude as the Malaccas, and as 
I found the ndtmeg tree in a foil comparatively rocky 
and barren upon the coaft of New Ireland. 

Having pafledthefe iflands we continued our conrfe 
W. by N. with a fine eaftem brtez^e, ar.d fmooth water. 
On the -1 6th in then«)ming, we found the variation, 
by a medium of fevcral azimuths, to be 6** 30' E. our 
latitude being 20 19' S. and our longitude 145*' 40' E. 
by obfervation. I was furprifed to find the variation on 
this fide the land of New Britain and New Ireland fo 
much, as we had found it gradually decreaflng during 
our progrefs to the N. W. but I recolle6led that about 
two years before I had found nearly the fame variation 
in this nieridian, about the ifland of. Tinian. 

On Saturday evening the 19th, we difcovered two 
fmall iflands, both low land, level, and green : one of 
them we fa w only from the main- top-gallant~maft head ; 
this I called Durour's Island. Its latitude is about 
1° 14' or 16' S. its longitude 1430 21' E. The other 
ifland, which I called Matty's Island, we coafted 
during the night, and faw the inhabitants, in great num- 
bers, run along the beach, a-breaft of the fliip, with 
lights : the fide along which we failed feemed to be about 
fix miles in length, E. by N. and W. by S. As it was 
dark we could fee lio more of it, and having a fine breeze 
which we could not afford to lofe, we kept on. lis la- 
titude is about i«> 45' S. and its longitude about 1430 
2' E. the variation here was 40 40' E. and we found a 
flrong north-wefterly current. We had now frefli gales 



and fqualls with rain, the wind blowing very unfteadi- '^^^ 
ly from E. S. E. to E. N. E. till the 22d, when it be- ^^^^T^ 
came variable. Our latitude was then 53' S. longitude Xuefday a. 
140*^ 5' E. the variation was 4^ 40' E. 

On the 24th we faw two fmall iilands to the fouth-Thurf. 14. 
weft, but it being calm, with light airs, and a ftrong 
wefterly current, we could not get nearer to them than 
four or five leagues : they had a green, pleafant appear- 
ance, and were well covered with trees ; but whether 
they are inhabited I do not know. They run about 
N. W. by W. S. E. by E. One is about three miles 
long, and the other about fix; the pafl'age between them 
appeared to be about two miles broad. They lie in la- 
titude 22' S. longitude 138^ 29' E. and I gave them rhe 
name of Stephens's Islands. We kept fteeringN. Stephen's 
W. by W. with a light variable wind, and a flrong^^*"^'* 
north- weft current. 

On the 25th we faw land a-head, which proved to be Friday 2$, 
three fmall iflands ; and before it was dark, we got pret- 
ty near them. Se veral. canoes foon came off, filled with 
the natives, who, after making figns of peace, came on 
board without the leaft fign of fear or miftruft : they 
had nothing with them but a few cocoa-nuts, which 
they fold with great joy for a few pieces of an iron hoop ; 
we foon found that they were not unacquainted with 
that metal which they called Parram, and they made 
us underftand, by figns that a fhip like ours fometimes 
touched their iflands for refreihment. I gave one of 
them three pieces of an old iron hoop, each about four 
inches long, which threw him into an extacy little fliort 
of diftraftibn : I could not but fympathize in his jay, 
nor obferye, without great pleafure, the changes of 
countenance, and extravagance of gefture, by which it 
was expreffed. All thefe people indeed appeared to be 
more fond of iron than any we had feen before, and I 
am fure, that for iron tools we might have purchafed 
every thing upon the iflands which we could have 
brought away. They are of the Indian copper colour, 
the firft of that complexion that we had feen in thefe 
parts, with fine long black hair, and little beards, for 
we obferved that they were continually plucking the 
hair from their chin and upper lip by the roots. Their 
features arepleafing, and their teeth remarkably white 



wrntlS l^ ^'^^^^^^J *l^y were of the commpn ftature^ but mm* 
^1^^^^ ble, vigorous^ and a^ve in a lorprifii^. degree^ run- 
ning up t6 the maft-head much fafter than our owii peo- 
ple. Their difpofition was free and open, .they eat and' 
draidi whatever was given them, went without hefitati- 
on into every pArt of the fliip, and were as familiar and 
merry with the crew^ as if they had been of long and 
intimate acquaintance. They were not, like the peo* 
pie on all the other iflands tlutt we had viHted^ quite, 
naked, though they had only a flight covering for the 
waift, which confi(led of a, narrow piece of 6ne ipatting. 
Their canoes were very well and neatly made^ having 
« hollow tree for the bottom, and planks for the (ides,, 
with a fail of fine matting, and an outrigger : their 
ropes and netting were alfo very good. They ui^ed U9 
itrongly togo onfliore, oflering to leave an equal num- 
bar of their own people behind, as a pledge of their fafe 
return ; and indeed I would gladly have confented if it 
had been in my pow^r, but a ftr^ wefterly current 
hurried me to fo great a diftance, that I had no oppor- 
tunity to feek for anchorage, and night coming on, we 
purfued our cQurfe. When our vifitprs perceived this, 
6ne of them infifted upon going witl^jti^i and, notwith- 
ftanding all that I and his companions could fay or do, 
obftinately refufed to go on (hore. As I thought it 
poffible that this man might be the means of our mak- 
ing fome ufeful difcovery, I did not put him a-(hore by 
force, but indulged him in his defire : we learnt from 
him that there were other iflands to the northward, the 
inhabitants of which he faid had iron, and always killed 
his countrymen when they could catch them out at 
fea. It was with great concern that I perceived this 
poor fellow, whom I called Jofeph Freewill, from his 
readinefs to go withus, became gradually fickly after he 
had been fome time at fea : he lived till I got to t he 
iflands of Celebes, and there died. As the iflands from 
which I had taken him were very fmall and low, the 
largefl being not more than five miles in compafs, I was 
furprifed to fee with how many of the produftions of 
Celebes he was acquainted ; betide the cocoa-nut and 
palm, he knew the beetle-nut and the lime, and the mo- 
ment he got a bread-fruit, he went to the fire and roafl- 



tA it in the embers. He made us underftand alfo> that i7^7* 
in his country they had plenty of fifli, and turtle in their ^"'^^^Ti 
fcafon. It is however very probable, notwithftanding ^^ 
the number of people who fubfift upon thcfe iflands, 
that they have no frefti water but what falls in rain : 
how they catch and preferve it, I had no opportunity 
to learn, but I never met with a fpring in a fpot fo fmall 
and low, and in fuch a place I believe no fpring was 
ever found. The largcft of thefe iflands, which the 
natives call Pegan, and to which I gave the name of 
Freewill Island, lies fifty minutes north of theline,Fn^wia 
andin 137^ 51' eaft longitude. They are all furround-'^"*'*' 
ed by a reef of rocks. The chart of thefe iflands I 
drew from the Indian's defcription, who delineated them 
with chalk upon the deck, and afcertained the depth 
of water by ftretching his arms asafathom. 

I now fleered N. W. by N. to get from under the 
fun, and had light winds at E. S. E. with which aU 
moft any ftiip but the Swallow would have made good 
way, but with every poflible advantage flie went at a 
heavy rate. We now found our variation begin again 
to decreafe, as will appear by the following table: 

Longitude from Queen 


Charlotte's Foreland. 


40' s. 

8« 36'W. 

4*' 40' E. 

Upon the line. 

9 40 W. 

4 17 E. 

30' N. 

10 30 w. 

3 10 E. 


II 40 w. 

2 30 E. 


12 loW. 

a E. 

On the 28th, being in latitude 2^ 53' N. longitude Monday* 
136^ 10' E. we fell in with a very dangerous flioal, 
which is about eleven or twelve miles in circuit, and 
furrounded with fmall flones that juft fliew themfelves 
above water. V/e found here a ftrong northerly current, 
but could not determine whether it inclined to the eafl: 
or weft. 

In the evening we difcovered from themaft-head a- 
nother ifland to the fouthward of us : the eaft cmd of it 
feemed to rife in a peak, and had the appearance of a 
fail, but we did not go near enough to fee any thing of 
it from the deck. I fuppofe its latitude to be about 2^ 50' 
N. and its longitude, eaft of London, about 136^ 10' E. 



1767. We continued to have 3 current to the northward, 

,^^^ till Monday the 5th of Oaober, when, beingin latitude 
MbwU^ 5. 4° 30' N. I found it fouiherly, and very ftrong ; I had, 
among otherdeficicncies and misfortunes, no fniall boat, 
onboard, fo that I could not try ihefe currents, which 
I had a great defire to do ; but I am of opinion, that 
when the current fet fouihwardit inclined 10 theeafl, 
and that when it fct northward it inclined to the weft. 
Mcndirii. On Monday the 12th, wedifcovercd a fmall ifland 
with trees upon it, though fcjrcely bigger than a rock, 
CurrBnt and I called it Current Islanr. It lie; in latitude 
Iilsnd. ^g 40' N. longitude 14° 24' W. of Qyecn Charlotte's 
Fciieland. The next day we difcovered two other 
SiintAo- fmall ifiarids, which I called Saint Andrew's Is- 
drtw's I AKDs: they lie in latliude 5° 8' N. longitude 14^47' 
"^^'- W. of aueen Charlotte's Foreland. I called the fmaU 
ifland Current Ifland, becaufe we had here a foutheriy 
current fo ftrong that it fet us from twenty-four to thir- 
ty miles fouthward every day, beCidts the difference it 
might make in our longitude. The wind was nowva- 
riahle, blowing by turns from every point in the com- 
pafs, with much rain, and hard fqualU. On Tuefday the 
TatH^yto. 20th, being in latitude 8° N. it blew with fuch violence 
ihai we were obliged to He lo Cixsy-iour hours. This 
gale, which made a very great fea, I fuppofed to be the 
fliifiing of the monfoon, and not with Handing the fouih- 
erly current, it drove us, while we lay to, as far as nin^ 
degrees northward. 

CHAP. vni. 

Somt AtcBunt of the Caaft ef MindaitoB', andtheJJhnds ntar 
it, in vjhiehfeveral Miftakts afDampier art correifed. 

Mimiiyt6.y—xN the 26th we difcovered landagain; but not be- 
\_/ ing able to make an obfervation, we could afcer- 
tain our latitudeand longitude only by our dead reckon- 
ing ; the next day, however, was more favourable, 

Tiic(a«y 17. and I then found the efFeS of the current had been fo 
great, that I was obliged to add to the log S. W. by S. 
no lefs'than 64 miles for the laft two days. We now 
knew that the land we had feen was the north-eaft part 
of the ifland of Mindanao : as I had many fick people 
on board, and was in the moll prefTing need of refrefli- 
ments, I determined to try what could be procured in 
» "* a bay 


a bay which Dampier has defcribed as lying on the 'T^?- 
fouth-eaft part of the ifland, and which, he fays, fur- 
niftied him with great plenty of deer from a Savannah. 
I therefore coafted that fide of the ifland, and that I 
might be fure not tomifs the bay, I fent out the Lieu- 
tenant with a boat and a proper number of hands, to 
keep in (hore a-head of the fliip. No fuch bay however 
was to be found, but at the very fouthermoft extremity 
of the ifland they opened a little nook, at the bottom of 
which was a town, and a fort. As foon as our boats 
were difcovered by the people on ftiore, they fired a great 
gun, and fent off three boats or canoes full of people. 
As the Lieutenant had not a fufficient force to oppofe 
them, he made towards the fliip, and the canoes chaced 
him till they came within fight of her, and being then 
over-matched in theirturn, they thought fit to go back. 
Being thus difappointed in my fearch of Dampier*s Bay 
and Savannah, I would have anchored off this town not- 
withflanding thefe hoftileappearances, if it had not been 
neceflary firft to get up fome guns from the hold, and 
make a few neceflary repairs in the rigging ; this how- 
ever being the cafe, I ran a little to the eaft ward, where, 
on the 2d of November, I came to an anchor in a tittle Kovembci. 
bay, having a bottom of foft mud, and feven fathoms Mond* ». 
of water, at the diftance of a cable's length from the 
(hore ; the weftermoft point of the bay bore W. S. W . 
diftant about three miles ; the eaftermoft point bore E. 
by S. diftant about one mile ; a river, which empties it- 
fclf into the bay about N. W. and the peak of an Ifland, 
called Hummock Ifland, S. 7** E. diftant about five 
leagues. Before it was dark the fame day, oar two 
boats went to the river, and brought off their loads of 
water: they faw nofignsof inhabitants where they were 
on fliore, but we obferved a canoe come round the 
weftermoft point of the bay, which we fuppofed had 
been difpatched from the town, to learn what we were, 
or at leaft to fee what we were doing. As foon as I dif- - 
covered this canoe, I hoifted Englifli colours, and was 
not without hope that flie would come on board, but, 
after viewing us fome time, flie returned. As we had 
feen no inhabitants, nor any fignsof inhabitants, where 
we got our water, I intended to procure a further fupply 
the next day fronfi the fame place, and endeavouralio 
to recruit our wood ; but about nine o'clock at ni^bit^ . 


>7^7- we were fuddenly furprifed by a loud noife on that fide 
Novcm r. ^ ^ ^ j^^ (hore which was a-breaft of the (hip ; it was made 
by a great number of human voices, and very much re- 
fembied the war-whoop of the American Savages, a hi- 
deous fhout which they give at the naoment of their 
attack, and in which all who have heard it agree there 
is fomething inexpreffibly terrifying and horiid. 

As I was now farther convinced that it \tras neceflary 
to difpofc of our little force to the greatefl: advantage, 
Tnefday 3. we began the next day by getting the guns up from the 
hold, and making the neceflary repaira to our rigging. 
At eleven o'clock, not having feen any thing of the 
people, who had endeavoured to terrify us by their yells 
in the night, I fent the long-boat on ihore for more wa- 
ter ; but, as I thought it probable that they might have 
concealed themfelves in the woods, I kept the cutter 
manned and armed, with the Lieutenant on board, 
that immediate fuccour might be fent to the waterers, 
if any danger ihould threaten them. It foon appeared 
that my conjeQures were well founded, for our people 
Jiad no fooner left their boat, thap a number of armed 
men rufhed out of the woods, one of whom held up 
fomewhat white, which I took to be a fignal of peace. 
Upon this occafion I was again fenfible of the mortify •- 
ing deficiency in the fhip's equipment, which I had fo 
often experienced before. I had no white flag on board, 
and therefore, as the beft expedient in my power, I 
ordered the Lieutenant, whom I fent on lliore in the 
cutter, to difplay one of my table-cloths ; as foon as 
the officer landed, the ftandard bearer and another came 
down to him unarmed, and received him with great 
appearance of friendfhip. One of them addrefTed him 
in Dutch, which none of our people undcrftood ; he 
then fpoke a few words in Spanifli, in which one of the 
perfons in the cutter was a confiderable proficient : the 
Indian however fpoke it fo very imperfectly, that it was 
with great difficulty, and by the help of many figns,he 
made himfelf underftood ; poifibly it any of our people 
had fpoken Dutch, he might have been found equally 
deficient in that language. He alked for the Captain 
however by the name of the (kipper, and enquired whe- 
ther we were Hollanders? whether our (hip was intend- 
ed for merchandise or ?or wat ^. Vvow ttvany guns and 


men flic carried ? and whether flie had beeo, or vras ^ 'j^?' 
going to Batavia ? When we had fatisfied him in ail 
thefe particulars, he faid that we fliouid go to the town> 
and that he would introduce us to the Governor, whom 
he diftinguiftied by the title of Raja. The Lieutenant 
then told him, that we intended to go to the town, but 
that we were in immediate want of water, and therefore 
deflred permiffion to fill fome caflcs ; he alfo requeued 
that the people who were armed with bows and arrows 
might be ordered to a greater diftance. With both thefe 
requifitions the Indian, who feemed to be in veiled with 
confiderable authority, complied ; and as he feemed to 
take particular notice of a flik handkerchief which the 
Lieutenant had tied round his neck, it was immediately 
prefented to him ; in return for which he delired him 
to accept a kind of cravat, made of coarfe callico, which 
was tied round his own, his drefs being fomewhat after 
the Dutch faftiion. After this interchange of cravats, 
he enquired of the officer whether the fliip was furmfli** 
ed with any articles for trade : to which he anfwered that 
fhe was fufficiently furniftied to trade for provifions, 
but nothing more : the Chief replied, that whatever 
we wanted we fliould have. After this conference, 
which I confidered as an earned of every advantage 
which this place could afFord us, the boats returned on 
board laden with water,and we went cheerfully on with 
our bufinefs on board the fiiip. In about two hours, 
however, we faw, with equal furprize and concern, 
many hundreds of armed men, pofting themfelves in 
parties at different places among the trees, upon the 
beach, a-breafl of the ftiip ; their weapons were muf- 
quets, bowf and arrows, long fpikes or fpears, broad- 
fwords, a kind of hanger called a crefs, and targets : 
we obferved alfo, that they hauled a canoe, which lay 
under a flied upon the beach, up into the woods. 
Thefe were not friendly appearances, and they were 
fucceeded by others that were dill more hoftile ; for 
thefe people fpent all the remainder of the day in en- 
tering and rufhing out of the woods, as if they had 
been making fallies to attack an enemy ; fometimes 
fliooting their arrow,s, and throwing their lances into 
the water towards the (hip; and fometimes lifting 
tfeeir targets, and brandifliing their fwords «x\is\xv^ 


N '^^ ber ^^'^^^^^ manner. In the mean time we werordDt idle 

'on board : we got up our gMns, repaired oor riggii^ 

and put every thing in order before the evening* and 

then, being ready to fail^ [ determined, if poiTible, to 

get another conference with the people on ihorc, and 

learn the reafon of fofudden and unaccountable a changie 

of behaviour/ The Lieutenant therefore was agsun di(* 

patched, and as a teftimony that our difpoHtion was ftUl 

peaceable, the table cloth was again displayed a» a flag 

of truce. I had the precaution, however, to order the 

boat to a part of the beach which wasxkai* of wood, 

that the people on board might not be liable to mif* 

chier from enemies whom they could not fee ; I alfo 

ordeied -that nobody (houid go on (hore. When the 

Indians faw the boat come to the beach^ and obferved 

that no body landied, one of them came put of the \^ood 

with a bow and arrow" in his hand, and made (ignsTor 

the boar to come to the place where he ftood/ This 

the officer very prudently declined, as he would then 

have been within bow-fliot of an ambufcade, and after 

waiting fome time, and finding that a conference 

would be procured upon no other terms, he returned 

back to the (hip. It was certainly in my power to have 

deftroyed many of thefe unfriendly people, by firing 

my great guns into the wood, but it would have an- 

fwered no good purpofe : we could not afterwards 

have procured wood and water here without rilking 

the lofs of our own people, and I ftill hoped that re- 

frefhment might be procured upon friendly terms at 

the town, which, now I was in a condition to defend 

myfelf againft a fudden affault, I refolved to vifit. 

Wcdnef. 4. The next morning therefore, as foon as it w^s light, 
I failed from this place, which I called Deceitful 
Bay, with a light land breeze, and between ten and 
eleven o'clock we got off the bay or nook, at the bot- 
tom of which our boats had difcovered the town or 
fort. It happened, however, that juft at this time the 
weather became thick, with heavy rain, and it began 
to blow hard from a quarter which made the land here 
a lee fliore ; this obliged me to (land off, and having 
no time to lofe, I flood away to the weft ward that I 
might reach Batavia before the feafon was pad. 

I (halt 



I fhall now give a more partiatlar accoufkt of our *7^- 
navigating the fea that waihes the coafts of this i(land> **''**°'^' 
the rather as Dampier's defcription is in fevera) parti- 
culars erroneous. 

Having feen the north-eaft part of the ifland on the 
26th of Oftober, without certainly knowing whether 
it was Mindanao or Saint John's, we got nearer to it 
the next day, and made what we knew to be Saint Au-> 
gudina, the fouth eailermoft part of the ifland, which 
rifes in little hummocks, that run down to a low point 
at the water's edge ; it bears N« 40 E. at thediftance 
of two and twenty leagues from alittle ifland, which is 
diftinguiflied from the other iflands that lie off 'the 
fouthermoft point of Mindanao by a hill or hummock, 
and which for that reafon I called Hummo c k Ul a nd« 
AH this land is very high» one ridge of mountains 
rliing behind another, fo that at a great diftance it ap- 
pears not like one ifland but feveral. After our firft 
difcovery of the ifland, we kept turning along the eaft 
fide from the northward to Cape .Saint Auguftina^ 
nearly S. by W. i W. and K by E. f E. for about 
twenty leagues,, The wind was to the fouth^^ard along 
tibbe fliore, and as we approached Che land, we flood in 
for an opening which had the appearance of a good bay, 
where we- intended to anchor; but we found that it 
was too debp for our purpofe, and that fome flioals 
rendered the entrance of it dangerous. To this bay, 
which lies about eight or ten leagues N. by E. from 
Cape Saint Auguftina, the fouth-eaft extremity of the 
ifland, I gave the name of Disappointment Bay. 
When we were in the ofEng fl:andtng in for this Bay, 
weobferved a large hummock, which had the appear-* 
ance of an ifland^ but which I believe to be a peninfula, 
joined by a low iflhmus to the main ; this hummock 
formed the northermoft part of the entrance, and ano- 
ther high bluff point oppofite to it farmed the Tout heiv 
moft part ; between thefe two points are the flioals 
that have been mentioned ; and feveral fmall iflands, 
enly one of which can be feen till they are approached 
very near. On this part of the coaft we faw no ilgns 
of inhabitants ; the land is of a ftupendous height, with 
mountains piled upon mountains till the fummits are! 
hidden in the clouds: in the offing therefore \t \% 2\tticAL 

Vol. L Y vtn^ottxXiX^ 


tmpdifibl^ to c^imste. its^tUdlbmce^ !for what appear 
then to be {HmH bUlocksj^ juft emerging froih the water^ 
in comparifon of. t^e nEK>iintain» that are iee»> over 
them, fwell into high hills as they arc approached^ 
and the didance ik found to be- thrice at much as it 
was imagined ; peiliaprtbis will account f6r the ladd 
here being fo iH Ind down,, and in fttuations fo ver^i^ 
dtflferent as it ia'.aH our Ei^^lHh charts: 
"We found here a Arong; cttrrent fetttog. to the fouth^ 
ward aloog thefliote^.'afttfae I«k1 tfended» ! The high 
' land thai 19 to the Dortk o£ Saint Auguftina, becomes 
gradually tower tow^rdsrtheCapc^ a low Aat point in 
whicKit:teniimat^s». andsoflF whichy at a very little 
dsftaflce^ lie twoilarge coduL. Its latitude is ^ 15' N. 
and the IcHsgitudevhy acccinnt 127* 20' E» 
r ivFrocQ .this cape.ljie'ian4i trends away W*and W. by 
Sw for -fix or fevesf Ipaguea, .tod then txirria tip to the 
N. :W. oiaking a very dilep bay^ the bottom of whicb^ 
is we .croffed it from Sajnl: Auguftina^ to the high lanA 
on the other fidc^ vHA is.-n^ lefa than t wdve kagueai; 
we x»uld not fte. • Ths toiaft on ilk farther fide of it^ 
coming up fromiheix)ttom« trends firft to the S. and 
S.S. W, and then 60 the S. W^by W. towaixls tiw 
fouth extremity of the ifland. 

Off this fouthern extremity, which Dampier calls 
the fouth-eaft by miftake, the fouth-^afl being Saint 
Auguftina, at thediftance of five,fix,and feven leagues^ 
lie ten or twelve iflands^though Dampier fays there are 
only two, and that together they arc about five leagues 
round. The iflands that I faw could not be contained 
in a circuit of lefs than 1 5 leagues, and from the nuitv 
ber of boats that I faw among them I imagine they are 
well inhabited. The largeil of thefe lies to the S. W. 
of the others, and makes in a remarkable peak, fo that 
it is firft feen in coming in with the land, and is indeed 
vifible at a very great diftance. Its latitude I make 
5* 24' N. and its longitude by account 126' 37' E. 
Aummock This ifland which I called Hummock Island, 
Ifland. bears from Sauit Auguftina S. 40 W. at the diftance of 
between twenty and two and twenty leagues: and from 
the fame Cape, the fouthermoft part of the ifland 
Mindanao bears S. W. J W. at the diftance of between 
twenty-one and twenty-three leagues. This fouthermoft 




extremity confifts of three or four points, whieh bear '^^^^ / 
eaft and weft of each other for about feven .n[itles. 
They lie in latitude 5^ 34' N. longitude 126" 25' E. 
according to my account. The variation herief was one 
point eaft. . : ' • 

I pafled between thefc iflands and the feaiil,' and" 
found the paffage good, the* current fetting to- the 
weftward. Dampier has placed hi^ Bay and Siv^nnih 
four league* N^ W. froto the eaftermoft iflahd^' and 
there I fought it, as indeed I did on atl the S. R. part 
of the ifland till we camef to the little c'rciek wHichVaii 
up to the town. ; V'- 

All the fouthem part of Mindanao is 'extrrtntSy' 
pleafaiit, with many fpoti wherfe-tfiewoods^had KSfff 
cleared for plantations, and -fine lawns*of a'hatilirfiffiS' 
verdure ; this part alfo is Wt^tl' inhabited,' t^vitJlfVi^m^' 
neighbouring iflands. Of- the Hfwti I ickn^^tvi^nlPai?^ 
count, as the weather was fo thick that' I cMi ^M kir- 
it; neither could I fufikiently difthigiiifli th^larfd'm' 
fct off the points, at whieh^l was oot a little triOftified: ' 
When I came to open the land 'tb- the weftward of 
the fouthfe!»moft point, Tfoiind it trend from that point' 
W. N. W. and N. W. by W. foritting ffrft a p6?ni at 
the diftante of about fcveri or eight leigueSj'and-ihferi 
a very <!eep bay 'running (0 far into thi'N.' and tf.^ E., 
that !• cotdtf not fee the botlom of it. Thc'wefterrhoff 
point of tliis bay is low, but the land Toon rifes aganti 
and runs along to the N. W. by W. which feems to 
be the direftion of this coaft, from the foathermoft 
point of the ifland tbwatds the city of Mindanao. 

To the weftward of this deep bay, the land is all 
flat, and in cbriiparifon of the other parts of the.ifland, 
but thinly wooded. Over this flat appears apeak of 
ftupcndous height, which rifes in the clciuds like a 
tower. Between the entrance of this bay and'fche foutli 
point of the ifland there il5 another very high hill, the 
top of which has the funnel fliape of a volcano^ but I 
did not perceive that it emitted either fire or frtioke. 
It is poflible that this deep bay is that which Dampier 
mentions, and that it is mifplaced by an error of the 
prefs ; for, if inftead of faying it bore N. W. four 
leagues from the eajlermoji of the iflands, he had faid it 
bore N. W. fourteen leagues from the wejlermofi oi V\ve. 

y 2 *A^Tv<\%, 

fidn ttl^^it'j^Sfl^^i^ct^^ <MI tJtH^ weft : JieJis ^fo ncail]* 

5*10^ N. £oF probably fome parts of the foi:(^i^fiK}(f 

tQ^i(^i^b^4urd of jAm 

y^dRfiTwof^^ iSQimis to the ei^wft^ of 

npFMv;«fJ.7f?«^?» wh'fcfe .»PP«»r» to bf cJJpar.. The 
north edftemioft of ihefe iflands is (mallyioiif^ HiyLQatu: 
^i;^;#.¥^e %Bd^,Jb?tic^,a|lToiHKl it, andii great 
Mgr |aW;i» ^te •ittWVw ^^ E«ft « iHHFt^-fift.of tlun 

•BBWHW^^^MRr^*^!*^- Neith^tfdlfeo 
^|q|ft^f j^^Mft^firei^lMntimed Dampier, 

ifm \^^\ ^,\9htF^ o^r Mw^ tbe 

<#»»i FfRN»» ^HgrilWlUfeifi «Pre reoioie. f^ftanc* 
tiu^^^^Sm^mfj %pi?Wifl§Wf witb^o^ gfew laite^^ 
tH)n Afmg^ra^U^^ » tbts fucDcqlar 

by, the beigjijt qf t^.|ar]4::^^ hav^ obfejFvei akeadf* 
ib Lcoafled this iilaiid« I ibund the ctrrent fet verjr 
ftrong^to the fouthward along the fliore, till I came to. 
the fouth end of it, where ! found it run N. W. and 
N. W.ixy W. ivhidi is yearly as the land trends.. We 
had. the winds comnxmly from S- W. to N*. W. with 
tight airs, frequent rain, ^uid.vnfettled weather. 

We now bid farewel to Mindanao, greatly difap- 
pointed in par hope of obftainkig refrefhnients, which, 
at lirft the inhabitants fo readily promifed to furnifh. 
We fta^ieded that there were Dutchmen, or at leaft 
Dutch partifans in the town; and that, having dif* 
covered us to be Engliih, they had difpatchedan armed 
party to prevent our having any intercourfe with the 
nativest who arrived- about two hours after our 
friendly conference, and. were the people that defied 
us from ihore. 



ROUND tlFife' world: 5»^ 

■ ■ • ■ 

C H A p. IX, 

Thf Pa£agefr9m Mindmtk^ t9 fie Iflknd rf Celihes^ with 
a particular Acc§unt ef rift Stnight of Macajfar^ in 
ivhUh many Emri are €orr€GML 


AFTER leaving Mindanao, Iftoodtotfae weft- «7^7. 
Ward for the paOage between the iflandsof Bor- J_^^ 
neo and Celebes, called the Streigfat of Macafiar, and 
made it on Saturday the fourteenrh. I obfo'ved, that Saturday 14. 
during the whole of tfata ran we had a ftrong north 
wcfterly current ; but that while we were nearer to 
Mindanao than Celebes, it ran rather towards the 
north than the weft ; and that when we came nearer 
to Celebes than we were to Mindanao, it ran rather 
towards the weft than the north. The land of Ce- 
lebes on the north end runs along to the entrance of 
the paflage, is very lofty, and feems to trend away 
about W. by S. to a reanarkable point in the paflkge, 
which makes in a hummock, and which at firft we 
took for an iftand. I believe it to be the fame which in 
the French charts is called Stroomen Point, but 1 gave 
it the name of Hummock Point. Its latitude, ac- 
cording to my account, is i« 20' N. longitude i2i«> 3$* 
E. and it is a good mark for thofe to know the paflage 
that faU in with the land coming frcsn the eaftward^ 
^ho, if poffibie, ihould always mak^e this fide of the 
paflage. From Hummock Point the land trends more 
Hway to the fouthward, about S. W. by W. and to 
the fouthward of it there is a deep bay, full of ifland* 
and rocks, which appeared to me to be very dangerous. 
Juft off the point there are two rocks, which, though 
ifhey are above water, cannot be feen from a (hip tilt 
fhe is dofe to the land. To the eaftward of this point, 
c!ofe to the fliore, are two iflandF, one of them very 
flat, long and even, and the other fwelling into a hill : 
both ihefe iflands, as well as the adjacent country, 
are wdl covered with trees : I flood dofe in a little to 
th« eaftward of them, and had no ground with an 
hundred fathoms, within half a mile of the fhore, 
u'hich feemed to be rocky, A little to the weftward 
of ihefe idands, we faw no lefs than fixty boats, which 



'Tfi?- were fiftiing on Tome flioals that lie between them and 

C^^i Hummock Point. 1 his part of the (hore appeared to 
be foul, and I think (hould not be approached without 
great caution. In this pkce I found the currents various 
and uncertain, fometimes Tetting to the fouthward, and 
fometimesio the northward, and fometimes there was 
no current at all ; the weather aifo was very unl'eitlcd, 
snd fowSi the wind ; il blew, however, chiefly to the 
fouth and fouth weft (juarter, but we had fometimes 
fudden and violent gufis, and tornadoes from the N. W. 
with- thunder, lightning, and rain : thefe generally 
lafted about an hour, when they were fucceeded by a 
■dead caim, and the wind would afierwardi fpring up 
frefh from the S. W. or S. S. W. which was right " 
againfl us, and blow ftrong. From iheic appearances 1 
conjeSured that the Qiifting feafon had commenced, 
find that the weft monfoon would foon fei in. The fhip 
failed fo ill that we made very little way ; we freciuenl- 
ly founded in this paftage,. but could get no ground, 
(fitufdiyii. On the a ift of November, as we were ftan ding to- 
wards Borneo, we made two fmall iflands, which I 
^ -judeed to be the fame that in the French chart are 
called Taba Iflands; they are very fmall, and coveted 
with trees. By my account they lie in latitude i ■■ 44' 
'ii. lorgitUtle 7? 3a' W. ot the fouth end of Mindanao, 
and-a^e diftant froni Hummock, or Stroomen Point) 
,a boat fifty- eight leaguet. The weather was now hazy> 
but happening faddnlj! .to clear up, we faw a fhoal 
with breakers, at the diftanCc of about five or fix miles, 
from the. fouth to the north-weft. OfF the north end 
of. this 0) Dal we faw four hummocks clofe together, 
which ire took for fmall iflands, and feven more from 
the %i W. to the .W. f S. whether thefe are really 
iflaiids, ..or fome hills on the ifland of Borneo, I could 
tiot (determine. This Ihoal is certainly very d»ngerous, 
but may be avoided by going to the weftward of Tabs 
Iflands, irhcfe the pafT;^ is clear and broad. In th$ 
' French chart of Monfieur d'Apres de Mandeviilette, 
"plibliflied in 1745, two flioals are laid down, to the 
^aftward, and a little to the north of thefe iflands ; one 
. pf :thein is called VanUorif, and the other, on which 
< are placed two iflands, Harigs ; but thefe flioals and 
'fflandf have certainly no exiftence, as I ttirned through 
^^^ this 


thk part of the paffage from fide to fide, and failed over «7^7» 
the very fpot where they are fuppofed to lie. '"In the ^^^^ 
fame chart feven fmall ifiands arealfo laid down within 
half a degree to the northward of the line, and exadly 
in the middle of the narrou'cft part of this paflage ; 
but neither have thefe iflands any exiftence except 
iipon paper, though I believe there may he (bme fmali 
iflands clofe to the main land of Borneo ; we thought 
we had feen two, which we took to be thofe that are 
laid down in the charts off Porto Tubp, but of this I 
am not certain. The foathermoft and narrowell part 
of this paflage is about eighteen or twenty leagues 
broad, with high lands on each fide. We continued 
bbounng in it till the 27th, before we croflfed the line, Fiiaay aj. . 
fo that we were a fortnight in failing eight and twenty 
leagues, the diftanc^ from the north entrance of the 
freight, which we made on the 1 4th. After we got 
to the fouthward of the line, we found a flight current 
fetting'againft us to the northward, which xlaily in- 
creafed : the weather was ftill unfettled, with much 
wet ; the winds were chiefly S. W. and W. S. W. 
and very feldom farther to the northward than 
W, N. W. except in the tornadoes, which grew more 
frequent and violent ; and by them we got nothing but 
hard labour, as they obliged us to hand all our fails, 
which indeed with our utmoft efforts we were fcarcely 
able to do, our debility daily increafing by the falling 
fick of the. few that were well, or the death of fome 
among the many that were fick. Under thefe circum- 
ftances we ufed bur utmoft endeavours to get hold of 
the land on . the Borneo fide, but were not able, and 
continued to ftruggle with our misfortunes till the 3d December. 
of December, when we fell in with the fmall rflands Thurf. 3. 
and ftioals called the Little Paternofters, the fouiher- 
moft of which, according to my account, lies in latitude 
.2* 3i'S. and the northermoft in 2^ i 5' S. the longitude 
of the northermoft I made 1 1 7* 12' E. they bear about 
S. E. i S. and N. W. J N. of each other, diftant eight 
leagues, and between them are the others; the number 
ot (he whole is eight. They lie very near the Celebes 
Jide of the ftreight, and being unable either to weather 
ihem, or gel to the weftward of them, we were obliged 
Ui go between them and the ifland. We had here tem- 




peftuous weather and conlrary winds with fudden and 
impetiADs gulls, which, as we had not a number of 
hands fufficiem to bend the fails, often endangrered our 
mafis and yarde, and did great damage to our fails and 
rigging, efpecially at this time, as we werfe obliged lo 
carry all the fail wc could to prevent our falling into a 
deep bighi, on the Celebes Ihore. The ravages of the 
fcurvy were now uniicifal, there not being one indivi- 
dual among Ut that was free, and the w inds and currents 
feeing fo hard agairfi us, that we could neiiher get wefl- 
ing nor fouthing to n;ach any place of leirefhment ; the 
mind participated in ihe fufferings of the body, and a 
univerfal defpotidency was refleaed from one counte- 
nance lo another, efpecially among thofe who were not 
r able to come upon the deck. In this deplorable fituation 
we continued till the loth, and it is not perhaps very 
eafy for the moil fertile imagination to conceive by 
what our danger and diftrefa could poflibly be encreaf- 
ed ; yet debilitated, fick, and dying as we were, in Tight 
of land that we could not reach, and cxpofed lo tempefts 
which we could not refift, we had the addiiional mis- 
foriune to be attacked by a pirate ; that this iniexpefl- 
cd mifchief might lofe none of its force, it happened at 
midnight, when the darknefs, that might almoft be felt, 
could not fail to co-operate with whatever tended to 
produce confufion anj terror. This fudden attack, 
however, rather rouzed than deprefTed us, and though 
our enemy attempted to board us, before we could 
have the le»ft apprehenfton that any enemy was near, 
we defeated his purpofe ; he then plied us with what 
wc fuppofed to be fwivet guns, and fmall arms, very 
briflily ; but though he had the ftart of us, we foon re- 
turned hisfalutewith fuch eSt&, that fhortly after be 
funk,andall the unhappy wretches on board periHied. 't 
was afmall vefTel, but of what country or how manned, 
it was impofTiblc for us to know. The lieutenant, and 
one of the men, were wounded, though not dangeroufly ; 
part of our running rigging was cut, and we received 
ibme other flight damage. We knew this pirate to be 
a vefTel which we had feen in the dulk of the evening, 
and we afterwards learnt that the belonged to a free* 
booler, who had more than thirty fuch veffels under 
hit command. The fmallnefs of our vcfTel'tncouriged 

WaXV^t^J^ TTrfH: T'TtKUD 

rntesbontBc tunc cot: 
liitt io, tsatnfrjMtQi;. 
Hbic iontjHr'.lftgrroc.iy. jr-ii: ^edamivaf iBllttna. 'A« 
: 1 1 avtrfm' 'iBcctEor Tcowaur tO !. i wgce u fnmr>tt*e«it'<ltiv. 
nnofiiboo* i«L-tiK:tiiitn^r jk -Oftvsvrwn:;; 4flK«w%:lML 
ahmricc tft utm ir imp ^L a >> . WHt w- ifois -^mt. 4iiff$\ 
rmore fPrm a: tic iiHiin: off ^ant>^ 4i^ -ill -tm -f^^ 
<4fi^xxTs ,wr€nr dnoar'tNe iuik 4mti rthe iltoMeMilfe *^i 
mrrkfu '«Hu dfc il oiiikk tri .& rt^dH^^DWiimts f : ^w»s 
ihnvoircbb ti»T wceififBote^o^ «lid ^wt hnT. ih) 

•^'^artL . and acmnuiriiiir 3D :raach .lUliictffort) ^h^ if^f Ivif^ 

Tht TiEXt iriax' t«ic amick *c«» lifiiMlis >n^»oh lie h^; ^•i*>*iy >i^ 
iiar :ihvTdk, ani) UmgiiiBiK iter 'ihnit:^,, >¥m^ mtetk vm^ 

"adaidb liad fcr ftoKraK <cft m t^ thft Mltl«>r#Nl% Imi<) 
&t m »o the faotiiwwl 4miM: ibft ili^^ W^ 4^^ 

tbe aonhwani of 4 AmmI^ which h«!6 M^ nAfW lift ^\\^ 
Eaft India Pilot, but which the l>uttch ^U th<^ ^)^HU\0^i 
by coon, howetcr, we iwmA vmts\\^ \\p<s^ ^> vsm* 
water {hallowing at otKe to four tkth<M)^«^ vtith hHkv 
ground. VVc now hanled off lo th<i iV^wth \^^rt| i^h^ 
keeping the boat a-head to ibxin^^ ran rx^uml (hr \v«»U 
fide of the ihoal in ten and twelve fathoms \ wm Wd^ I 
deepening when wc hauled ofF to (h« w^l, Mml IImI 
lowing when we hauled off t^aft. Our latUvul(»i \s\ oh 
fervation, when we were upon the lhoal| witi^ ^** •i^^' U. 
and the nqriherrtiort of the ifland»i calWd th^ 1 lit^>- 
jBrothersrthan bore S. i8 K. at tha di(Unc« ol 11^ i» mi 




767 fix leagues. This jfland is, in the Englilh Pilot, called 
i^^^' Don Dinanga, but by the Dutch the North Brother. 
Between the Three Brothers, and the main of Cele- 
bes, there is another iHand, much larger than either of 
them, called the Illand of Tonikiky; but none of thein 
arc inhabited, though there are a few huts belonging 
to fifhermen upon them all. The paffage between the 
flioal and this ifland is clear and good, with from ten to 
thirteen falhoms, and a fandy bottom ; but the found- 
ings are to be kept on the fide of the iHand in twelve 
fathoms, and never under ten: it is, however, very 
difficult and dangerous for ftiips to fall in with the 
land this way without a pilot on board, for there arc 
many fhoals and rocks under water. I ran in by a chart 
in the Englilh Eaft India Pilot, which upon the whole 
I found a good one, though the names of the iflands, 
points, and bays, differ very much fiom thofe by 
which they are now known. When we got near 10 
ihe Celebes (bore, we had land and fea, which 
obliged us to edge along the coafl, though our flrength 
was fo much reduced, that it was with the utmoft 
difficulty we coold work the ftreara anchor, 
ifdiyij. In Ihe evening of Tuefday the 15th, we anchored at 
-■ about ihe diftance of four miles from the town of Ma- 
cafTar, which, according to my account, lies in latitude 
5" 10' or 5" 12' S. longitude 1 1 7° 28' E. having fpent 
no lefs than five and thirty weeks in our palTage from 
the Streight of Magellan. 

I hare been the more particular in my defcription of 
Mfiuich as I faw of this Streight, becaufe all the charts, 
bothEnglifh and French, that I confulted, are extreme- 
ly deficient and erroneous, and becaufe anexad know- 
ledge of it may be of great fervice to our China trade : 
the fhips, by which that trade is carried on, may pafs 
this way with as little danger as the common one, 
which lies along the Praffel fhoals ; and when they 
' mifs their pafTage to China, in the fouth-eaft monfoon, 
, andlofe the feafon, they may be fure of a clear channel 
here, and fair winds at W. S. W. and round to 
W. N.M'. in November, December, and the four fol- 
lowing months ; lam allbof opinion, that it is a better 
and Ihorter way to go the N. E. and ea(l|Ufd.of the 
PhiJipptneIflands,thaQto ihread theMoiii(^P|,orcoan 


New Oaineay where there are ihoak» c uf i ems , aad ^'^- 
innumenible other dangers, as they were fofced to ilo 
when the French were crutfing for them in the com- 
mon paflage during the lail war. 


TranfaSfions off Macajfar^ and the Pajfagt thence t9 


TH £ fanne night that we came to an anchor, at 
about eleven o'clock, a Dutchman came on 
board, who had been difpatched by the Governor, to 
learn who we were. When I made him underlland 
that the (hip was an Englifhinan of war, he feemed 
to be greatly alarmed, no man of war belonging to the 
King of Great Britain having ever been there before, 
and I could not by any means perfuade him to leave 
the deck, and go down into the cabin ; we parted, 
however, to all appearance, good friends. 

The next morning,- at break of day, I fent the Lieu- Wedn. i£ 
tenant to the town, with a letter to the Governor, in 
which I acquainted him with the reafon of my coming 
thither, and requefied the liberty of thepon to procure 
refrefhments for my fliip's company, who were in a 
dying condition, and fhelter for the veflel againft the 
approaching ftorms, till the return of a fit ieafon for 
failing to the weftward. I ordered that this letter 
ihould, without great reafon to the contrary, be de- 
livered into the Governor's own hand; but v^hen my 
ofHcer got to the wharf of the town, neither he nor 
any other perfon in the boat was fuffered to land. 
Upon this refufal to deliver the letter to a meflengcr, 
the Governor was made acquainted with it, and two 
officers, called the (hebander and the fifcal, were fent 
down to him, who, as a reafon why he could not de- 
liver the letter to the Governor himfelf, jjretended 
that he was fick, and faid, that they came by his ex- 
prefs. order to fetch it ; upon this the letter was at 
length delivered to them, and they went away. While 
they were gone, the officer and men were kept on 
board their boat, expofed to the burning heat of the 
fun, which was almoft vertical at noon, and none of the 
(countr^oats were fuffered to come near et\o>3L^K \<i feSV 


i»yS7' them any refrefhment. Iji the mean time, our people 
'*"'"'*'' obferved a great hurry and hurtle on (hore, and alt the 
floops and vciTels that were proper for war, were fitted 
out with the utmoft expedition: we Ihould, however, 
I believe, have been an overmatch for their whole Tea 
force, if al! our people had been well. In the mean time 
I intended to have gone and anchored clofe to the town, 
but now the boat was abfent, our united llrength was 
not lutBcient to weigh the anchor, though a fmail one. 
After waiting five hours in the boat, the Lieutenant was 
told that the Governor had ordered two gentlemen to 
waitupon me with an anfwerlo my letter. Soon after 
he had returned, and made this report, the two gen- 
tlemen came on board, and we afterwards learnt that 
one of them was an enfign of the garrifon, named Le 
Cerf.and the other Mr. Douglas, a writer of the Dutch 
Eafl India Company; they delivered me the Governor's 
letter, but it proved to be written in Dutch, a language 
which not a finglc perfon on board could underOand ; 
the two gentlemen who brought it, however, both fpoke 
French, and one of ihem interpreted the contents to 
Tiie in that language. The purport of it was, " that I 
Ihould inftantly depart from the port, wiihout coming 
any nearer (o the (own ; that I fhould not anchor on 
any part of the coaft, or permit any of my people to 
land in any place that was under hisjurifdiSion." Be- 
fore I made any reply to this letter, I (hewed the gen- 
tlemen who brought it, the number of my fick : at the 
figlit of fo many unhappy wretches, who were dying 
of languor and difeafe, they feemed to be much affeA- 
ed, and I then urged again the preiling neceflity I was 
under of procuring refrdhment, to which they had been 
witnefles, the cruelty and injuAice of rcfufing to fup- 
ply me, which was not only contrary lo treaty, as we 
were in a King's fhip, but to the laws of Nature as we 
were human beings : they Teemed to admit the force of 
this reafoning, but they had a (hort and final anfwer 
ready, " that they had abfolute and indifpenfibic orders 
from their mafters, not to fuffer any Ihip, of whatever 
ration, to ftay at this port, and that thefe orders they 
muft implicitly obey." To this I replied, that perfons 
in our fituation had nothti^ worfe to fear ^n what 
they fujfered, and thai theicfoTC if they did mk imme- 


diattly allow me the liberty of the p«>rr, to pordtale ^'?^- 
refreihiQchtSy and procure (heiter, I would, as Coon as 
the wind would permit, in defiance of all their menaces, 
and all their force, go and anchor clofe to the town ; 
that if at laft I fliouU find myfelf unable to compel 
them to comply with requifitions, thereafonablenefsof 
which could not be controverted, I would run the ihtp 
a- ground under thdr walls, and after felling our lives as 
dearly as we could, bring upon them the difgrace of 
having reduced a friend and ally to fo dreadfiil an ex- 
tremity. At this they feemed to be alarmed, as our 
fituation alone was fufficient to convince them that I 
uas in earnefl, and urged me with great emotion to 
remain where I was, at leaft till I had heard again from 
the Governor : to this, after (bme altercation, I con- 
fented, upon condition that I heard from the Governor 
before the fea-breeze fet in the next day. 

We paffed all the remainder of this day, and all the 
night, in a date of anxiety, not unmixed with indig- 
nation, that greatly aggravated our diftrefs ; and very 
early the next morning, we had the mortification to feeThorC 17. 
a floop that mounted eight carriage gims, and one of 
the veflels of the country, fitted out for war, with a 
great number of foldiers on board, come from the town, 
and anchor under each of our bows. I immediately 
fent my boat to fpeak with them, but they would 
make no reply to any thing that was faid. About noon, 
the fea breeze fet in, and not having then heard again 
from the Governor, I got under fail, and proceeded 
towards the town, according to my declaration, re* 
folving if the veflels that had anchored under our bows, 
ihould oppofe us to reprefs force with force as far as 
we were able : thefe two veflisls, however, happily 
both for us and for them, contented themfelves with 
weighing anchor, and attending our motions. 

Very foon after we had got under fail, a handfome 
vefTel, with a band of mufick, and feveral gentlemen 
on board, made up to us, and told us that they were 
fent by the Governor, but could not come a-board if 
we did not drop our anchor again ; our anchor therefore 
was immediately dropped, and the gentlemen came on 
board : they proved to be Mr. Blydenburg, the fifcal, 
Mr. VoU, the {hebander, an officer called tbeUe^tv^^ 


17^7- nwfter, or mafter of the port, and Mr. Doiigtas the 
""" "■ writer, who has been meniioncd already. They ex- 
■ prtfied fomc furpriTe at my having got under fail, and 
alktd me what 1 intended to have done ? I told them 
ihai I intendeiH, neither more nor lefs than to fulfil ihe 
declftralions I had made the day before ; that juHified 
by the common rights of mankind, which were fuperior 
to every other iaWrl would, rather than have put again 
to fea, where our dellruflion either by (hipwreck, 
ficknefs, or famine, was inevitible, havecomeupto 
their walla, and either have compelled them to fumifli 
the neccffariea we wanted, or have run the ftiip on (hore, 
fince it was better to perifli at once in a jiift conteft, 
than to fuffer the lingering mifery of anticipating the 
perdition that we could not avoid. I obferved alfo that 
no civilized people had ever fuffered even the captives 
of war to periih for want of the necelTaries of life, much 
lefg the fubje£ls of an ally, who aiked nothing but 
L permifTion lo purchafe food with their money. They 

I readily allowed the truth of all I had faid, but feemed 

r . to think [ had been too hafty : I then obferved that I 

had waited the hill lime of my (lipulajion, and they in 
return made fome excufe for their not havirig come 
fooner, telling me, that, as a proof of their having ad- 
mitted my claim, they had brought me fuch provilions 
I as their country would afford. Thefe were immediately 

taken on board, andconOlied of two fheep, an elk ready 
killed, and a few towh, with fome vegetables and fruit; 
This nioft welcome fiipply was divided among the peo- 
ple, and that moft falutary, and to us exquiUte dainty, 
broth, made for the Tick. Another letter from the Go- 
vernor was then produced, in which, to my great dif- 
appointment, I was again ordered to leave the port, 
and to juftify the order, it was alleged, that to fuffer a 
fhip of any nation to flay and trade either at this port, 
or any other part of the ifland, was contrary to the 
agreement which had been made by the Eaft India 
Comparv with the native Kings and Governors of the 
country, who had already expreffed fome difpleafure on 
our account; and for farther particulars I was referred 
to the gentlemen that brought the letter, whom the Go- 
vernor ftiled his commifllaries. To thefe gentlemen I 
iomiediittljr obferved, that no Aipulation coiocerning 


trade could affeS us, as we were a King's (hip ; at the '^^' 
fame time I produced my commiflion, it not being pof- 
fible to bring under the article of trade the felling us 
food and refrefliments for our money, without the ut- 
moft violence to language and common fenfc. After 
this they made me feveral proportions, which I rejeSed, 
becaufe my departure from this place, before the return 
of the feafon, was included in them all. I then recurred 
to my former declaration, and to enforce it, (hewed 
them the corpfe of a nun who had died that morning, 
and whofelife would probably have been faved, if they 
had afforded us refre(hments when we firft came to an 
anchor upon their coaft. This put them to a (land, but 
after a (hort paufe,thcy enquired very particuhrly whe- 
ther I had been among the fpice iflands ; I aafwered them 
in the negative, and they appeared to be convinced that 
I fpoke truth. After this we came to a better under- 
(landing, and they told me, that though ther couid not, 
without difobedience to the mod dired and po(itive or- 
ders of the Company, faflRer as. to remain here, yet that 
I was welcome to go to a little bay not far diftant, 
where I (hould find eflfedual (heher from the bad nrion- 
foon, and might ered an hofpital for my ilck, afTuring 
me at the fame time, that provifions and refre(hnnents 
were more plenty there than at Maca{rar9 from whence 
whatever elfe I wanted (Hould be fent me, and offering 
me a good pilot to carry me to my (lation. To ihh I 
gladly consented, upon condition that what they liad 
oflTered me (hould be confirmed by the Governor and 
Council of Macaflar, that I might be confidered a> un* 
der the proreSHon of the Dutch nation, ^d th^t no vio - 
lence (hould be offered to my people : fw all tliit> fl^-y 
engaged their honour on behalf of the Govern^^r and 
Council, promifing me the a(rurance I had required '/ri 
the next day, and requefting that in the mean Utiw I 
woulJ rema-n where I was. I then enquired why tlu; 
two vL-flels which were at anchor under our \>ijw\ w««r 
allotted to that (lation ? And they told me, for no o»lj4 1 
reafon than tv prevent the people of thecoiiiiMy ff</fri 
ofFerin?" us any violence. When matters wer<: (liu^l^r 
fettled bet V. ten Uj, I ex pre(red my concern r})iit,4:x<^|;( 
a gla<$ of will' , I could prefent them with not hi 11;; I<h'> - 
ttr than bad hit fueat, juy* * ** full of weaveU, uy<jfv 


ik^hF ^'^'^^ '''^y ^^""y poli'ely (iellred thai I would permit 
.. _^", their fervants lo bring in the vifluals whl^-h had been 
^ drclling in their own veffel ; I readily confented, and 

a very genteel dinner was foon ferTed up, conGfting of 
k filh, flel^, vegetables, and fruit. It is with the greaiefi 

r pieafure that I take this opportunity of acknowledging 

L my obligations to thefe genilemen for the politenefs 

1 and humanity of their behaviour in their private capa- 

city, and particularly to Mr. Douglas, who beii^ tjua- 
lified by bis knowledge of the French language to in- 
I lerpret between w-, undertook that office with a cour- 

tefy and politenefs which very much increafcd the 
value of the favour. After this we parted, and at their 
leaving the (hip, I faluted them with nine guns. 
■*^y "S- The next morning the fliebander was fent to acquaint 
' me, that the Governor and Council had confirmed the 

engagement which had been made with me on their 

I behalf. Every thing was now fettled much to my fa 

lisfaQion,exeept the procuring money for my bills upon 
the government of Great Britain, which the fliebander 
f^id he would folicit. At eight o'clodt in the evening, 
he came on board again, to let me know that there was 
not any perfon in the town who had money to remit 
to Europe, and that there was not a dollar in the Com- 
pany's cheft. I anfwered, that as I was not permitted 
to go on ihorc to negotiate my bills myfelf, 1 hoped 
ihey would give me credit, offering him bills for any 
debt I fhould contraa, or to pay it at Batavia. To this 
the fhebander replied, that the Refident at Bonthain, 
the place to which I was going, would receive orders 
to fupply me with whatever I fliould want, and would 
be glad 10 take my bills in return, as he had money to 
remit, and was himfelf to go to Europe the next feafon. 
He told me alfo, that he had confiderable property in 
England, being a denifon of that country ; " and, faid 
" the fliebander, he has alfo money in my hands, with 
" which I will purchafe fuch things as you want from 
" Macaffar, and fee that they are fent after you." Hav- 
ing fpecified what thefc articles were 10 be, and agreed 
with him for the quantity and the price, we parted. 
Sautd. 19. The next day, in the afternoon, I received a letter, 
figned by the Governor and Council of Macaffar, con- 
taining the reafons why 1 was fent to Bonthain, and 


confirming the vetiMi agrefemcal whadi fidbfifled be- ^»^- 
tween us. 

Soon after, the Enfign M. Le. Ccrf, the Secrelwj 
of the Council, and a pilot, came oo board to atteed 
us to Bonthain. Le Cerf was to osminand thefoldiers 
who were on board the guard-boats ; and the Secre- 
tary, as we afterwards difcovered, was to be a check 
upon the Refident, wfaofe name was SweHingrabeL 
This gendeoian^s Cither died Second Govenior at the 
Cape of Good Hope, where he married an Eaghik 
lady of the name of Fothergi]L Mr. SweUiagnteip 
the Refident here, married Uie danalirer of Cornelias 
Sinkdaar, who had been Governor of Macaflar, and 
died about two years ago in England, having come 
hither to fee (ome of his nMMher's relatiom. 


Tranfa&Uns st Btntbiun^ wbik the Vijfd wm wmthig 
for a Wind u carry bar u BMrnfm, wkb fime ifr- 
€ouni of the Plaa^ the mm rf MiMfffar, mni ife 
accent Couniry. 

nr^HE next morning at day-break we failed, and sona. oo. 

X the day foUowing in the afternoon we anchored MoikUj it. 
in Bonthain road with our two guard-boats, which 
were immediately moored clofe into the (here, to piv- 
vent the country boats from coming near us, and our 
boats from going near them. As foon as I arrived at 
this place, I altered our reckoning. I had loft about 
eighteen hours, in coming by the weft and the Euro- 
peans that we found here, having come by the eaft,had 
gained about fix, fo that the difference was juft a day. 

I immediately waited upon the Refident, Mr. Swell* 
ingrabel, who fpoke Englifli but very imperfedly, and 
having fettled with him all matters relating to money 
and provifions, a houfe was allotted me near the fea<^ 
fide, and clofe to a little pallifadoed fort of eight guns, 
the only one in this place, which I converted into an 
h^fHtal, under the diredion of the furgeon ; to thii 
place I immediately fent all the people who were 
thought incapable of recovering on board, and referv^ 

VoL.L Z . «d 


ed the reft as a fecuriiy againft accidents. As Toon as 
'■ our people were on (here, aguard of thirty-fix private 
laen, two feijcants, and two corporals, all under the 
command of Enlign.Le Cerf, was fetovcr them ; and 
none of ihem were fufFered to go more than thirty 
yards from the hofpiial, nor were any of the country 
people, allowed to come near enough to fel! them any 
ihing ; fo thst oiw men got nothing of them, but 
through the hands of the Dutch foldicrs, who abufed 
iheir power very ftiamefuUy. When they faw any of the 
coiiniry people carrying what ihey thought our ltivahd» 
would purchafe, they firll took it a*ay and then aflted 
the price . whnt was dcinandcd fignified little, the 
bidier gave what he thoaght proper, which was feldoia 
one fourth of the value ; and if the countryman ven- 
tured to expfefs any difcontent, he gave him immedi- 
ately an earncft of perfefl fallsfaflien, by flourifliing 
hi? broad-fword over his head ; this was always fuffi- 
etent to filence complaijit, and fend the fuffcrer quietly 
away: after which the foldier fold what he had thus 
acquired for profit of fometitnes more than a thoufand 
per cent. This behaviour was fo cruel to the natives, 
3rd (o injurious to us, that I ventured to complaia 
©f it to the Reftdent, and the other two genliemen, 
Le Cerf and the Secretary, The Relident, with becom- 
ing fpifil, reprimanded ihe ibldiers ; but it produced 
fo little effect, that 1 coald not help entertaining fufpici- 
ons, that Le Cerf, connived at thefe praQices, and 
fhared the advantages which they produced I fufpcft- 
ed him alfo of felling arrack to my people, of which I 
complained, but without redrefs, and I know that hii 
flaves. were employed to buy things at the market, 
which his wife afterwards fold to us for more than 
twice as. much as they cod. The foldiers were indeed 
guilty of many other irregularities ; it was the duty of 
one of thetrv by rotation to procure the day's provifion 
for the whole guard, a fervice which he conflanlly per- 
formed by going into the country with his mufquet 
and a bag ; nor was the honefi provcditor always con- 
tent with what the bag would contain, for one of them, 
without any ceremony, drove down a young buffalo 
that belonged to fame of tlie country people, and his 
comrades, not having wood at hand to dreb it wheo 


it was killedy fupplied themfelves hy pulling down ^^* 

fome of the pallifadocs of the fort. When this was re- , \ 

ported to me, I thought it fo extraordinary, that I '"^ 
went on fhore to fee the breach^ and found the poor 
black people repairing it. 

On the 26th a (loop laden with rice was fent out Sttvrd. itf. 
from this place in order to land her cargo at Macaflar ; 
but after having attempted three days (he was forced 
to return. The weather was now exceedingly tem- 
peftuous, and all navigation at an end from eaft to 
weft till the return of the eaftern monfoon. On the 
fame day two large (loops that were bound to theeaft- 
ward anchored here^ and the next morning alfo a large Sund. 17, 
(hip from Batavia, with troops on board for the Ban- 
da Iflands ; but none of the crew of any of thefe veflels 
were fufFered to fpeak to any of our people, our boats 
being reft rained from going on board them, and theirs 
from coming on board us. As this was a mortifying 
reftridion, we requefted Mr. Swellingrabel to buy us 
fome fait meat from the large (hip ; and he was fo 
obliging as to procure us four ca(ks of very good Euro- 
pean meat, two of pork and two of beef. 

On the 28th a fleet of more than a hundred failMond. x8. 
of the fmall country velfels called Proas, anchored 
here ; the*ir burthen is from twelve to eighteen and 
twenty tons, and they carry from fixteen to twenty 
men. I was told that they carried on a fi(hery round 
the ifland, going out with one monfoon, and coming 
back with the other, fo as always to keep under the 
lee of the land ; the (i(h was fent to the China market, 
and I obferved that all thefe vefTels carried Dutch co- 

No event worthy of notice happened till the i8th 
of January, and then I learnt by a letter from Maca(rar 
that the Dolphin had been at Batavia. On the 28th 
the Secretary of the Council, who had been fent hither 
with Le Cerf, as we fuppofed to be a check upon the 
Refident, was recalled to Maca(rar. By this time our 
Carpenter, having in a great degree recovered his 
health, examined the ftate of our ve(rel, and to our 
great regret (he appeared to l^e very leaky ; our main 
yard alfo was found not only to be fprung, but to be 
rotten and unfervice^e. We got it down and patch- 

Z 2 fiJi 


ed it up as well as we could, without cither iron or n 
forge, !'o that we hoped k would fervc us till we got to 
Batavia, fornowood was to be procured hereof which 
a new one could be made. To our leaks very Utile 
could be done, and we were therefore reduced to an 
Abniuy. intire dependence on our pumps. 

Fiidij ig. On Friday the 19th of February Le Cerf, ihemUi- 
tary officer who commanded the foldiers on Ihore, was 
tomb, recalled, as it was faid, to fit out an expedition for the 
jBoiidi;?. ifland of Baity ; on the 7th of March, the largell oi 
r our ^ard-boats, a floop about forty-five tons, was 

ordered back to MacalTar with part of thefoldiers ; and 
^^- 9- on the 9th the Refidcnt, Mr. SweHingr^bel, received 
a letter from the Governor of that place, enquiring 
when I fhould fail for Batavia. I mull confefs that I 
was furprifed at the rceal of the officer'and the guard- 
boat ; but I was much more furpri/ed at the contents 
of the Governor's letter, becaufe he knew that it was 
impoHible I (hould fail till May, as the eaflcrn monfooti 
would not fooner fet in.' All matters however remain- 
ed in the fame fil nation tiil near the end of 1 he month, 
when fome of my people took notice, that for a ftiort 
time palt a fmall canoe had gone round us fevera! times 
at different houri of the night, and had difappcared as 
fbon fas thofe ofi board perceived any body ftirring in 
Tuea.19. the fl)ip. Onfhea9ihr while thefe things were the 
fubjeSts of fpeculatiM, one of nty ofiicers.who came 
fronHheihore brought me a letter, which he faid had 
been delivered to bim t^ a black man : it was dire3ed, 
" to the commander of the Englifh (hip at Bonthyn." 
That the Reader may underftand this letter, it is ne- 
eeflary 10 acquaint him, that the ifland of Celebes is 
divided into feveral diftriSs, which are diflindi fove- 
rcignties of the native princes. The town of Macaflkr 
is in a diftrifil called alfo MacalTar-, or Bony, the King 
(^ which is in alliance with theDatch, who have been 
n>any rimes repulfed in an attempt to reduce other parts 
of the ifland, one of which is inhabited'by a people 
called Eugguefes, and another is callen Waggs or To-' 
fora. The town of Tofora is- fortified with cannon ; 
for tlie rmlives had been long fumifhed with ftre-amw 


frcim Europe^ before die Dutch fettled tfaemfeliM at if^ 

Macaflfar in the room of the Portugueic. 

The letter acquainted me^ that a defigti had been 
formed by the Dutch, in conjundioa with the King 
of Bony> to cut us off; that the Dutch however were 
not to appear in it ; that the buiinefs wa6 to be done 
by a Ton of the King of Bony, who was, befides a 
gratuity from the Dutch, to receive the plunder of the 
vellel for his reward, and who, with eight hundi'ed 
men, was then at Bonthain for that purpofe ; that the 
motive was jealoufy of our forming a coRne3:iOEi with 
the Bugguefes, and other, people of the country^ who 
were at enmity with the Dutch and their allies, and 
driving them out of the ifland 4 or at leaft a fufpicion 
that, if we got back to England, fome projed; of that 
kind might be founded upon the intelligence we ihould 
give, no Englifli man of war, as I have already obferv- 
ed, having ever beea known to have vifited the iiland 

This letter wa« a new fubjeS of furprife And fpecu- 
lation. It was extremely ill written with refped to the 
ftyle and manner, yet it did not therefore the lefs de- 
ferve notice. How far the intelligence which it ton- 
tained was true or falfe, I was utterly unable to deter- 
mine : it was poffible that the writ^ might be de- 
ceived himfelf ; it was alfo poiHble, that he might 
have forae view in wilfully deceiving me : the falfhood 
might procure forae little reward for the kindnefs and 
zeal which it placed to his account, or it nfiight give 
him an importance wUck would at leaft be a gratifi* 
cation to his vanity. It behoved me however to take 
the fame meafures as if I had known it to be true 4 
and I muft confefs, that I was ndt perfedly at eafe 
when I recoUeded the recal of the Secretary and Le 
Cerf, with the large floop, andpart of thefoldiers who 
were faid to have been fent hither for no other rea* 
fon than to guard us againft the infults of the country 
people ; the aflferobling an arnned forc^ at Macadar, 
as it was faid for an expedition to Bally ; and the 
little canoe that we had teen vowing round us in the 
night, not to siention the Governor's enquiry by let- 
ter, when we intended to leave the ifland. However, 



176I. whether either our intelligence or conjeQu res were true 
^*" ' , or falfe, we immediately went to work ; we ti^ed 
the (hip, bent the fails, unmoored, got Cprings upon 
our cables, loaded all our guns, and barricadoed the 
deck. At night every body flcpt under arms, and the 
Wedncf, 30. next day we warped the vefTel farther oiF trom the bot- 
tom of the bay, towards the eallern Ihore, that we 
might have more room, fixed four fwivcl guns on 
the fore part of the quarter-deck, and took every 
other meafure that appeared to be necelTary for our 

The Refident, Mr. Sweliingrabel, was at this time 
abfent twenty miles up the country upon the Compa- 
ny's bufincfi, but had told me, that he fhould ceriain- 
Ily return on ihe ifl of April, a day which I now es- 
pe£ted with great impatience, efpecially as an old 
drunken Serjeant was the moft refpeftable perfon at the 
(ort. In ihe evening of the 31ft, a packet of letters 
for him arrived here from MacafTar, which I confider- 
ed as a good omen, and a pledge of his return at the 
time appointed ; bm I conceived very different fenti- 
jiients when I learnt that they were fent to him. I did 
not fufpefl that he was privy to any fuch dcfign as had 
been intimated lo me by the ietier; but I could not 
help doubting, whether he was not kept in the country 
that he might be out of the way when it (hoiild be 
executed. In this ftate of anxiety and fufpence I fent 
a mefTagc to the fort, defiring that an exprefs might 
be difpatched to him, to acquaint him that 1 wifhed lo 
fee him immediately upon bufi'neis of great importance, 
which would admit of no delay. Whether my mefTagc 
was forwarded to him or not, I cannot tell ; but hav- 
ApriU ing waited till the 4ih of April, without having feen 
Mondajr 4. him or received any anfwer, I wrote him a letter, rc- 
quefting to fpeak with him, in the mofl prelTing terms, 
T<rH- s- ^^ '^^ '*^^^ ^^y ^* rame on board. A few minuter 
convifKed me that he was wholly a Granger to any 
fuch defign as 1 had been made to apprehend ; and he 
was-clearly of opinion that no fuch defign had been 
formed. He faid, indeed, that one Tomilaly, a coun- 
fellor er minifler of the King of Bony, had lately p&id 
hun a .vifit, and had not welt accounted for his t«ing 
in l))i$ piirt of the country ; and, at my requeft, he 
^M^. very 


very readilj uodertook to make iu^btr ci f yMi e s con- 
cerning him and his pcopSe. The Rdidcnt and his s^^ 
attendants took nonce dot the (hip vjs |Hit into a ftate 
of defence, and that eYoy these was rady for inune- 
<liate adioo ; and hetoU us, that the people os ihore 
had acquainted him, hefove he came c-o hoard, with 
our vigibnce and adi^itr, and in paiticnlar, with our 
having exerciftd the fliip'scampany at finail arm> every 
day. i informed him, that we ibould, at aK events, 
continue apon our guard, which he feemed to approve, 
and we parted with mutual protcftations of friendihip 
and good faith. After a few days he feet me word, 
that having made a very Arid inquiry, whether any 
other perfons belonging to the Kii^ o: Bony had been 
at Bonthaln, he had been credibly informed, that one 
of the Princes of that kingdom had been there in dif- 
guiie ; but that of the eight hundred men who were 
faid in my intelligence to be with him, he could find 
no traces ; fo that, except they too, like the troops 
of the King of Brentford, were an anny in difguife^ 
i knew that no fuch people<ould be in that country. 

On the 16th, in the morning, the Refident fent*me Satur. 16. 
word, that M. Le Cerf was returned from MacatTar 
with an other oflker, and that they would <:ome oh 
board and dine with me. When dinner was over, I 
afked Le Cerf, among other converfation, while we 
were taking our wine, what was become of his eicpe- 
dition to BaHy ? To which he anfwered drily, that it 
was laid afide, widiout faying any thing more upon the 
fubjed. On the 23d he retoraed toMacaffar by fea, 
and the other officer who was alfo an enfign, remain- 
ed to take the command of the foldiers that were fiill 
left at this place. 

The feafon now approached in which navigation to 
the weft ward would be again pra£licabie, which gave 
us all great pleafure ; efpecially as putrid difeafes had 
begun to make their appearance among us, atid a pu- 
trid fever had carried off one of our people. 

On the 7th of May the Refident gave me a ^onggj^^T 
letter from the Governor of MacalTar, w hich was writ- 
ten in Dutch, and of which he gave me the bed inter- 
pretation he was able. The general purport of it was, 
tiiat he had hearcf a letter had been fent to me 



1769. charging him, in conjun&ion with ihefcing of Bony, 
fJ^^L^ wilh a defign to cut us off: thai the letter was altoge- 
ther falfe, exculpating himfdf with the moft folcmn 
proteftationi, and requiring the letter to be dehvered 
up, that the writer might be brought to fuch piinifli- 
ment as'he defervcd. It is fcareely neceflary to fay (hat 
I did not deliver op the letter, becaufe the writer would 
tertainly have been punifhed with equal feverity whe- 
ther it was true or falfe ; but T returned the Governor 
I a polite anfwer, in which I juftified the meafures I,had 

taken, without impntilig any evil defign to him or his 
allies 1 andindeedthereis the grealeft reafon to believe, 
that there was not fufficient ground for the charge con- 
tained in the letter, though it is not equally probable 
that the writter believed it to be falfe. 
Sand, »». j\j day-break, on Sunday the 22d of May, we failed 
from this place, of which, and of tlic town of Mscaf- 
far, and the adjacent country, I (hall fay but little, there 
being many accounts of the iiland of Celebes and its 
[ inhabitants already extant. The town is built upon a 

kind of point or neck of land, and is watered by a river 
or two which either run through, or very near it. It 
feems tobe large, and there is water for a (hip to come 
wlthinhalf cannon ihot of the walls: the country about 
it is level, and ha5 a moft beautiful appearance; it 
abounds ~with plantations, and grovesof cocoa nut trees, 
with a great Dumber of hmrfes intcrfperfed, by which 
it appears to abound with people. At a diflance 
inlatrd, the country Tifes into lulls of a great height, 
and becomes rude and mountainous. The town lies in 
latitude 5° 10' or 50 12' S. and longitude by account 
117° 28' E of London. 

fionthain is a large bay, where fhips may tic in per« 
fe£t fecurtty during both the monfoons: the foundings 
are good and regular, and the bottom foft ifud ; nor is 
there any danger incoming in,but a ledge of rocks which 
are above water, and are 2 good mark for andioring. 
The highefl land ia fight here is catted Bonthain hill, 
and when a {hip is in the offing at the diflance of two 
or three miles from the land, fhe ihould bring this (Hll 
north, or N. | W. and (hen run in with it and anchor. 
Wc lay right under it« at the diftance of about a mile 
from thi ihore. In thift \aii it^tn. ue (everal rmall 


tbwns ; that which is called Bonthain lies in the north- »T*J- 
eaft part of the bay, and here is the fmali palltfadoed ' 

fort that has been mentioned already, on which there 
ane mounted eight gons that carry a ball of about eight 
pounds weight : it is jnft fufficient to keep the country 
people in fubjeAion, and is intended for no other pur- 
pofe : it lies on the fouth fide of a fmall river, and there 
is water for a (hip to come clofe to it. The Dutch 
Refident has the command of the place, and of Bullo- 
eomba, another town which lies about twenty miies 
^stftber to the eaftward, where there is fuch another 
fort, and a few foldiers^ who at the proper feafon are 
employed in gathering the rice, which the people pay 
as a tax to the Dutch. 

Wood «id water are to be procured here in great 
plenty ;'wecut our wood near the river, under Bonthain 
bill : our water was procured partly from that river, 
and partly from another ; when from the other, our 
boat went above the fort with the caiks that were to be 
filled, where there is a good rolling way ; but as the 
rivver is fmall, and has a bar, the boat, after it is loaded, 
can come out only at high water. There are feveral 
other fmall rivers in the bay, from which water may 
be got upon occafion. 

We procured plenty of frefh provifions all the while 
we lay here at a reafcnable rate ; the beef is excellent ; 
but it would be difficult to procure enough of it for 
a fquadron. Rice may be had in any quantity, fo may 
fowls and fruit : there are alfo abundance of wild hogs 
in the woods, which may be purchaftd at a low price, 
as the natives, being Mahometans, never eat them. 
Fiihnvay becai^ht with the feine, and the natives, at 
times, fupplied us with turtle, for this, like pork, is 
a dainty which they never touch. 

Celebes is the key of the Molucca, or (pice iflands, 
which, whoever is in poffeffion of it, muft neceffarily 
command: moil of the fhips that are bound to them, 
or to Banda, touch here, and always go between this 
ifland and that of Solayer. The bullocks here are the 
breed that have the bunch on the back, befides which 
the ifland produces horfes, buffaloes, goats, fheep, and 
dcers. The arrack and fugar that are confumed here 
^re brought from Bafavia. 


1768. The latitude of Bontliain hill is 5° 30' S. longitude 

'''■ by account 1 1 70 53' E. The variation of the compafa 
while we were here was i" 1 6' W, The tides are very 
irregular ; commanly it is but ooce high water and 
once low wal«r in four and twenty hours, and there is 
feldom fix feet difference between ihein. 

CHAP. xir. 

Papge from Benthain Bay, in the IJloTid of Cclibes, la 
Batavia. Tranfailion! there, and _ the Voyage round 
thi Cape of Good Hope ta England. 

WHEN we left Bonthaln Bay, we kept along the 
ftiore, at the di fiance of two or three miles, 
liil evening, and then anchored for the night, in the 
pair,ige between the two iflands of Celebes and Toni- 
kaky, in feven fathoms and an half, with a bottom of 
foft mud. The next morning, we got again under fail, 
and took our departure from Tonikaky, which, accord- 
ing to my account, lies in latitude 5" 31' S. longitude 
117° I 7' E. the variation here was i" W. We went 
to the fouthward of Tonikaky, and flood to the weft- 
ward. About three o'clock in the afternoon, we were 
a-brcaft of the eaftermoft of the iflands which in the 
Dutch charts are called Tonyn's Iflands, This idand 
bore, from us about N. by W. at the diflance of four 
miles, and the two weflermoft were in fight. Thefe 
three iflands make a kind of right angle triangle with 
each other : the diflance between the eaftermoft and 
weftermoll is about eleven miles, and their relative 
bearings are very nearly eaft and weft. The diftance 
between the two weftermoft is nearly the fame, and 
they bear to each other S. by E. and N. by W. About 
fix o'clock, having juft founded, and got no ground,we 
fuddenly found ourfelves upon afhoal, with not three 
fathoms, and the water being fmooth and clear, we 
could fee great crags of ceral rocks under our bottom : 
we immediately threw all the fails a-back. and happily 
got off without damage : we had juft pafted over 
the eaftermoft edge of it, which is as fteep as awall, 
tor we had not gune back two cables length before we 
. u'cie outof foundings again. At ihi$ time we had the 
K two 


two wcftcnnoft of the Tonrn Iflands in one, beariBg" »7**- 
N. bv W. at the diRsaxK ot tbtnewhat more thanfoor 
miles frofn the oeardL This is a ¥eiy dafi^<ero(» liiouly 
and is not laid down in anT chart that I have (em : it 
feemed to extend itieit to the Southward and wetlward, 
all round the two weftermod of theie three filand>, for 
near fix miles, but about the eaftermoft ifland there 
feemed to be no danger ; there was alio a clear pofllase 
between this ifiand and the other two. The ktituJe 
of the eaflerrooft and weftertnoft of thele iilands is ^ 
3 1^ S. The eaftermoft is ditlant thtrty-fofir miles doe 
wed from Tonikakv. and the weftennoft lies ten 
miles farther. 

In the afternoon of the 25th we foood the water VciiMCas. 
much difcoloured, upon which we fcunced, ar.d had 
five and thirty ^thoins, with Mt mod. Soon after we 
went over the northermoft part of a ihoal, and hid no 
more than ten fathoms, with fett mud. In thispiice, 
where we found the water iballoweft,it was very foul ; 
it feemed to be ftill ihallower to the ibuthward, but to 
the northward of us it appeared to be clear. We had 
no obfervation this day, by which I could a(certainthe 
latitude, but I believe this to be the northermoft part 
of the {hoals that lie to the eaftward ot the iftand Ma- 
dura, and in the Engliih Eaft India Pilot are called 
Bralleron's Shoak, the fame which in the Dutch charts 
are called Kalcain's Eyiandens. By my reckoning, the . 
part that we went over lies in 50 50' or 50 52' S. and 
30 36' to the weflward of the iiland Tonikaky, or S. 
84® 2 7' W. diftant fixty-n:ne leagues. At ele\'en o'clock 
the fame night, we faw, to the ncrihward of us, the 
fouthermoft of the idamis Salombo. I make its latitude 
to be 5» 33' S. and its long, weft of Tonikaky 4° 4', at 
the diftance of about eighty-two or eighty- three leagues. 
It bears from the laft ihoal N. W. by W. -J W. at the 
diftance of about fourteen leagues. It is to be remark- 
ed, that hereabout, off the ifland Madura, the winds 
of the monfoons are commonly a month later in fettling 
than at Celebes. The variation here was not more than 
half a degree weft, and we found the current, ^vhich .^. ^ 
before fet to the fouthward, now fetring to the N. W. 

In the alternoon of the 26th we faw from the mi^ft- 
head the ifland of Luback^ and had foundings from 
thirty-five to forty fathoir bottom of bUuQx 



clay. The latitude of this ifland is j" 43' S. and its 
longitniie 5036' well of Tonikaky, from which it is dif- 
rant about one hundred and twelve leagues. Its dillauce 
weftfromihe ifland? of Salombo, ii thirty-one le^ues : 
we went to the northward of this ijland, and found a 
current letting to the Vv . N. W. 

In the evening of Sunday the agth we faw the cluf- 
'■ ter of fmall iHands called Ca rim on- Java, Thelatitude 
of the eaftermoft, which is alfo the largeft, is 5' 48' S. 
and its longitude, weft of Tonikaky, 70 52'. From this 
iflaud i[ is dillant about one hundred and fifty-eight 
leagues, and forty-five leagues from Luback, 

Un 'Ilmrfday the 2d of June, we hauled in and 
made the land of Java, which proved to be that part 
of the ifland which makes the eaftermoft point of the 
bay ofBatavia, called Carawawang Point. When we 
fiill got fight of the land, wc had gradually decreafed 
our foimdings from forty to twenty-eight fathoms, 
with a bottom of bluifli mud. As we fteered along the 
Ihore for Batavia, we decreafed ihcm gradually, ftill 
farther, to thirteen fathoms, the depth in ivhich, night 
coming on, we anchored near the two fmall iftands 
called l.cydcn and Alkm-ir, in fight of Bafavia ; and 
in the afternoon of the next day, wc anchored in the 
Road, which is fo good that it may weH be confidercd 
a* an harbour. We had now great reafon to congra- 
tulate ourfelves upon our lituation,for during the whole 
of ourpafiage from Celebes, the ihip admitted fumuch 
water by her leaks, that it was all we could do to keep 
her from finking, with two pumps conftantiy going. 

We found here eleven large Dutch fhips, befides fe- 
veral that were tefs, one Spanilh ftitp, a Portuguefe 
fnow, and feveral Chinefe junks. The next morning 
we faluted the town with eleven guns, and the fame 
number was returned As this was the birth-day of 
his Britannic Majefty, our fovereign, we afterwards 
iired one and twenty guns more upon that occafion. 
We found the variation here to be lefs than half a de- 
gree tothe weflward. 

In the afternoon I waited upon the Governor, and 
ac(]uainted him with the condition of the fhip, deiir- 
ingl'berty to repair her defeifts. To which he replied, 
thai i mull petition the Council. 


C^ td« fry fifi'pTii^v . TTica: -vca^rnmEB^an*^ I 

^aei9 GeBBDe ic 2ae. Araer 

icB Of tic GoiCTXxr ct txoi ^^accyiaae:^ be poeaAwd. 

uuaco^ bst tsid. ilat f h&d ancr lold isr bcxir k «m« 
br Wn£x. The thrtu^^ r liaea i&ed me if I mxMiU 
tike as oadi dut I faad vtoisved 00 fixhlener, «s he 
iiad facts djTE^gd to dmagJ r To wUch I asfveYcd^ 
tbatlvasio^pdzed attbeqnefiaoB, aoddefired, riat 
if the Coonci faiid aoj ladi ogamiiDoii reqniuiioo to 
md&e ot me, it imziit be in vnini^y and I vooM give 
fuch replr, as, upoo mature conlideratioo, I (houid 
think proper. I then dcfired to know what anfwer he 
had beea isfhuded to give to toy letter, concerning 
the reStting of the (hip ; opon which he told me, that 
ihe Conndl had taken offence at my having ufed the 
word bfpe^ and not written in the ftile of requeft, which 
had been invariably adopted by all merchants upon the 
likeoccafion : I replied, that no offence was intended 
on my part, and that I had ufed the firft words which 
occurred^ to me, as proper to exprefs my me4nin|r« 
Thus we parted, and I heard nothing more of them 
till the afternoon of the 9th, when the (hebander, and 
the fame two gentlemen, came to me a fecond timc,*^^*"**' • 
The ihebander faid, that he was then commhrioncd 
from the Council, to require a writing under my imnd» 
fignifying, that I believed the report of an intention 
formed at theifland of Celebes to cut off my Ihipi wan 
falfe and malicious, faying th:u he hoped I had a better 
opinion of the Dutch nation than to fuppofe them ca- 
pable of fuffering (0 execrable a fa 61 to be perpetrated 



'76'- under their Government. Mr, Garrifon then read mf 
V . , °^_f ^ certificate, which, by order of ihe CoitBcil, had bec« 
drawn up tor me lo fign ; as, whatever was my opini- 
on,! did not think it advifeable 10 fign fuch a certificnre, 
. efpecially as it appeared to be made a condition ot com- 

plying with my rcqueft by the delay of an anfwer du- 
ring this Idiciiaiion, I delirerf Ihe Ihebander to flicw 
me hisautliority for the ret^uifirion he had made; he 
replied, that he had no leftimony of aurhority but the 
tiotoritty of his being a public officer, and the evidence 
ot" the gentlemen that were with him, confi;ming his 
own declaration, that he afled in this particular by the 
expiels order of the Council. I then repeated my 
reqoefl, that whatever the Council required of me 
might be given me in writing, that the fcnfe of it might 
be tixtd and certain, and that I might have time 10 
confider of my reply ; but he gave me to underfland 
that he could nor do this without an order from the 
Council and [then abiblutely refufed to fign the pa- 
per, at the fame time defiring an anfwer to my letter ; 
which they not being prepared to give, we parted, 
not in very good humour with each other. 

After this, I waited in fruitlefs eKpeifation till the 
1 5ih, when the fame three gentlemen came 10 me the 
third time, and faid they had been fent to tell me, 
that the Council had protelled againft my behaviour at 
MacafTar, and my having refufed to fign the certificate 
which had been required of me, was an infult upon them. 
and an a3 of injuClice to their nation. 1 replied, that 
. I was not confcious of having in any inftance a^^ed con- 
trary to the treaties fubfiftingfbpt ween the twokingdoms 
unworthy of my charader as an ofEcer, hottoured with 
a comrainion of his Britannic Majefty, or unfuitable 
to the truft repofed in me, though I did not think I 
had been ufed by the Governor of MacafTar as the fub- 
jeA of a friend and ally ; dcfiring that if they had any 
thing to alledge againll me, it might be reduced to 
writing, and laid before the King my Mafler, to whom 
alone I thought myfelf amenable. With this anfwer 
they again departed, and the next day, having not yet 
Thuit 16. received any anfwer to my letter, I wrote a fecond, 
dirc3ed like the firft, in which I reprefented that the 


ihip's leaks were ewaj dbf mcnaiaf, mA wpoly ia 
more pre fl in g tcnnf, 1117 rcqotft, xhaz flie v a L^ be 
repaimiy and that the vie of vfiaf& aod flonJiiMtes 
might be afibrded oie. 

Qd the iStfa the ftebaadercane asxio to me, aaiSttML it. 
acquainted me, that the Coecxil tud giien ordcfs far 
the repair of the fl^at Onraft, and, astheie was no 
ftore-hoafe ensptjylnd ap po uKe doac €if the Co mpuw^ s 
yeflels to attend me, and take in mf Aofcs. I inqoircd 
whether there was not an aniwcr to m j letter in writ- 
ing ? To which he anfwcred in die negative^ adifit^, 
that it was not ufnal ; a m eflj g e by hiniy or fbme 
other officer, having bees always thought fsfficient. 

After thb I was foppBed, formjmonej, withererj 
thing I could defire, from dbe Co mp a ny 's ftotesy with- 
out any farther difBcolty. 

A pilot was ordered to attend me, and on the sid^***^*^ 
we anchored at Onmft, wheie having cleared the ihip, 
and put her ftores on board the Company's vefle!, we 
found the bow-fprit and cap^ as well as the main-^yard, 
rotten, and altogether unferriceable, the (heathing eve* 
ry where eaten off by the worms, and the main planks 
of the (hip's bottom lb mnch damaged and decayed, 
that it was abfolutdy ntctBkrj to heave her down, be- 
fore (he could be fufficiently repaired to (ail for Europe ; 
but as other (hips were already heaved down, and con- 
fequently the whar& at this time pre-occupied, the Suniy^*t4, 
carpenters conld not begin their work till the 24th of 

Under the hands of thefe people the (hip continued 
till Tuefday the i6th of Auguft. When they came to Ai^ft. 
examine her bottpm, they found it fo bad that they '^***"- '^ 
were unanimoufly of opinion it (hould be (hifted : this, 
however, I drenuoufly oppofed ; I knew (he was an old 
Yhip, and I was afraid that if her bottom was opened 
It might be (bund ftill worfe than it was thought^ and 
poflibly fo bad as that, like the Falmouth, Ihc might 
be condemned ; I therefore defired that a good (heath- 
ing only might be put over all ; but the bawfe, or maf- 
ter carpenter, would not confent, except I would cer- 
tify under my hand, that what (hould be done to the 
(hip was not according to his judgment but my own, 

4 which 

I -■ JIP.V 


which he faid was neceffary for his juflification, if, 
after fuch repairs only as I thoughl fit lo diteH had been 
made, the Ihip (hould come ihort of her port. As I 
thought this a reafonable propofition, 1 readily com- 
plied ; but as I was now become anfwerable for ihe 
fate of the Hiip, I had her carefully examined by my 
own Carpenter and liis Mate, myfelf and officers al- 
ways atteniline:. The hut-ends of the planks that 
joined to the ftern were fo open, that a man's hand 
might be thruft in between ; feven chain-piates were 
broken and decayed, the iron-work, in general, was in 
a very bad ftate : feveral of the knees were toofe, and 
fome of them were broken. 

While 1 remained here, twolhip5 belonging to our 
India Company pnt into this port, and we found, a- 
mong other privmc ihips from India, one called the 
Dudly, from Bengal, which had proved fo leaky that 
it was impoflible to carry her back. Application 
had been made to the Governor and Council for leave 
to careen her, which had been granted ; but as the 
wharfs had been kept in contintial ufe, Ihe had been 
put off above four months. The Captain, rot without 
reafon, was apprehenfive that he might be kept here 
till ths worms Jiad eaten through the hotlum of his 
veflfel, and ktiowii^ that I had received particular civili- 
ties from Admiral Houting,applted tome to intercede {at 
hiun, which I was very happy to do with fuch fuccefi, 
that a wharf was immeiliately atlottediitr. M. Houtiag 
is an old man, and an Admiral in thefervice of the 
States, with the rank of Commander in Chief of their 
marine, and the fliips belonging to the Company ia 
India. He received hh firft maritime knowledge on 
board an Englifh man of war, fpcaks Englilh and 
French extremely well, and does honour to the fcrvice 
both by his abilities and polittnefs : he wasfo obliging 
as to^ive me a general invitation to his tabic, in con> 
fe<|uence of which I was often wi^h him, and it b 
with pleafure that I takie this opportunity ofmakiag 
a public ackaowledgmetit of the favours I received 
from hiiDt and bearing this teftimony to his public 
and private merits : he was indeed the only officer be- 


longing to the Compsny from whom I l e c c iv e d anj 
civility, or with whom I had the leaft mmrnnnintinn ; 
for I found them, in general, a rdienred and fopcrdii- 
OU5 fet ot people. The Governor, although the ienrant 
of a republic, takes upon himfelf naore flate, in iowc 
particulars, than any (bvereign prince in Elurope. 
Whenever he goes abroad, he is attended by a pfftj 
of horfe guards, and two bladL men to go before hit 
coach, in the manner of running feotoien, each having 
a large cane in his hand, with which they not only dear 
the way, but feverdy chaftife all who do not piy 
the homage that is expeded from people of all rankf* 
as well thofe belonging to the country, as ftraxigers. iU* 
mod every body in this place keeps a carriage, which 
is drawn by two horfes, and driven by a man upon a 
box, like our chariots, but is open in front : whoefcr^ 
in fuch a carriage, meets the Governor, either in the 
town or upon the road, is ezpeSed not only to draw 
it on one fide, but to get oat of it, and mike a moft 
refpe3ful obeifance while Ins Ezcdlency*s coach goes 
by ; nor muft any carriage that follows him drive paft 
on any account, but keep behind him, however jmf- 
iing be the neceflity for haAe. A very mortifying ho- 
tnage». of the fame kind, is alfo ezaded by the mem- 
bers of the Council, called EdeleHeeren ; for whoever 
meets them is obliged to (lop his coach, and, thoo£^ 
not to get out, tolbmd up in it, and make his reverence ;. 
thefe £(dde Heeren are preceded by one black man 
with a (lick, nor muft any per(bn prefume to pafs tfadr 
carriage any more than that of the Governor. Tbefe. 
ceremonies are generally complied with by the CapUuns 
of Indiamen, and other trading (hips; but, having the 
honour to bear his Majedy's commU&on, I did not 
think myfelf at liberty to pay, to a Dutch Governor, 
any homage, which is not paid to my own fo- 
vereign ; it is^ however, condantly required of , the 
King's officers ; and two or three days after I came 
hither, the landlord of the hotel where I lodged, told 
me, he had been ordered by the (hebander to let me 
know, that my carriage, as well as others, muft ftop, 
if I (hould meet the Governor or any of the Council ; 
but I de(ired him to acquaint the (hebs^nder that I could 
not confent to perform any fuch ceremony ; and upon his 
intimating lomewhat about the black nicn with fticks. 
Vol. I. A a I told 

PU.i.^ LJL» J». ^ . .1 


'7*!- I lold him thai if any infiilt (hould be ofFered ne, I 
. *"^^» knew how todefemJ myfelf, and would take care to be 
upon my guard ; at the fame time pointing lo my pif- 
tcls, which then happened to lie upon the table : upon 
this he went away, and about three hours afterwards 
he returned, jnd told me he had orders from the Go- 
vernor to acquaint me that I might do as I pteafed. 
The hotel at which I refided is Ucenfed by the Gover- 
W nor and Council, and al! ftrangers are obliged lo take 

"■i up their abode there, ^Kcept officers in his Majefty's 

fcrvicc, who are allowed private lodgings, which, 
however, I did not ehofc. 

At this place I continued between three atid four 
nlonths, and during all that time I had the honour to 

tfee'iheGoTCrnor but twice : the firft time was at my 
aTriviI, when I waited upon him at one of his houfes, 
;t linle way in the country; the next was in town, as 
he was walking before his houfe there, whea ! ad- 
dtelTed him upon a particular occafion. Soon after the 

rnews bf the Prince of Orange's marriage arrived here, 
hegave a public entertainment, to which I had the ho- 
nour of being invited ; but having heard, that Com- 
mCdorcTinker, upon a likeoccalion, finding that he 
was to be placed below the gentlemen of the Dutch 
Council, bad abruptly left the room, and was followed 

I by all the Captains of his fquadron ; and being willing 

to ^voiJ the difagreeable dilemma of either fitting be- 
Ibft' (hc'Coimdl, w foHowhig the Commodore's exam- 
gle,J applied to theGovernor to know the Itatton th«t 
tfQ'i!i\d be allotted mc^ before laccepted his invitati(Mi» 
Stia finding that I coutd not be permitted to take place 
of the Cotincil, I declined it. On both thefc occafi- 
orSi fpoketo his Extellency by an Engtifh merchant, 
fcifab aflednaninterpretci'. The firft time he hod not 
lite iivSlttto offer me the leaft refrclhineHt, nor did 
h^lb^ \m Vime ft> m«ch as a(k me m ga into the 
hoiife.,' "''/'■ 

The ^eQs bf the fliip were at length repaired, 
inuchtii niy falisfaSion, and I thought Iheinl^t then 
fultiy p^ff/cecd 'o Enrope, thou^ the Dutch carpenters 
}«efe of a different opinion. The proper feafon for 
tailing was not yet arrived, and my worthy friend, Ad- 
mir4 tioUTing, rcprfHcnted that if I went to Tea before 
'■'■'■ 'l" ' *•*• 


the proper time» I (honldineet withfuch vireatherofF the 
Cape of Good Hope as would jriake me repent it ; 
but being very ill myfelf, and the people being (ickly, 
I thought it better to run the riik of a few hard gales 
oflF the Cape, than remain longer in this unhealthy 
place, efpecially as the weft monfoon was fetting in, 
during which the mortality ber«s is yet greater than at 
other times. 

OnWednefday the 1 5th of September, therefore, September, 
we fet fail ffofn Onruft, where the (hip had been re- WedneC 15 
fitted, without returning, as is ufual, into Batavia 
Road ; and as I was not well, I fent my Lieutenant to 
take leave of the Governor on my behalf, and ofier 
liiy fervice, if he.bad any )difpatches for Europe. It 
was happy for me that I was able to procure a fupply of 
Engliih feamen here, otherwife I ihould not at laft 
have been able to bring the (hip home, for I had now 
ioft no lefs than four and twenty of the hands I had 
brought out of Europe, and had four and twenty more 
fp ill, that feven of them died ia our pafTage to the 

On the 20th we anchored on the fouth-eaft fide of Monday ^oj 
Prince's {(land, intheStreightof Sunda, and the next 
morning I fent out the boats for wood and water : 
of water, however, we could not get a fufiicient quan- 
tity to complete our flock, for there had not yet been rain 
enough to fupply the fprings^, the wet monfoon having 
'but juft fet in. At this time we h^d the wind fo fre(h 
from the fouthreaft, which made this part of the ifland 
a lee (bore, tbat I could not get under fail till the 25th, Friday %$* 
Mfhen, it being> more moderate, we weighed, and 
worked over to the Java (hore. In the even'uig we 
aochoreid in a bay called by fome New Bay, and by 
others Canty Bay, which is formed by an i(land of the 
fame t^ifcie. We had fourteen fathoins water, widia 
fine faniiv bottom* The peak of Prince's Ifland Qm^e 
^.13 W.ihe weftermoft point of New Ifland S. 82 
. W» and.thc eaftermoft pointof Java that was in flght, 
N. E. Our tliflance from the Java diore was about 
ji mile ami: a. quarter, and from the .watering*pkcea 
mile and an half. New Bay is the beft place for wood- ' 
ing and watering of any in. .'diefe parts : the water is 
extremely vlearp and fo good that I made my peof^ 

A a a &aN% 



; that >ve had taken in at Batavia and Prince's 

j Ida and fupply it from this place. It 15 procured 

(ron fineftrong run on the Java Ihore, which falls 

dowL om the land into the fea, and by means of x 

Jioafe It may he laded into the boats, and the calks 

filled without puulner them on fliore, which renders 

the wofU very eary and expeditious. There is a little 

reef of rocks within which the boats go, and lie in as 

fmooih water, and as effectually fheltered from any 

fwcll, as if they were in a mill-pond j nor does the 

reef run out fo far as to be dangerous to /hipping, 

' ntrarvis "" < i in Herbert's Direflory } 

h re, (houldbedrivenfrom 

lows upon the Ihore, (he 

"^ ' I , run up the paflage be- 

I' where there is fufficlent 

;(l veflel, and a harbour, 

, ftie will find perfeft fe- 

any where either upon 

t I of which, in this pirt, art 

Having in a few days completed our wood and wa- 
ter, we weighed and ftood out of the Streight of 
Sunda, witha Bne freOi gale at fouth-eaft, whicli 
did not leave us till the iQand of Java was feven hun- 
dred leagues behind-us. 
Noronber. <}n Monday the 23d of November we difcovend 
^"^''jjgHhe coaft of Africa ; at day-break on the aSth we made 
* the Table Land of the Cape of Good ^ope, and the 
., fameevening anchored in the bay. We found hero 
only a Dutch Ihip from Europe, and a fnow betongtng 
to the place, which however was in the Comfaa'fi 
fervice, for the inhabitants are not permitted to have 
any Ihipping, 

^Table Bay is a good harbour in Summer^ but not 
iMK^inter ; fo that the Dutch will not permit any of 
their vcffeU to lie here longer than the 1 5th of Mft]r> 
which anfwers to our November. After that time* 
all thelhipt gb'.toFaUe.Bay, .which u weilOicltertd 
fjom the north-well wind^ which blow hereinth grett 

At this place we breaihed a pure air> had wbolelbibe 

fi3od> and went freely about the conatiy which b 



extremely pleaiant, fo that I began to think myfelf al- *7fi9« 
ready in Europe. We found the inhabitants open^ t •'"'"!/^. 
hofpitable and polite, there being fcarcely a gentle- 
man in the place, either in a public or private flation, 
from which I did n6t receive fome civlli^ty ; and I 
fliould very ill deferve the favours they beftowcd, ii 
I did not particularly mention the Firft and Second 
Governor, and theFifcal. 

The recovery of my people made it neceflary to 
continue here till the 6th of January 1 769 ; in the Wednef. 6. 
evening of this day I fet fail, and before it was dark 
cleared the land. 

On the 20th, after a fine and pleafant paflage, we Wednef. 20. 
made the Ifland of St. Helena ; and fet fail again on Sund. 24. 
the morning of the 24th. At midnight on the 30 th, ^**"'* 3®' 
we made the north-caft part of the Ifland of Afcenfioij, 
and brought to till day-light, when we ran in clofe to 
it. I fent a boat out to difcovered the anchoring-place 
which is called Crofs-hill Bay, ^hile we kept running 
along the north-eaft and north fide of the ifland, till we 
came to tbe^^orth-weft extremity of it, and in the af- 
ternoon anchijred in the bay we fought. The way to 
find this place at once, is to bring the largeft and moft 
confpicuous hill upon the ifland to bear S. E. when the 
fhip is in this po(ition> the bay will be open, right in 
the middle between two other hills, the wefl:crmofl: 
of which is cs^M Crofs-hill, ^nd givcsnameto the bay. 
Upon thishill there is aflag-ftatf, which if afliip brings 
to bear §4 S..E.. f E. or S. E. by E. and runs in, keep- 
ing it fo till flae is in ten fathoms water, fhc will be in 
the beft part of the Bay. In our run along the north- 
eaft fide of the ifland, I obferved feveral other fmall 
fandy bays, in fome of which my boat found good an- 
chorage, and faw plenty of turtle, though they are not 
foconvenient as this, where wehad plenty of iurtle|jK). 
The beach here is a fine white fand ; the landing-place 
is at fome rocks, which lie about the middle of the 
Bay, and may he known by a ladder of ropes which 
hangs from the top to mount them by. In the evening 
I landed a few men to turn the turtle that fliould 
come on fliore during the night, and in the morning I 
found that they had thus fecured no lefs than eighteen, 
from four hundred to fix hundred weight each, and 



thcfe were as many as we could well ftow on the deck. 
As there are no inhabitunls, upon this iOand, it is a. cuf- 
tom for the fhips that touch at it ro leave a letter in a 
bottle, with their names and tJeftinatioit, the date, 
and a few other particulars. We complied with this 
cuftom, and in the evening of Monday the ift of 
February, we weighed anchor and fetfail. 

On Friday the 19th we difcovered a fliipat a con- 
fiderable diftance to leeward in the fouih-weft quarter, 
which hoiilcd French colours ; fhe continued in fight 
. all day, and the next morning we perceived that Qie 
had greatly outfailcd us during the night ; Ihemadea 
tack however in order to get farther to windward, and 
as it is not ufual for fliips to turn lo windward in ihefe 
parrs, it was e\'i()ent that (he had tacked inordertofpcak 
with us. By noon flie was near enough to hail us, and 
to my great furprire, made ufe both of my name and 
that of the fliip, enquiring after my health, and telling 
Hie that after the return of the Dolphin tb Kurope, 
it was believed we had fuffered ftiipwreck in the Streight 
of Magellan, and that two (liips had been feni out in 
quert of us, I aOced, in my turn, who it was that 
was fo well acijuainted with mc and my fhip, nnd with 
the opinions that had been formed of us in !■ iirope after 
the ittum of our companion, and how this luiowledge 
hii been acquired. I was anfwered, that the flilp 
which h'ail^ .us WaS' lii the fervide of tlie FreiKn 
Eaft India Coijui^y, tbtrtmandei^ by M. BbigaiirriHe ; 
that fhe was returning to England from the Iflc of 
France; that whdt was thougKt of the Swallow in 
England, had bebn learnt t'rotn the Ft-^iich Gaiefte at 
the Cape of Good Hope ; aiid that we \fri*re knowfi, 
to be that veflbl by tht Utter which had been foundtlh 
'the bottle at the^Ifland'tif Afcenfion a fewdaye'i^r 
vfil^iid left that -place. Ati ofgr' Was theti made tif 
fupplying me With reFr^(bments, If 1 wanted any, 
and I was afted If I had any letters td fend to France. 
1 returned thal^ks for the offer of refrelhirnent8> which 
however *rfs a mere verbal civility, as it was knowh 
that i had lately failed frbtti the places where M. Bou- 
gainville himfeff had been fupplied : but I faid that I had 
received letters for France from fome gentlemen of 
thjil country at the Cape, and if he would (eild his boat 


on board they fhould be deliTcred to his meflcngf r. ^yH- 
Thus was an occafion furniihed tor what I have rcafcn 
to believe was the principal cbjc3 of M. BonrainviUe 
in fpeaking with us : a boat m-as i.mncdiare! y ?c-.t on 
board, and in her a young officer, d-eil in a waiilcoir 
and trowfcrs ; whether he was thus dreffcd by ccfign 
I ihall not determine, but I foon perceived that his 
rank was much (uperior to his appearance. He canse 
down to me in mycabbin, aixl after the ufual compli- 
ments had pafled, 1 a(ked him how he came to go 
home fo foon in the feafon ? To which he replted, that 
there had been fome difagreement between the Go- 
vernor and inhabitants of the Ifle of France, and that 
he had been fent home in hafle with difparches : this 
ftory was the more ptaufiblcy as 1 had heard of the 
difpute between the Governor and inhatntants of the 
Ifle of France, from a French Gentleman, who came 
from thence, at the Cape of Good Hope ; yet I was 
not perfedly ^4tisiied : for, fappofing.M. Bougainville 
to have been lent in hafte to Europe with difpatches, I 
could not accotmt for his krfif^ the time which it coll 
him to fpeak with me ; I therefore obfervcd to this 
Gentleman, that although he had accounted for his 
coming before the ufual time from the Ifle of France, 
he had not accounted for his coming at anunufual time 
from India, which muft have been the cafe. To tliis, 
however, he readily replied, that they had made only 
a fliort trading voyage en the weftcrncoaft of Sumatra. 
I then enquired, what commodities he had brought 
from thence ; and he anfwered, cocoa-nut oil, and 
rattans : but, faid I, thefe are commodities which it 
is not ufual to bring into Europe ; it is true, faid he, 
but thefe commodities we left at the Ifle of France, 
the oil for the ufe of the ifland, and the rattans for 
fhips which were to touch therein their way to China, 
and in exchange we took in another freight for Europe ; 
this freight I think he faid was pepper, and his whole 
tale being at lead poflible, I alked him no more qiicfti- 
ons. He then told me, he had heard at the Capr, that 
I had been with Commodore Byron at l*\ilkl!ii)<r» 
Ifland's; and, faid he, I was on board the French fliip 
that met you in the Streight of Magellan ; whic U iniill 
have been true, for he mentioned fcvcral incidents ihui 



1769. it was otherwife highly improbable he Ihould know, 
,^^^"|7\ particularly the ftore-Ihip's running a -ground, and many 

^^^^^ of the difficulties that occurred in that part of the 
Streight which we paffed together : by this converfa- 
tion he contrived to introduce feveral enquiries, con- 
cerning the wcftem part of the Slreight, the lime'it 
coll me to get through, and ihe difficulties of thcnavi- 
gation ; but perceiving that I declined giving any 
account of thefe particulars, he changed his fubjefl. 
He faid, he had heard that wc loft an officer and forae 
men in an engagement with ihe Indians; and taking 
notice that my fhip was fmal!, and a bad failcr, hein- 
Cnuaied that we muft have fuffered great hardftiip In 
- fo long a voyage; but, laid he, it is thought to be 
fafer and plealanler failing in the South Sea than any 
where elfe, As I perceived that he waited for a re- 
ply, I faid, that the great ocean, called the South Sea, 
extended almoft from one pole 10 the other ; and there- 
fore, although that part of it which lay between the 
Tropics might juftly be called the Pacific, on account 
of the trade-winds that blow there all the year; yet 
without the Tropics, on eiiher fide, the winds were 
variable, and the feas turbulent. In all this he readily 
acquiefcedf and finding that he could not draw fi'oin 
me any thing to fatisfy hiscuriofUy, by flarting leading 
fubjeSs of converfation, he began to propofe his 
queftioHsin dired terms, and dcfired to know on which 
fide the equator 1 had crofTed the South Seas. As I did 
' not think proper to anfwer this quedion, andwifhed to 
prevent others of the fame kind, I rofe up fomewbat 
.abruptly, and I believe with fome marks of difpleafure: 
at this he feemed to he a little difconcened, and I be- 
lieve W45 about to tnake an apology for his curiofity, 
but 1 prevented him, by defiring that he would make 
my cpmpliments to his Captain, and in return for his 
obliging civilities prefent him with one of the arrows 
that had wounded my men, which I immediately went 
into my bed-room to fetch : he followed me, looking 
^bout him with great curiofity, as indeed he had done 
from the time of hisfirft coming on board, and having 
received the arrow, he took his leave. 

After he was gone* and we had made fail> I went 

qpOf) th? dcck^ wher« my Lieutenant alked me, if my 



vifitor had entertained mc with an account of his voy- p^JJ^^ 
age. This led me to tell him the general purport of 
our converfation ; upon which he aflured roe that the 
tale I had heard was a fidion, for, fays he, the boat's 
crew could not keep their^fecret fo well as their officer, 
but after a little converfation told one of our people, 
who was born at Quebec, andfpoke Fr^ch, that they 
had been round the globe as well as we. This natu- 
rally excited a general curiofity, and with a very little 
difficulty we learnt that they had failed from Europe in 
company with another (hip, which, wanting fome re- 
pair, had been left at the ifle of France ; that they had 
attempted to pafs the Streight of Magellan the firft 
fummer, but not being able, had gone back, and win- 
tered in the river de la Plata ; that the fummer after- 
wards (hey had been more fuccefsful, and having paflfed 
the Streight, fpent two jmonths at the ifland of Juan 
Fernandes. My Lieutenant told me alfo, that a boy in 
the French boat faid, he had been upon that ifland two 
years, and that, while he was there an Engliffi fri- 
gate put into the road, but did not anchor, mentioning 
the time as well as he could recolle£l, by which it ap- 
peared that the frigate he had feen was the Swallow. 
On the boy's being afked how he came to be fo long 
upon the ifland of Juan Fernandes, he faid that he had 
been taken upon the Spanifli coaft in the Weft Indies 
in a fmuggling party, and fent thither by the Spaniards; 
but that by the French (hip, in whofe boat he came 
on board us, having touched there, be had regained hi; 
liberty. After having received this information from 
my Lieutenant, I could eafily account for M. Bougain- 
ville's having made a tack to fpeak to me, and for the 
converfation and behaviour of my vifitor ; but I was 
now more difpleafed at the queftions he had afked me 
than before ; for if it was improper for him to commu- 
nicate an account of his voyage tcf me, it was equally 
improper for me to communicate an account of my 
voyage to him ; and I thought an artful attempt to 
draw me into a breach of my obligation to fecrecy, 
while he impofed upon me by a fi£lion that he might 
not violate his own, was neither liberal nor juft. As 
what the boat's crew told my people, differs in feveral 



J| particulars from the account printed by M. Boa- 

^j. , gainville, I [hall not pretend to determine how much 
\ of it is true ; but I was then very forry that the Lieu- 

I tenant had not commuDicated to me the intelligence he 

I received, fuchasitwas, before my gueft left mc, and 

1 was now very defirous to fpeak with him again, but 
this was impolTibie; for though the French ihip wa» 
foul frorn a long voyage, and we had juft been cleaned, 
fhe (hot by us as if we had been at anchor, notwithftand- 
ing We had a fine fiefh gale, and all our fails fet. 
— ^l' '• Onihe 7th of March, we made the Weftera Wands, 
and went between Saint Michael and Tercera ; in this 
fituaticn we found the variation 13" 36' W. and the 
winds began to blow from the S. W. The gale as 
we got farther to the weft ward, increafed, and on the 
i>"'rd. II. llth, havinggot to W, N, W. it blew very hard, with 
a great fea ; we fcudded before it with the forefail 
only, the foot rope of which fuddenly breaking, the 
fail blew all to pieces, before we could get the yard 
■!■ down, though it was done inftantiy. This obliged us 

to bring the Ihip to, but having, with all pofTible ex- 
pedition, bent a new forefail, and got the yard up, we 
TueH ifi ^^^ away again ; this was the laft accident that hap- 
Tbwf! »>. pened to Us during the voyage. On the i6th, being 
in latitude 49" 15'N we got foundings. Onthe 18th 
I krtew by the depth of water that we were in the 
Chantiet, but the wind being to the northward, wc 
rridtr 19. could not make land till the next day, when we fsw 
'the Start Point ; and on the 20th, to our great joy, 
we anchored at Spithead, after a very fine pafTage, 
, and a fait wind all the way from the CapeofGM)d 




O F A 

VOYAGE round the WORLD, 




Commander of his M/tjesTr't Bark the EMOiAVOVRt 

T,l •,U)\ii 

A N 



VOYAGE round the WORLD. 




The Pajfagi from Pfymnttb to Madeira^ with fomo 

Account of that IJland. 

HAVING received my commiffiony which was 176s. 
dated the asthof May, 1 768, 1 went on board ^ ^^ ^ 
on the 27th, boifted the pennant, and to<>kpJjJ^f][^ 
chaise of the (hip, which theii lay in the bafon in 
Deptford Yard. She was fitted for fea with all expe- 
dition ; and ftores and provifions being taken on board, 
failed down the river on the 30th of July, and on the saturfJio* 
1 3th of Augnft anchored in Plymouth Sound. Aoguft. 

While we lay here waiting for a wind, the articles ^**^' '3' 
of war and the ad of parliament were read to the 
(hip's company, who were paid two months wages in 
advance, and told that they were to expe£l no addi- 
tional pay for the performance of the voyage. 

On Friday the a6th of Auguft, the wind becoming ^^^ **• 
fair, we got under fail, and put to fea* On the 31ft, ^' ^'' 
we iaw feveral of the birds which the failors call Mo« 
ther Gary's Chickens, and which they fuppofe to be 


-. « 


i,^i,^m^ had a very hard pXt, which BFoogSt u7 'under our 
riHyC I. courfes^ waflied over -board a fmall boat beloogti^ to 
the Boatfwain, and drowned three or four dozen of 
our poultry, wluch we regretted ftiil more. 
?d*»y « On Friday the ad of ^tember we faw land bc- 
iM^^ r ^^HO. Cape ^inift^r #nd ^rae OfftmsA, oa.the «iMft 
il«dqr $• ^f ^^n^^^ in Sp^Q ; iuid the fth, faf 'an dt)fer. 

▼ation of the fun and moon» we found the latitude of 
Cape Finifter to be j^i; 5 3I Norths and its longitude 
80 46' Weft, our firft meriaian being always fuppofed 
to pafs through Greenwich ; variation of the needle 

^During this coiirfe, Mr. Banks and Dr. Solander 
had an opportunity of obferving many marine ani- 
mals, of which no naturalift has hitherto taken notice ; 
particularly, a flew ipeciesuf the Ontfius, which was 
found adhering to the Miduja Pglagica ; and an ani* 
mal of an %n^ar fi{W^> aW^t thf^ inc)i|!s lon^ and 
one thick/ with a heffi>w p^mng qhilethi^ough it, and 
a brown fpot on one end, which they conje&ured 
might be its ftomach ; .ft>ur of the(e adhered together 
by their fides when they were taken, fo that at firft 
they were thought to be one animal, but upon being 
put into a glafs of water they foon feparated, and fwam 
about very brilkly. Thefe animals are of a new genus, 
to which Mr. Banks and Dr. Solander gave the name 
of Dagyfai from the likenefs of one fpecies of them to 
a gem: feveral fpccimens of them were taken adhering 
together, fomctimes to the length of a yard or more, 
and (hining in the water with very beautiful colours. 
Another animal of a new genus they alfo difcovercd, 
which (bone in the water w ith colours dill more beau- 
tiful and vivid, and which indeed exceeded in variety 
and brightnefs any thing that we had ever fcen ; the 
colouring, and fplendour of thefe animals were equal to 
thofe of an Opsil, and fromi their refemblance to that 
gem, the genus was called Carcinium Opalinuni: One 
of thefe- lived feveral hours in a glafs of fait water, 
fwimming about with great *agility, and at every mo- 
tion difplaying a change of colours almoft infinitely 
various. We caught alfo among the rigging iDf the 
(hip, when we were at the diftance of about ten leagues 



from Cape Finifter, feveral birds which have not been 17* 
defcribed by Linnseus ; they were fuppofed to have f^*^ ^ 
come fromSpain^ and our gentlemen called the fpecies ^^^^~' 
MotaciUa velificans, as they faid none but iailors would 
venture themfelves on boad a fliip that was going 
round the world; one of them was fo exhaufted that 
it died in Mr. Banks's hand, aimoft as foon as it was 
brought to him. 

It was thought extraordinary that no naturalift had 
hitherto taken notice of the Dagjfa^ as the Tea abounds 
with them not twenty leagues from the coaft of Spain ; 
but, unfortunately for the caufe of fcience, there are 
but very few of thofe who traverfe the fca, that are 
either difpofed or qualified to reniark the curiofities of 
which Nature has nude it the repofitory. 

On the 1 2th, we difcovered the iflands of Porto ***"'»y " 
Santo and Madeira, and on the next day anchored in 
Funchiale road, and moored with the flream-anchor : 
but, in the night, the bend of the hawfer of the ftream- 
anchor flipped, owing to the negligence of the per* 
fon who had been employed to niake it fafL In the 
morning the, anchor was heaved up into the boat, and 
carried out to the fouthward ; but in heaving it again, 
Mr. Weir, the matter's mate, was carried overboard 
by the buoy- rope, and went to the bottom with the 
anchor : the people in the (hip faw the accident, and 
got the anchor up with all poflible expedition ; it was 
however too late, the body csune up intangled in the 
buoy-rope, but it was dead. 

When the ifland of Madeira is firft approached from 
the fea, it has a very beautiful appearance ; the fides 
of the hills being entirely covered with vines almoft as 
high as the eye can diftinguifh, and the vines are green 
when every kind of herbage, except where they fliade 
the ground, and here and there by the fides of a rill, 
is entirely burnt up, which was the cafe at this 

On the 1 3 th, about eleven o'clock in the forenoon, Tuefday 1,. 
a boat, which our failorscall the pruduS boat, came 
on board from the officers of health, without whofe 
permiflion no perfon is fuflfered to land from on board a 
(hip. As foon as this permiflion was obtained, we 
went on ftiore at Funchiale, the capital of the ifland, 




and proceeded direfisly to the houfe' of Mr. Cfaetp, 
who is the Eogiiih coaful there^ and ont of tjbe moft 
confiderable merchants of the place. This gentknint 
received us with the kitidnefs of a brother, and the li* 
beraKty of a prince ;''he infifted upon our taking pof« 
feffion of his houfe, in which he furnifhed^ with twery 
poffible accommodation duringourftay upontheifland: 
he procured leave for Mr. Banks and Dr. Solander to 
fearch the iiland for fuch natural curioiities as they 
(hould think worth their notice ; employed perfens to 
take fi(h and gather fhells, which time would not have 
permitted them to colled for themfelves^ and he pro- 
vided horfes and guides to take them to any part of the 
country which they (hould choofe to vifit. With all 
thefe advantages, however, their excurfions were 
feldom pufhed farther than three miles from the town^ 
as they were only five days on -flibre ; one of which 
they fpent at home, in receivii^ the honour of a vifit 
irom the Governor^ The feafon was the worft in the 
year for their purpofe, as it was neither that of plama 
nor infeds ; a few of the plants, however, were pro* 
cured in flower, by the kind attention of Dr. Heberdeo^ 
the chief phyfician of the ifland, and brother to Dr. 
Heberden of London, who alfo gave them fuch fpeci- 
mens as he bad in his pofTeiTion, and a copy of his 
Botanical Obfervations ; containing, among other 
things, a particular defcription of the trees of the 
ifland. Mr. Banks enquired after the wood which has 
been imported into England for cabinet work, and is 
here called Madeira mahogany; he learnt that no wood 
was exported from the ifland under that name ; but he 
found a tree called by the natives Vigniatico, the 
Laurus Indicus of Linnaeus, the wood of which cannot 
eafily be diftinguiflied from mahogany. Dr. Heberden 
has a boo^-cafe in which the vigniatico and mahogany 
are mixed, and they are no otherwife to be known trom 
each other, than by the colour, which, upon a nice ex- 
amination, appears to be fomewhat lefs brown in the 
vigniatico than the mohogany ; it is therefore in the 
higheft degree probable, that the wood known in 
England by the name of Madeira mahogany, is the 

There is great reafon to fuppofe that this whole ifland 
was, at fome remote period, thrown up by the explodon 



of fuSKcnaaBUBi irz^ is •^•sr^ icne^ v^-^.tsdier wbcis «*^* 
or in frwHBns, nzar v^ lav ircri x jcofixrsc r* raT*: 
beenboraSy anr crxea. rre-lL-rii .rit:r ;■: re TccTLiff racr* 
than aAa ; w« vd.i ict siiafcc. ee sm:^ ;c iS; rort- 
try ; bat tfcc yoecte : mutaj tM m rht: w tiic wt; CjC >i^ 
was aicfj e:|fi^ rec-j^ir oc :l:tf r«:t. 

The anil' jBEJcic cc ?r*ce z: liis iilxni » »:•??, xrc 
ihe naaao' wl wtjciL inr s raaOit b lie kioBpfey c^^ :: 
iiught haic been clied br Noah, who :5 u>i :o hiTc 
pUntcd t&c &:fE Tsrrznd arrer the Sixnd ; ;he gripes 
are pot intoa %xarc moo At a vdOCsf, the dimesftors os' 
of which are vccrxxz'xood to the trz- of the riaerarvi 
to which it hAxs^i ; the ferracts then, havicg taken 
oflF their ftoc^og^ and jackets, eet into it, aixl with 
their tleet asd d<!x>ws, preis out as inach of the juice iis 
they can : the ftdks are afterwards coMe<^ed, and bcU; j: 
tied together with a rope, are put under a fquare piece 
of woody which is prefled down upon them by a lever 
with a fione tied to the end of it. The inhabitants 
have made fo iiitie improvement in knowledp? or art, 
that they have but very lately brought all the fruit of 
a vineyard to be of one fort, by engrafting their vines ; 
there feems to be in mind as there is in mattei , a kind 
of vis inertiie^ which refifts the firft impulfe to change. 
He who propofes to aifift the artificer or the hulband- 
man by a new application of the principles of philofo- 
phy, or the powers of mechanifm, will fimi, that his 
having hitherto done without them, will be a ftrongor 
motive for continuing to do without them ftill, than any 
advantage, hov.ever manifeft and confidcrable,for adopt - 
ing the improvement. Wherever there is ignorance 
there is prejudice ; and the common people of all na- 
tions are, with refpeft to improvements, like the parirtt 
poor of England with refpeft to a maintenance, for 
whom the law muft not only make a provifion, but 
compel them to accept it, or elfe they will rtili be found 
begging in the (Ireets. It was therefore with great 
difficulty that the people of Madeira were pcrfuadcd 
toengfaft their vines, and fomc of them ftlll obflinatdy 
refufe to adopt the praftice, though a whole vintagi- 
is very often fpoiled by the number of bad grapn 
which are mixed in the vat, and which th' y will not 
throw out, becaufc they increafc the quantity of the 
Vol. I. B b wine : 


'7^^ wine : an inftance of the force of habit, which is the 
* ' more extraordinary, as they have adopted the pradice 
of engrafting with refpeS to their cheftnut-trees, aa 
objeft of much lefs importance, whith, however^ 
are thus brought to bear fooner than they would other- 
wife have done. ^ 

We faw no wheel-carriages of any fort in the place, 
which perhaps is not more owing to the want of inge- 
nuity to invent them, than to the want of ioduftry to 
mend the roads, which, at prefent, it is in^ffible 
that any wheel-carriage fiiould pafs : the inhabitants 
have horfes and mules indeed, excellently adapted to 
fuch ways; buttheif wine is, not withftanding, brought 
to town from the vineyards where it is made, in veflfela 
of goat-fkins, which are carried by men upon their 
heads. The only imitation of a carriage among thefe 
people is a board, made fomewhat hollow in the mid- 
dle, 'to one end of which a pole is tied, by a ftrap of 
white leather : this wretched fledge approaches about 
as near to an Englifh cart, as an Indian canoe to a (hip's 
long-boat ; and even this would probably never have 
been thought of, if the Englilh had not introduced 
wine veffels which are too big to be carried by hand, 
and which, therefore, are dragged about the town upoii 
thefe machines. 

One reafon, perhaps, why art and induftry have 
done fo little for Madeira is. Nature's having done fo 
much. The foil is very rich, and there is fuch a differ- 
ence of climate between the plains and the hills, that 
there is fcarcely a fmgle objeQ: of luxury that grows 
either in Europe or the Indies, that might ndt be pro- 
duced here. When we went to vifit Dr. Heberden, 
who lives upon a conflderable afcent, about two miles 
from town, we left the thermometer at 74, and when 
we arrived at his houfe, we found it at 66. The hills 
produce^almoftfpontaneoufly, walnuts, cheftnuts, and 
apples in great abundance ; and in the town there are 
many plants which are natives both of the Eaft and 
Weft-Indies, particularly the banana, the guava, the 
pine-apple or anana, and the mango, which flourifti 
almoft without culture. The corn of this country is 
of a raoft excellent quality, large-grained and very 
fine, and the iiland would produce it in great plenty ; yet 



moft of what is confuined by the inhalMtaiits is imported. 
The mutton, potk^ and beef are atfo very good ; tht 
beef in particnlar, winch we took on board ittje, wu 
univerfally allowed to be icaR:ely inferior to our ows ; 
the lean part was very like it, both is colour and Enun, 
though the hiafts are much fmaller, but the iai u a» 
white as the fat of mutton. 

The townof Funchiak derives its nameinMDFuadiD. 
the Pof tugueie name for faBDcl, whkd> riows ia e; 
plenty upon the nei^rixmring rodLS, and, by tlse 
fervation of Dr. Hdberdeo, lies in tht kiitMe of 32* 
33' 33" N. and longitude i(5» 49' W. It k {ramsd si 
the bottom of a bay, and ttioiKii krfer rhas the ezaes 
of the ifland feemt to ifeferve, i& Tsry ill te^ ; tbe 
houfes of the principal ishabitaBtt arc large, taoJe or 
the common pec^e are finali, tbe flncH are carro-Vy 
and worfe paved than any I ever iaw. 'lbs chsrcfoe» 
are loaded with omameota^ svDonp wind; ire siar.T 
pidures^ and images of frvoorire imu^ ^or t^ 
pidures are in genenl wietdicdlj passted, arad tSe 
faints are dreflcd in laoed dpihck Some of the cos* 
▼ents are in a better tafle, efpeciaBy tbae cf the 
Francifcans, which is plain, lisnple, and neat in the 
higheft d^ee. The infirmary in patticabr iiew t^ar 
attention as a modd which might be adopted in other 
countries with great advantage. It coniifts of a loni; 
room, on one fide of which are the window.«, an<i an 
altar for the conrenienceof adminiftering the (acrament 
to the fick : the other fide is dirided into wards, each 
of which is juft big enough to contain a bed, and neatly 
lined with gally-tiles ; behind thefc wards, and parallel 
to the room in which they fiand, there runs a lon^ 
gallery, with which each ward communicates by a 
door, fo that the fick may be feparately fiippllcd with 
whatever they want without diftarbing x\tc\r neigh- 
bours. In this convent there is aKo a fingular cur K>fif y 
of another kind; a fmall chapel, the whole lining />< 
which, both fides and ceiling, is compofed of htnn^ri 
fculls and thigh bones ; the thigh bones are Uu\ ^,% 
each other, and a fcuU is placed in each of \\ff four 
angles. Amoi^ the fculls OT>e is very r^rn^rlr^WI*' ; 
tfaeupperanrf ^# onon<? fi(!^,p*rf^/*ly nml 

firmlyoefM ^nwhich unri^.<tlH»»»^»«'» 

1. ffrfiflfdip 


, a^"'*?; formed, il is not perhaps very eafy to conceive, but ic 
, ^„,,^, is certain that the patient, muft have lived fome time 
. without openmg his mouth: what nouriflimem he re- ", 

^ ceived was conveyed through a hole which we difco- 

vered to have been made on the oiher fide, by forcing 
out ibme of the teeth, in doing which, the jaw aifo 
iecms to have bcci, injured. 

We villied ihe good Fathers of this convent on a 
Thurfday evening, juft beiore fupper-lime, and they 
received ui with great politenefs ; " We will not a(k 
" you (faid they) lolupwithus, becaufewearenot pre- 
" pared ; but it you will come to morrow, though it is a 
" faft with u«, we will have a turkey roafted for you," 
This invitation, which Ihewed a liberality of fentiment ' 
not to have been expected in a conveni of Portuguefe I 
Friars ai this place, gratified us much, thottgh it was i 
not in our power to accept it. 

We vifited alfo a convent of nuns, dedicated to Santa 
Clara, and the Ladies did tis the honour to exprefs a 
particular pleafure in feeing us there : they had heard 
that there were great philofophers among us, and not at 
all knowing what were the objeds of philofophical 
knowlege, they afted us feveral quefiions that were ab- 
furdand extravagant in the higheft degree; one was, 
when it would thunder? And another, whether a fpring 
of frefti waltr was to be found any where within the 
walls of their convent ? of which it feems they were in 
great want. It will naturally be fuppofed that our an- 
swers to fuch quedions were neither fatisfaSory to the 
Ladies, nor, in their eftimation, honourable to us ; 
yet iheir jifappointment did not in the lead lelTen their 
civility, and they talked, without ceafing, during 
the whole of our vifit, which laAed about half ao 

The hitU.of this country are very high ; the higheft, 
Pico Ruivo, rifes 5,068 feet, near an EngUfh mile, 
perpendicularly from its bafe, which is much higher 
than any land that has been meafured in Great-Britain. 
The fides of thefe hills are covered with vines to a 
certain height, above which there are woods of cheft- 
nut and pine of dn inunenfe extent, and above them 
forefti of wild timber of various kinds not known in 
Europe,; particularly two, called by the Portuguefe 
_L . ■ .' , Mirmulana 


MirmuUino and Paohrancoy the leaves of which, parti- 1768. 
cularly the Paohranco^ are fo beautiful, that thefe trees ^^P^*™**'' 
would be a great ornament to the gardens of Europe. ^ ^~^ 

The number of inhabirants in thi;> iiland is fuppofed 
to be about 80,000, and the cuftom-houfe duties pro- 
duce a revenue to the king o^ Portugal of 20,000 
pounds a year, clear of all expences, which might ea- 
fily be doubled by the produS of the ifland, exclufive 
of the vines, if advantage was taken of the excellence 
of the climate, and the amazing fertility of the foil ; but 
this objeft is utterly neglefted by the Portuguefe. In 
the trade of the inhabitants of Madeira with Liibon the 
balance is againfl them, fo.that all thePortugufe mo- 
ney naturally going thither, the currency of the ifland 
is Spanifli ; there are indeed a few Portuguefe pieces of 
copper, but they are fo icarce that we did not fee one - • 

of them : the Spanifli coin is of three denominations : 
Piftereens, worth about a fliilling ; Bitts, worth about 
fix pence ; and Half-bitts, three pence. 

The tides at this place flow, at the full and change of 
the moon, north and fouth ; the fpring tides rife feven 
feet perpendicular, and the neap tides four. By Dr. 
Heberden's obfervation, the variation of the coippafs 
here is now 1 50 30' Weft, and decreafing ; but I have 
fome doubt whether he is not miftaken with refpeS to 
its decreafe : we found that the North point of the 
dipping needle belonging to the Royal Society dipped 

The refrefliments to be had here, are water, wine, 
fruit of feveral forts, onions in plenty, and fomefweet- 
meats; frefh meat and poultry are not to be had 
without leave from the governor, and the payment of 
a very high price. 

Wc took in 2 7olb. of frefli beef, and a live bullock, 
charged at 6131b. 3^032 gallons of water, and ten tuns 
of wine; and in the night, between Sunday the 1 8th Sunday 18. 
and Monday the 19th of September, we fet fail in ^on<**y »9- 
profecution of our voyage. 

When Funchiale bore North, 1 3 Eaft, at the diftance 
of 76 miles, the variation^ appeared by feveral azimuths 
to be 1 6<» 30' Weft. 



_ - c H A P. n. V 

'The Pajfitgt firm Madeira to Rio dt yamiro^ with 
fom Atcoftnt of the Cotmtry, and the Inddents tiat 
happened there. ^ 



^N the^tft of September we &w the iflandsoined 
thff Salvages, to thfe north of the Canaries ; 
When the principal of thereiM>reS. f W. at thediftance 
of abom 5 leagues, we found the variation of the com- 
pafsbydii izi^th to be 1 7® 50'. I make thefe tflanda 
to lie tn latrf tide 36* 1 1' North, and diftant 58 leagues 
from Paddiiale in Madeira, in the diredton of 
f^^ »$• On Pridar the 2 jd we few the Peak of Tenerifie, 
bearing W. nf S. f S. and found the variation of the 
compafs to be from 1 7* 2a' to 1 ©* 30'. The height 
of this mountain, frojfa which I took a new departure, 
has beend^emiitied'by Dr. Heberden, who has been 
upon it, iot^ 1 5,396 feet, which is but 148 yards Icfs 
than three miles, reckoning the mile at 1 760 yards. 
Its appearance at funfet was very ftriking ; when the 
fun was below the horizon, and the reft of the ifland 
appeared of a deep black, the mountain ftiil refleSed 
. his rays, and glowed with a warmth of colour which 
no painting can exprcfs. There is no eruption of vifiblc 
fire from it, but a heat iffues from the chinks near the 
top, too ftrong to be borne by the hand when it is held 
pear them. We received from Dr. Heberden, among 
other favours, fome fait which he collcQed on the top 
pf the mountain, where it is found in large quantities, 
and which he fuppofes to be the true natrum or nitrum 
of the antients : he gave us alfo fome native fulphur 
exceedingly pure, which he had likewife found upon 
the furface in great plenty. 
Satur.a4. C)n the next day, Saturday the 24th, we came into 
Friday 30. the north-eaft trade wind, and on Friday the 30th faw 
Bona Vifta, one ot the Cape de Verd Iflands ; we 
ranged the eaft fide of it, at the diftance of three or 
four miles from the (bore, till we were obliged to haul 
off to avoid a ledge of rocks which ftretch out S W. 
by W. from the body, or S. E. point of the ifland, 

' to 


to the extent of a league jumI an half. Bona Viib bv ^^, 
our obfenation lies in latitude i6 N. and Ici^tude 2 f 
51' Weft. 

On the firft of OQober, in latitude l^^ S N. and Sataidij i. 
ioneiti'de 22® 10' W. we fosnd the variatioD by a very 
good azimuth to be lOi* 37' W. and the next morning Sudsy %. 
it appeared to be 10*. This da? we (bond the ihip 
five miles a-head of the log, and the next day fcven. 
On the rhtrd hoifted ont the boat to difcover whether ifoa^ 32 
there was a current, and found one to the eaftward, at 
the rate of three quarters of a mile an hour. 

During our courfe from Teneriffe to Bona Vifta we 
faw great numbers of flying fiOi, which from the ca- 
bin windowsappear beautiful beyond imagination, their 
fides having the telour and bri^tnefs of bumifhed fil- 
ver ; when they are ieen from the deck they do not ap- 
pear to fo much advantmge, becaufe their backs are of 
a dark colour. We alfo tt>ok a (hark, which proved 
to be the Sptaius Cbmrearias of Linmeus. 

Having loft the trade wind on the third, in latitude 
1 2o 14 and IcMigitude 22^ lo'y the vrind became fom.e« 
what variable, and we bad light airs and calms by 

On the feventh, Mr. Banks went out in the boat, Fridi^ 7« 
and took what the feamen call a Portuguefe man of 
war ; it is the Hohthuria Phyfalis of Linnaeus, and a 
fpecies of the Mellufca. It confided of a fmall bladder 
about feven inches long, very much refemblrng the air- 
bladder of fifhes, from the bottom of which defcended 
a number of firings, of a bright blue and red, fome of 
them three or four feet in length, which upon being 
touched filing like a nettle, but with much more force. 
On the top of the bladder is a membrance which is ufcd 
as a fail, and turned fo as to receive the wind which 
way foever it blows : this membrane is marked in fine 
pink coloured veins, and the animal is in every refpcd 
an objeft exquifitely curious and beautiful. 

We alfo took feveral of the fiiell-fifiics, or teftace- 
ous animals which are always found floating upon the 
water, particularly the Hilix Janthina and fuolaaa : 
they are about the fize of a fnail, and are fupportcd 
upon the furface of the water by a fmall clufterof bubble i, 
which ar<: filled with ^ir, andconfift of a tenaceous flimy 


^^ L^EjUT, ^9 9>^PS ^VOYAGE 

, .mW. rubftnwx,;.tli«t will not cqfily put with iu Coirtrats; 

■ ftOy'- ^^ aninwl is.OTipuoiu, and tbefe bmbblei ferw alfo ua 
ffti^M^ for tts eggs. It isprobible thatit nevcrgocsdowa 

,. . tp the ^tom, ^orwiljingly approaches any fiiore; 
forthe&eUit ezcecdu^ly brittle, and that offewfrelh 
.' inter fnaiU is fo thm:. eTerT&cllcontAlnsaboutatea- 
fpoonfifi ^f.iiquor,w^i^hitM(ilydtrchai%es upon being 
.tow:^ed,^and which uoft^coioftbeautitiil red purple 
. .^hat cap bf.conceiveq-: It dio.liniien cloth, and it may 
pe^p^ Ire .wortji enquirjfjtif the fhell is certainly found 
in the MeditefTiuDe^ii, wb^u-lt be not theAu^bvratif 
jhe ancients. • ; ,^.- 

BftjuiKj s. On the 8th, in Utit,ii4e Sqjts' Noitb. loi%itude%2o 
4' Wefl:, we found a cyrce^t Jetting to ihe fouthward, 
which the nest day in.latttude. 7" 58' longitude St2« 
fliilted lo the N. N. \?.„|^J?;, at the rate of one mile 
atid a (urlohg an hour. The yariatioo here, by (be m^in 
of fcveral az,imuths, appeared to be 80 39' Weft. •■ 

^cn^io." On the tentli, Mr. .Q^tji^ Qiot the black-toed gull,- 
pot yet defcribed ac^onjiag. tQ LiiinciuS . fyftem ; 
he g'ive it the name of Lt^us trtpijatui : it is remark- 
able that tlie dungof this bird is of a lively red, (omt- 
what like that of the li<]uor procured from the fhells, 
only not fo full 5 its principal food therefore is probably 
the i/f/f'y jull mentioned. A current to the N. W, 

Monday 14. prevailed' ijiore or lefs till Monday the 24th, when 

we were in latitude i" 7' N. and longitude 28° 50'. 

" Tuefdjyij. On the 25ih, we croITed the line with the ufual 

ceremonies in longitude 29" 30', when, by the re- 

fiilt of feveral very good azimuths, the variation 

F.ld,y IB. On the 28th, at noon, being in the latitude of Fer- 
dinand Noronha, and, by the mean of feveral obfer- 
valions by Mr, Greer and myfelf, in longitude 32" 5' 
16 W. which is to the weflward of it by fonie charts, 
and to the eaftward by others, we expeiSed 10 fee the 
ifland, or fome of the Ihoals that are laid down in ihe 
charts between it and the main, but we faw neither 
one nor the other. 

tiiuidayip. In the evening of the 29th, we obfcrved that lumi- 
nous appearance of the fea which has been fo often 
(nenttoned by navigators, and of which fuch vaiioiis 


taufes have been affigned ; fome fuppofuig it to be oc- gUSl, 
cafioned by fifli, which agitated the water by darting 
at their prey^ fome by the putrefaftion of fifh and 
other marine animals, fome by ele6lricity, and others 
referring it into a great variety of different caufes. It 
appeared to emit flalhes of light exa31y refembling thofe 
of lightning*, only not fo confiderable, but they were fo 
frequent that fometimes eight or ten were vifible almoK 
at the fame moment. We were of opinion that they 
proceeded from fome luminous animal, and upon throw- 
ing out the cafting net our opinion was confirmed : it 
brought up a fpecies of the Medufa^ which when it 
came on board had the appearance of metal violently 
heated, and emitted a white light: with thefe animals 
were taken fome very fmall crabs, of three different 
fpecies, each. of which gav6 as much light as a glow- 
worm, though the creature was not fo large by nine 
tenths : upon examination of thefe animals, Mr. Banks 
had the fatisfa6iion to fitid that they were all entirely new. 

On Wednefday the 2d of November, about noon, November, 
being in the latitude of 10^ 38' S. and longitude 32^13' ^^^^^' *• 
43" W. we paflfed the line in which the needle at this 
time would have pointed due ndrth and fouth, without 
any variation : for in the morning, having decreafed 
gradually in its deviation for fome days, it was no more 
than 1 8^ W. and in the afternoon it was 34' Eaft. 

On the 6th, being in latitude 19^ 3' South, longitude Sunday 6. 
35^ 50' Weft, the colour of the water was obferved to 
change, upon which we founded, and found ground at 
the depth of 32 fathoms; the lead was caft three times 
within about four hours, without a foot diflFerence in 
the depth or quality of the bottom, which was coral 
rock, fine fand, and Ihells 5 we therefore fuppofed that 
we had paffed over the tail pf the great ftioal which is 
laid down in all pur charts by the name 6i Abrothos^ on 
which Lord Anfon ftruck foundings in his paffage out- 
wards: at. four the next morning we had no ground Monday 7. 
with 1 00 fathoms. 

As feveral articles of our ftock and provifions now be- 
gan to fall ftiort, I determined to put into Rio de Janeiro, 
rather than at any other port in Brazil or Falkland's 
Iflands, knowing that it could better fupply us with 
what we wanted, and making no doubt but that we 
fl^ould be well received. 


NoVemU. ^^ '^^ ^^^ "' day-break, we faw the coaft of Bra- 
zil, and about ten o'clock we brought to, and fpoke 

Tnetd. S. - with a filhing boat ; the people on board told m (hftt 
the land which we faw, lay to the fouthward of Sanu 
Efperita, but belonged to the capiainfhip of that 

Mr. BankE and Dr. Solander went on board this veffel, 
in which they found eleven menj nine of whom were 
Blacks ; they all fiflied with lines, and their frefh cargo, 
the chief part of which Mr. Banks bought, confided of 
dolphins, large pelagiac fconnbers of two kinds, fe« 
bream, and fome of the fi(h which in the Weft Indies 
are called Wellhmen. Mr. Banks had taken Spanifh 
filver with him, which he imagined to be the currency 
of the continent, but to his great furprife the people 
aiked htm for Engllfh (hillings; he gave them two which 
he happened to have about him, and it was not without 
fome difpute they took the reft of the money in pi- 
fterecns. Their bofmcfs feemed to be to caich large 
fifli at a good diftance from the (hore, which they falted 
in bulk, in made for that purpofe in the middle 
of the boat : of this merchandiz.c they had about two 
quintals on board, which they offered for about fixteen 
(hilling?, and would probably have fold for half the 
money. The frelTi fith, which was bought for about 
nineteen Ihillings and ftxpence, ferved the whole (hip's 
company ; the fait was not wanted. 

The Jea provifions of ihefe fiftiermen conflfted of no- 
thing more than a cafk of water, and a bag of Caflada 
flour, which they called FurinhadePm,or wooden flour, 
which indeed is a name which very well fuits its tafteand 
appearance. Their watcr-cafk was targe, as wide as 
their boat, and exaSly (itted a place that was made for 
it in the ballaft ; it was impo(rible therefore to draw out 
any of its contents by a tap, the fides being, from the 
bottom to the top, Wholly imurcefTable ; neither could 
any be taken out by dipping a vefTel in at the head, 
for an opening fufficiently wide for that purpofe would 
have endangered the lofs of great part of it by the roi- 
ling of the veflel : their expedient to get at their water 
fo fituated, was curious ; when one of them wanted to 
drink, he applied to his neighbour, who, accompanied 
him to the water-calk with a hollow cane abotit 


three feet long, which was open at borh ends ; this he ' 7 ^ . 
thnift into the ca(k through a fmall hole in the top, ^1^^^' 
and then, (topping the upper end with the palm of his 
hand, drew it out ; the preflure of the air againft the 
other end keeping in the water which it contained; to 
this end the perfon who wanted to drink applied his 
mouth, and the ailiftant then taking his hand from the 
other, and admitting the air above, the cane immedi- 
ately parted with its contents, which the drinker drew 
off till he was fatisfied. 

We flood off and on along the (hore till the 12th, Satoraayix. 
and fucceffively faw a remarkable hill near Santo Efpe- 
rito, then Cape St. Thomas, and then an ifland jud 
without Cape Trio, which in fome maps is called the 
ifland of Trio, and which being high, with a hollow in 
the middle, has the appearance of two iflands when 
feen at a diftance. On diis day we ftood along the 
fhore for Rio de Janeiro, and at nine the next morning Sunday 1 3. 
made fail for the harbour. I then fent Mr. Hicks, 
my firfl Lieutenant, before us in the pinnace, up to the 
city, to acquaint the Goyernor, that we put in there to 
procure water and refrefliments ; and to defire the af • 
iiftance of a pilot to bring us into proper anchorii^ 
ground. I continued to fiand up the river, trufting to 
Mr. Bellifle's draught, publilhed in the Petit Atlas 
fnarittmif Vol II. N^. 54. which we found very good, 
till five o'clock in the evening, expeding the return of 
my Lieutenant ; and juft as I was about to anchor, 
above the ifland of Cobras, which lies before the city, 
the pinnace came back without him, having on board 
a Portuguefe officer, but no pilot. The people in the 
boat told me, that my Lieutenant was detained by the 
Viceroy till I fhould go on fhore. We came immedi- 
ately to an anchor ; and almofl at the fame time, a ten 
oared boat, full of foldiers, came up and kept rowing 
round the fhip, without exchanging a word : in lefs 
than a quarter of an hour, another boat came onboard 
with feveral of the Viceroy's officers, who aflced. 
Whence we came ? what was our cargo ? the number 
of men and guns 6n board? the objed of our voyage ? 
and feveral" other queflions, which we direftly and truly 
anfwered. They then told me, as a kind of apology for 
detaining my Lieutenant, and putting an officer on board 



176S. my pinnace, that it was the invariable cuftom of the 
J?^^* place, to detain the.firft officer who came on (bore 
from any fhip on her arrival, till a boat from the 
Viceroy had vifited her, and to fufFer no boat to go ei- 
ther from or to a (hip, while (he lay there, without 
having a foldier on board. They faid that I might go 
on (hore when I pleafed ; but wi(hed that every other 
perfon might remain on board till the paper which 
they ihould draw up had been delivered to the Vice- 
roy, promifing that^ immediately upon their return^ 
the Lieutenant fhould be fent on board. 
Mwiday 14. 'pj^jg promife was performed ; and on the next morn- 
ing, the 14th, I went on (hore, and obtained leave of 
the Viceroy to purchafe provi(ions and refre(hments for 
the (hip, provided I would employ one of their own peo- 
ple as a factor, but not otherwife. I made fome objec- 
tions to this, but he infifted upon it as the cuflom of 
the place. I objected alfo againft the putting a foldier 
into the boat every time (he went between the (hip and 
the fhore ; but he told me, that this was done by the 
exprefs orders of his court, with which he could in no 
cafe difpenfe. I then requefted, that the gentlemen 
whom I had on board might refide on Oiore during our 
(lay, and that Mr. Banks might go up the country to 
gather plants; but this he abfolutely refufed. I judged 
from his extreme caution, and the ieverity of thefe re- 
ftridions, that he fufpefted we were tome to trade ; I 
therefore took fome pains to convince him of the con- 
trary. I told him, that we were bound to the fouthward, 
by the order of his Britannic Majeily, to obferve a tran- 
fit of the planet Venus over the Sun, an aftronomical 
phaenomenon of great importance to navigation. Of 
the tranfit of Venus, however, he could form no other 
conception, than that it was the pafling of the North 
Star through the South Pole ; for thefe are the very 
words of his interpreter, who was a Swede, and fpoke 
Englifh very well. I did not think it necefTary to aik 
permiffion for the Gentlemen to come on (hore during 
the day, or that, when I was on fhore myfelf, I might 
be at liberty, taking for granted that nothing was in- 
tended to the contrary ; but in this I was unfortunately 
midakcn. As foon as I took leave of his Excellcncv, I 
found an officer who had orders to attend me wherever 
J U'cni \ of this 1 dcfired an explanation, and was told 



that it was meant as a compliment; I earneftly de- ^^^r 
fired to be excufed from accepting fuch an honour, 
but the good Viceroy would by no means fuffer it to 
b^ difpenfed with. 

With this officer, therefore, I returned on board, 
about twelve o'clock, where I was impatiently expeSed 
by Mr.Banks and Dr. Solander, who made no doubt but 
that a fa}r account of us having been given by the offi- 
cers who had been on board the evening before, in their 
paper called 2ipra£ficay and every fcruple of the Viceroy 
removed in my conference with his Excellency, they 
fliould immediately be at liberty to go on fhore, and dif- 
pofe of themfelves as they pleafed. Their difappoint- 
ment, at receiving my report, may eafily be conceived : 
and it was ftill increafed by an account, that it had been 
refolved, not only to prevent their refiding on fhore, and 
going up the country, but even their leaving the fhip ; 
orders having been given, that no perfon except the 
Captain, and fuch common failors as were required to 
be upon duty, fhould be permitted to land; and that there 
was probably a particular view to thepafTengers in this 
prohibition, as they were reported to be Gentlemen fent 
abroad to make obfervations and difcoveries, and were 
uncommonly qualified for that purpofe. In the evening 
however, Mr. Banks and Dr. Solander drefTed them- 
felves, and attempted to go on fhore, in order to make 
a vifit to the Viceroy; but they were flopped by the 
guard-boat which had come off with our pinnace, and 
which kept hovering round the fhip all the while fhe lay 
here, for that purpofe; the officer on board faying, that 
he had particular orders, which he could not difobey, 
to fuffer no paffenger, nor any officer, except the Cap- 
tain, to pafs the boat. After much expoflulation to no 
purpofe, they were obliged, with whatever reluSance 
and mortification, to return on board. I then went on 
fhore myfelf, but found the Viceroy inflexible ; he had 
one anfwer ready for every thing I could fay. That 
the reflriftidns under which he had l^id us, were in 
obedience to the King of Portugal's command, and 
therefore indifpenfible. 

In this fituation I determined, rather than be made a 
prifoner in my own boat, to go on (here no more ; for 
the officer who, under the pretence of a compliment, 



1768. attended me when I was afliorc, infiftcd alfo upon going 
^j ;. ^ ' withnicloandfromthefhip: but ftiil imagining, that 
the lcrupulou5 vigilance of the Viceroy muft proceed 
frcm fome miflaken notion about us, which might more 
eafily be removed by writing than in converfation, I 
drew up 3 memorial, and Mr. Banks drew up another, 
which we fent on fhore, Thefe memorials were both 
anfwered, but by no means to our fatisfaflion ; we 
therefore replied: in confequence of which, feveral 
other papers were interchansjed between us and the 
Viceroy, but rtill without effefl. However as I thought 
fome degree of force, on the part of the Viceroy, to 
enforcethefe reftriSions, neceftary to juftify my acqui- 
efcence in them to the admiralty, I gave orders to my 
Lieutenant, Mr. Hicksj when I feni him with our laft 
Sondij 10. reply on Sunday the 20th, in the evening, not to fufFer 
a guard to be put into his boat. When the oflicei on 
board the guard boat found that Mr. Hicks was deter- 
mined to obey my orders, he did not proceed to force, 
but attended him to the landing- pi ace, and reported the 
matter to the Viceroy, Upon this his Excellency rc- 
fufed to receive the memorial, and ordered Mr. Hicks 
to return lo the Ihip : when he came back to the boat, 
he found that a guard had been put on board in his ab- 
fence, but he abfolutely refufed to return till the foldier 
was removed ; the officer then proceeded to enforce 
the Viceroy's orders ; he feiied all the boat's crew, and 
fent them under an armed force to prifon, putting Mr. 
Hicks at the fame time into one of their own boats, 
ftnd fending him under a guard back to the (hip. As 
foon as he had reported thefe particulars, I wrote again 
to the Viceroy, demanding my boat and crew, and in 
my letter indofed the memorial which he had refufed 
to receive from Mr. Hicks : thefe papers I fent by ii 
petty officer, that I might wave the dirpute about a 
guard, againfl which I had never objeaed except when 
there was a commiffioned officer on board the boat. 
The petty officer was permitted lo go on (bore with 
his guard, and, having delivered his letter, was told 
that an anfwer would be fent the next day. 

About eight o'clock this evening it began to blow ve- 
ry hard in fudded gulls from the South, and our long- 
boat comity on board juA at this time with four 
■■kL pipes 


pipes of rum, the rope which was thrown to her from ' 7^^'' 
the (hip, and which was taken hold of by the people .^^ ^' 
on board, unfortunately broke, and the boat, which 
had come to the (hip before the wind, went adrift to 
windward of her, with a fmall (kiffof Mr. Banks's that 
was faftened to her ilem. This was a great misfortune, 
as the pinnace being detained on (bore, we had no boat 
on board but a four oar'd yawl : the yawl, however, 
was immediately manned and fent to her affiftance; but, 
notwithflanding the utmoft efforts of the people in both 
boats, they were very foon out of fight : far indeed we 
could not fee at that time in the evening, but the difUnce 
was enough to convince us that they were not under 
command, which gave us great uneafinefs, as we knew 
they mufl drive diredly upon a reef of rocks which ran 
out juft to leeward of where we lay : after waiting fome 
hours in the utmoft anxiety, we gave them over for loft, 
but about three o'clock the next nioming had the fatis- 
fadion to fee all the people come on board in the yawl. 
From them we learnt, that the long-boat having filled 
with water, they had brought her to a grappling and left 
her; and that, having fallen in with the reef of rocks 
in their return to the fliip, they had been obliged to cut 
Mr. Banks's little boat adrift. As the lofs of our long- 
boat, which we had now too much reafon to iapprehend 
would have been an unfpeakable difad vantage to us, con- 
fidering the naturjp of our expedition, I fent another 
letter to the Viceroy, as foon as I thought he could be 
feen, acquainting him with our misfortune, and requeft- 
ing the afliftance of a boat from the (hore for the reco- 
very of our own ; I alio renewed my demand that the 
pinnace and her crew fhould be no longer detained: after 
fome delay, his Excellency thought fit to comply both 
with my requeft and demand ; and the fame day we hap- 
pily recovered both the long-boat and (kiff, with the 
runi. >ut every thing elfe that was on board was loft. 
On tn«j ^ J; ihe Viceroy, in his anfwer to my remon- wedn. 23. 
ftrancc : r . >.{> feizing rriy men and detaining the boat, 
acknov\ Ic J -^d that I had been treated with feme incivi- 
lity, but i . '. ''at the refiftance of my officers, re what 
he had dtct d to be the King's orders, made it abfo- 
lutely nece- a / j he alfo exprefTed fome doubts whe- 
ther the Enjeavour, confidering her ftrudure and 



1768. , otiier circumftanccs, was in the fervice of his Majcfty, 
"I™ ' though I had before (hewed him my commifTion ; to 
ihit. I anfwered in wriiirig, That, to remove all fcrupleS, 
1 was ready lo produce my commilTon again. His Ex- , 
cellency's fcrupies however rtill remained, and in his re- 
ply to my letter he not only exprefled them in ftilt 
pUiner terms, but accuied my people of fmngeling-. 
This charge, I am confident, was without the'leaft 
foundation in truth. Mr. Banks's fervants had indeed 
found means to go on fhore on the sad at day-break, 
and rtay till it was dark in the evening, but they brought 
on board only plant,', and infetis, having been fent for 
no other purpofe. And I bad the greaieft reafon to 
lielieve that not a fingle article was fmuggled by any 
of our people who were admitted on ihore, though 
many artful means were ufed to tempt them even by 
the very officers that were under his Excellency's roof, 
which made the charge ftill more injurious and pro- 

■ voking. 1 have indeed fome reafon to fiifpeS that one 

■ poor fellow bought a fingle bottle of rum with fome 
^ of the clothes upon his back ; and in my anfwer I re- 

quefled of his Excellency, thai, if fuch an attempt at 
illicit irade fhould be repeated, he would without 
fcruple order the offender to be taken into cullody. 
And thus ended our altercation, both by conference 
and writing, with the Viceroy of Rio de Janeiro. 

A friar in the town having requefted the afTiftance 
of our furgepn. Dr. Solander eafily got admittance in 

Friday 15. that charader on the 25th, and received many tparks 
of civility from the people. On the afiih, before day- 
break, Mr. Banks alfo found means to elude the vigi- 
lance of the people in the guard-boat, and gof on (bore, 
he did not however, go into the town, for the princi- 
pal objefls of his curiofity were !o be found in the 
fields : to him alfo the people behaved with great ci- 
vility, many of them invited him to their houfes, and 
he bought a porker and fome other things of ihem for 
the Ihip's company; the porker, which was by no 
means lean, cofl him eleven Ihillings, and he paid 
fomething lefs than two for a Mufcovy duclt. 

SuDd. 17. Q^ j[,g 27th, when the boats returned from water- 

ing, the people told us there was a report in town, that 


fearch was making after feme perfons who had been l^i^, 
on fliore from the (hip without the Viceroy's permif- 
fion ; thefe perfons were conje3ured to be Dr. So- 
lander and Mr. Banks^ and therefore they determined 
to go on Ihore no more. 

On the I ft of December, having got our water and December, 
other neceflaries on board, I fent to the Viceroy for " * *' 
a pilot to carry us to fea, who came off to us; but the 
wind preventing us from getting out, we took on 
board a plentiful fupply of frefli beef, yams and greens 
for the (hip's company. On the 2d, a Spaniili pac- Friiiay a* 
ket arrived, with letters from Buenos Ayres for Spain, 
commanded by Don Antonio de Monte Negro y Ve- 
lafco, who with great politenefs offered to take our 
letters to Europe : I accepted the favour, and gave 
him a packet for the Secretary of the Admiralty, con- 
taining copies of all the papers that had paffed between 
me and the Viceroy, leaving alfo duplicates with the 
Viceroy, to be by him forwarded to Lifton. 

On Monday the 5th, it being a dead calm, we Monday 5. 
weighed anchor and towed down the bay ; but, to 
our great aftonifhment, when we got a-breaft of Santa 
Cruz, the principal fortification, two ftiot were fired 
at us. We immediately caft anchor, and fent to the 
fort to enquire the reafon of what had happened: our 
people brought us word. That the commandant hid 
received no order from the Viceroy to let us pafs ; 
and that, without fuch an order, no veffel was ever 
fuffered to go below the fort. It was now therefore, 
become neceffary that we (hould fend to the Viceroy, 
to enquire why the neceffary order had not been given, 
as he had notice of our departure, and had thought fit 
to write me a polite letter, wiftiing me a good voy- 
age. Our meffenger foon returned with an account, 
that the oider had been written fome days, but by an 
unaccountable negligence not fent. 

We did not get under fail till the 7th ; and, when Wcdn. 7. 
we had paffed the fort, the pilot defired to be difchargcd. 
As foon as he was dtfmifled, we were left by our 
guard-boat, which had hovered about us from the firft 
hour of our being in this place to the laft ; and Mr. 
Banks, having been prevented from going afhpre at 
Rio de Janeiro, availed himfelf of her departure to 

Vol. I. C c examine 



nwAcr ^**™'"* '^"^ heigh bouring Iflands, where, particaUrly 
j^^jjj' on one in ihc mc'uthof tht harbour caHetl Ra7,a, he 

gAthercd many fpecies of plants, and caught a variety 

It is lemarkahle, thai, during the Uft three or four 
diys of oUr ftaying in thii hftrteUr, the air was loaded 
wi;h butterflies; they were chiefly of one fert, but in 
fiTch numbers that thoalinds were in view in every 
direaion, and the greateft part of them above onr 

We lay here from the I4lh of Nnvember lo the 
7ih of December, Tomething more than three weeks, 
during which time, Mr. Monkhoufe, our Surgeon, 
was on Ihore every day to buy our provifrons ; Dr. 
Solander w^as on (hore once ; I * as feveral times on 
Ihore myfelf, and Mr. Banks aKo found means to get 
into the country, rotwithftanding the watch that was 
fet over us. i ihall, therefore, with ihe intelligence 
obtained from thefe Gentleraeni and my own obfer- 
vations, give fome accortit of the town, and the coun- 
try adjacent. 

Rio de Janeiro, or the river of jamiarios, was pro- 
bably fo called from ire having been difcovered on the 
fraft-day of that fatnt ; and the town, which is the 
capital of the Portuguefe dominions in America, de- 
rives its name from the river, which indeed is rather 
m arm of theftiiy ftn-it'didttot ap^efttw receive any 
Gonridd'able {Iream of ft^ Wat^ ; ^t flan<)s bn a ftlahi, 
d6fe to tbe Store, ba the weKl iHe of the t>ay, at the 
feist of feveral high rtWtontains which t-ife behind it. 
It is Neither ill defigtirf tor ill btiik ; the htiirfits, m 
getierkl, are of ftone^ andtwo ftories h^g^lJ tvery I 
houCe having, after the maDner <of the Portuguefe, a- 
iittle balcony before its windows, and a lattice of wood 
before th6 balcony, trdmptited its Circnittohe t^- 
bout three miles ; for it appeals to be equal-in fize t» 
the lirgeft "country towns in iRnglsnd, Briftol and Li'- 
vefpool riot elcdejtted ; the ftreeits are flraight aitd of « 
coriventent breadth, interfiling each Other at right 
angels ; the greater part, however, lie in a line with- 
the citadel, calM St. Sebaftian, Whidi (lands on the 
top of a hill that cQiiitnands the town. 


Ir is fupplicd with anier irooi d^ aeigbbowi 
by aD aqueds^ iriucii k nzid «?oa trxo 
archesy and is £nd in {otat |4^ja to be at a gffeal 
bdght troin the grocad, finuD vrfcich the waier ti coc- 
veved b]r pipes into a fovMaia ts tbe ereat Cquare that 
eza^j firoots the \lcaoj^% pial^c At this touctain 
great numbers of people are cootie Jaiiy wait:i^ tor 
their turn to drav vtfer; and the ibUiers, who are 
pofted at the GoTcmor's door, fiod it vtrr d^jEccU to 
maintain any regulafity aaiong them. The water at 
this fountain however is fo had, that we, who had 
been two ooonths at (ea, confioed to that in our caiks, 
which was ahnoft always foul, could not drink it with 
pkafure. Water of a better quality is laid imo fome 
other part of the town, but I couU not leani hy what 

The churches are very fine, and there is more reli- 
gious parade in this place than in any of the Popblh 
countries in Europe : there b a proceffion of ibme pa- 
rifli every day, with viffious inl^aia, all fplendid and 
coftly in the higbeft degree : they beg moneyy and 
iay pra}'ers is great tono^ at the comer of every 

While we lay here, oneof the churches was rebuild* 
ing ; and to defray the expencC) the piriih to which it 
belonged had leave to beg in proceffion ihnnigh the 
whcde city once a week, by which very confiderabie 
(iims were co!le£ked At tfats cerenaony, wbkh was 
performed by night, all the boys of a certain age were 
obliged to aflift, the foos of gentlemen not being ex- 
cuied. Each of thefe boys was drefled in a black cal- 
fock, with a (hort red cloak, hanging about as low as 
the waift, and carried in his hand a pole ^bout fix or 
feven feet long, at the end of which was tied a lantern : 
the number of lanterns 'was generally above two htm-' 
dred, and the light they gave was (h great, ^ hat the pco* 
pie who faw it from the cabin windows thought the 
town had been on 6 re. : 

The inhabitants^ hoSwever, may pay tbieir devotiorw 
at theihrine of any fointin thrcafendar, without' wait- 
ing till there is a proceffion ; for before ilmbft crery 
houfe there is a little cupboard^ fiarnilhtd vrirh a'glRl'i 
.windo?w^ in which one' of thcfc tutdary? poivers is 
, .; ^ C c a wairiqu 





waiting to be gracious; and to prevent his being out 
of mind, by being out of figlit, a lamp is kept con- 
ftsntly burning before the window of his tabernacle m 
the night. The people indeed are by no ivteans remifs 
in their devotions, for before thtfe faints they pray 
ard fing hymns with fuch vehemence, that in the 
night they were veiy diftinSly heard on board the 
fhrp, ihouRh (he lav at the diftance of at lead half a 
mile from the town. 

The government here, as to its form, is mixed ; it 
is notwilhflanding very defpotic in faS, It confifta 
of the Viceroy, the Governor of the town, and s 
Council, the number of whitK ! could not learn : 
without the confcnt of this council, in which the Vice- 
roy has a calling vote, no judicial aft ihould he per- 
formed ; ye! huih the Viceroy and Governor fre- 
quently commit perfons to prifon at iheir own plea- 
fure, fometinies lend them lo Lilbon, without ac- 
quainting their friends and family with what is laid lo 
tlieir charge, or where they may be found. 

To reftrain the people from travelling into the coun- 
try, and getting into any diftrift where gold or dia- 
monds may be found, of both which there is much 
more than the government can otherwifc fecure, cer- 
tain bounds arc prefcribed ^em, at the difcretioli of 
the Viceroy, fometimes at a few, and fomethnes at 
many milss diAance from the city. On the' verge of 
thefe limits a guard conftantly patroles, and whoever 
is found beyond it, is immediately feized and throwA 
into prifc»i ; and if a man is, «pon any pretence, taken 
Op by the guard within the limits, he will be fent to 
prifon, though it Ihould appear that he did not know 
their eKterit. 

The inhabitants, which are very numerous, confill 
of Portugoefe, Negroes, and Indians, the original na- 
tives of the country. The townlhip of Rio, which, 
as I was told, is but a fmall part of the Capitanea, or 
province, is fatd to contain 37,000 White peifons, and 
629,000 Blacks, many of whom are fret ; making 
together 666,000, in the proportioif of feventeen to 
one. The Indians, who are employed to do the King's 
IKork in. this neighbourhood, can icarcely be confider* 
«d-as ioljabtbuns; theirrefidenccUat adiflance, from 
:■ ...'.-■■/ whence 


whence th&y come by turns to their talk, which they '76a^ 
are obliged to perform for a fmall pay. The guard- 
boat was conrtantly -rowed by thefe people, who are 
of a light copper colour, and have long black hair^ 

The military eftablifhment here confifts of twelve 
regiments of regular troops, fix of which are Portu- 
guefe and fix Creoles ; and twelve other regiments of 
provincial militia. To the regulars the inhabitant* 
behave with the utmoft humility and fubmiflion ; and 
I was told, that if any of them fliould negleS to take 
off his hat upon meeting an officer, he would imme" 
diately be knocked down. Thefe haughty feverities ren- 
der the people extremely civil to any ftranger who has 
the appearance of a gentleman. But the fubordination 
of the officers themfelves to the Viceroy is enforced 
with circumftances equally mortifying, for they are 
obliged to attend in his hall three times every day to 
a{k his commands; the anfwer conftantly is, ** There 
is nothing new." I have been told, that this fervile at- 
tendance is exafted to prevent their going into the 
country ; and, if fo, it eflFeaually anfwers the purpofe. 

It is, I believe, univerfally allowed, that the women, 
both of the Spanifh and Portuguefe fettlements in South 
America, make lefs difficulty of granting perfonal fa- 
vours, than thofe of any other civilized country in the 
world. Of the ladies of this town fome have formed fo 
unfavourable an opinion as t.Q declare, that they did not 
believe there was a modeftone among them. This cenr 
fure is certainly. too general; but what Dr, Solander 
faw of thf m when he was. on (hoi;e^ gave him no very 
exalted idea of their chaffiity : he told me, that asfoon 
as it was dark, one or more of them appeared in every 
window^ and diftinguifhed ihofe whom they liked, 
among the gentlemen that walked paft them, by giving 
them nofegayfi ; that he, and two gentlemen who were 
with hirh, receive<i fo majny of thefe favours, that, at 
the end of their walk, which was not a long one, they 
threw whole hatfuls of them away. Great allowance 
muft certainly be made for local cuftoms ; that which 
in ofie country would be an indeqent familiarity, is a 
mere aS of general courtefy in another ; of the JF^fl, 
therefore, which I have related, I (ball fay nothing, 
but that I am confident it is true. 



"7**- Neither will I take upon me 10 affirm, that murders 
Detcmbtt. ^^^ frequently committed here; but the churches 
afford an afylum to the criminal ; and as our cock- 
fwain was one day looking at two men, who appeared 
to be talking together in a friendly manner, one of 
them I'uddenly drew a knife and flabbcd the other; 
who not infVantly failing, the murderer withdrew the 
weapon, and ftabbed him a fecond time. He then ran 
away, and was purfued by fome Negroes who were 
alfo wiinefles of the faG ; but whether he efcaped or 
was taken I never heard. 

The country at a fmsll diftance round the town, 
which is all that any of us faw, is beautiful in the 
higheft degree: the wildeft fpols being varied with a 
greater luxuriance of flowers, both as to number and 
beamy, than the beft gardens in England. 

Upon the trees and bnflies fa! an almoft endlefs va- 
riety of birds, efpecially fmall ones, many of thetrt 
covered with the moft elegant plumage ; among which 
were the humming-bird. Of infcfls too there was a 
great variety, and fome of them very beautiful ; but 
tiwy were much more nimble than thofe of Europe, 
f efpecially the butterflies, moft of whith flew near the 

tops of the trees, and were therefore very difficult to 
be caught, except when the Tea breeze blew frefh, 
which kept them nearer to the ground. 

T. he banks of the (ea, and of the fmall brooki 
which Water this part of the country, are almoft co- 
vered with the fmall crabs called Cancer vr)cani; fome 
of ihcfe had one of the claws, called by natufalifts the 
hand, very large; others had them both remarkably 
fmall, and of equal fize, a difference which is faid to 
diftinguifh the feies, that with the large claw being 
the male. 

There is the appearance of but little cultivation ( 
the greater part of the land is wholly uncultivated, 
and very little care and labour feem to have been be- 
ftowed upon the reft ; there are indeed liitte patches 
or gardens, in which many kinds of Eurofsean garden 
fluff are produced, particularly cabbages, peas, beans, 
kidney-beans, turnips, and while radilhes, but all 

XOU5f3 THS WORLD. 595 

rif'*!"^ mt 3UK •Ui*' , 
ctKT .irc res 




t^itm sortte iiac'?es or :tus 


^^CTT tnic care ^eafccwes 

ittbetm€gr» aed&afaav' 

oi latace cfee 

fill wotit^ jc kadfc 

a _, 

" ' " " " Of 


wiw^ m Khe Weil Ik^ is caika Cad^da er CulAYiL, 
»(i to tke tcxu ot wiBcii tbc fwpk bctr^ a» 1 have 
before ob^ervec, ei-e -.he name dFanmia AiV», wburft 
nar cac lanordai^ be trandared, iV>vder at poiV 
The ibiiy cccwn u oradticrs tobacco aW tu^<tf« >K^ll 
not prodoce hrud-corn ; 61 rfaeu tbc people kent kAN\ 
00 wrxai'fictrr, bai what is broiis:ht trcwn r«tM|S«*^ 
aid kiU at :be race u a fliiUiof a pound* thi^Ugb u )' 
^er.erai:7 l^lcd by bans heateid io its paila|^». K*» 
kisa<A u at opb'xn, that alt the proiua$ *^ wr \\ vH 
Indian iflands wouU ftow here; iKUwiihrtaWvU*^/. 
which, the inhabttaikis impon their coftVt' anUch\H\i 
late from i^inK)n. 

Moft of the land, as f^r as we faw of lh«» couuM \ % 
is laid down in grafs, upon which cattU uro jjalUncvl 
iD ?reat plenty » but they tr« to l«at)» thai wu KM|i^»<l* 


n^^^' man will fcarcelyeat of their flelh: the herbage of thefe 
,1,^' pailures confifts principally of creiTes, and confequently 
is fo fhort, that ihough it may afFord a bile for horfes 
ard Iheep, it can fcarcely be grazed by horned cattle 
in a fufficient quantity to keep them alive. 

This country rnay poflibly produce many valuable 
drugs; but we could not find any in ihe apothecaries 
fliops, except pareira brava, and balfam capivij both 
of which are excellent in iheir kind, and fold at a. very 
low price. The drug trade is probably carried on to 
the northward, as well as that of the dying woods, for 
we could get no intelligence of either of ihein here. 

As to manufaSures, we neither faw nor heard of any, 
except that of cotton bammock'i, in which people are 
carried about here, as they are with us in fedan chairs ; 
and ihefe are principally, if not wholly, fabricated by 
the Indians. 

The riches of ihe place eonfift chiefly in the mines, 
which we fuppofed to lie far up the country, ihough 
we could never learn where, or at what diflance ; for 
the fituation is concealed as much as polTible, and troops 
are ccjitinuaiiy employed in guarding the roads that lead 
to them : it is almofl: impoffible for any man to get a 
Jigtrf of ihem^ except thofe who are employed there j 
and indeed the flrongeft curiofity would fcarcely induce 
any man to attempt it ; for whoever is found upon the 
road to <bem, if be^ caiuiot give undeniable evidence of 
his having bufine^ there, is immediately hanged up 
upon the neat tree. 

Much gold is certainly brought from thefe mines, 
but at an expence of life, that mull ftrike every man, to 
whom cuflom has not made it familiar, with horror. 
No iefs than forty ihoufand Negroes are annually im- 
ported, -on the King's account, to dig the mines; and 
we were credibly informed, that the lad year but onp 
before we arrived here, this number fell fo thort, pro- 
, bably from fome epidemic difeafe, that twenty thoufand 
more were^raughtcd from the town of Rio. 

Precious {tones are alfo found here in fuch plenty, 

that a certain quantity only is allowed to be colleded 

ina year; tocolle3 this quantity, a number of people 

are fent into the country where they arc found, and 

' >vhen it is got leather, which fometimes happens in 

, ■month. 


a months fometimes in lefs, and fometimes in more^ >7^S- 
they return ; and after that, whoever is found in thefe ^^^°°^' 
precious diftriSs, on any pretence, before the next year, 
is immediately put to death. 

1 he jewels found here, are diamonds, topazes of 
feveral kinds, and amethyfts. We did not fee any ot 
the diamonds, but were informed that the Viceroy 
had a large quantity by him, which he would fell on 
the King of Portugal's account, but not for a lefs price 
than they are fold for in Europe. Mr. Batiks bought 
a few topazes and amethyfls ^s fpecimens : of the topa- 
zes there are three forts, of very difFerem value, which 
are diflinguiflied here by the names of Pinga d'agua 
qualidade primeiro, Pinga d'agua qualidade fecundo, 
and Chryftallos armerillos : they are fold, large and 
fmall, good and bad together, by oSayos, or the eighth 
part of an ounce ; the beft at 4s. pd. All dealing, . 
however, in thefe ftones is prohibited to the fubje^, 
under the fevereft penalties : there were jewellers here 
formerly, who purchafed and worked them on their 
own account ; but about fourteen montns before our 
arrival, orders came from the court of Portugal, that 
no more ftones fhould be wrought here, except on the 
King's account : the jewellers were ordered to bring 
all their tools to the Viceroy, and left without any 
means of fubfiftence. The perfons employed here to 
work ftones for the King are flaves. 

The coin that is current here, is either that of Por- 
tugal, conitfting chiefly of thirty-fix fliilling pieces, 
or pieces, both of gold and filver, which are ftruck at 
jthis place : the pieces of filver, which are very much 
debafed, are called Petacks, and are of different value, 
and eafily diftinguiflied by the number of rees that is 
marked on the outfide. Here is alfo a copper coin, 
like that in Portugal, of five and ten ree pieces. A ree 
is a nominal coin of Portugal, ten of which are equal 
in value to about three farthings fterling. 

The harbour of Rio de Janeiro is fituated W, by N. 
X 8 leagues from Cape Trio, and may be known by a 
remarkable hill, in the form of a fugar-loaf, at the weft 
point of the bay ; but as all the coaft is very high, and 
rides in many peaks, the entrance of this harbour may 
he more certainly diftinguiflied by the iflands that lie 



176S. before it; one of which, called Rodona, is high and 
"™"' round like a hay-ftack, and lies at the diftance of two 
leagues and an half from ihe entrance of the bay, in 
the direflion of S. by W- but the firft iflands which are 
met with, coming from the caft, or Cape Trio, arc 
two that have a rocky appearance, lying near to each 
other, and at the diflance of about four miles from the 
fiiorc : there are alfo, at the diflance of three leagues to 
the weflward of ihefe, two other iflands which lie near 
to each other, a little without the bay on the eaft fide, 
and very near the fliorc. This harbour is certainly a 
cood one ; the entrance indeed is not wide, but the 
lea breeze, which blows every day from ten or tweWt 
o'clock till funfet, maket it eafy for any fliip to go in 
before t!ie wind; and it grows wider |as the town is 
approached, fo that a-brea(l of it there is room for the 
fargeft fleetj in five or fix fjthoms water, with an oozy 

rboiioni. At the narrow part, the entrance is defended 
by iivo forts. The principal is Santa Cruz, which 
(land'- on the eaft point of the hay, and has been men- 
linned before: that on the weft fide is called FortLozia, 
and is built upon a rock that lies clofe to the main j 
the diftance between them is about | of a rfiile, but the 
cliannel is not quite fo bro-id, becaufe lljere are funken 
rocks which lie off each fort, and in this part alone 
rhere is danger : the n^-irrowneft of the channel caules 
the tides, both flood and ebb, to run wtth confideraMe 
ftrength, fo that they cannot be ftemmed without a 
4 frefti breeze. The rockyncfs of the bottom makes it 
alfo unfafe 10 anchor here ; but all danger may be avoid- 
ed by keeping in the middle of the channel. Within 
the entrance, the courfe up the way is firft N, by W. - 
I W. and N. N. W. fometiiing more than a league j 
this will bring the veflel the length of the great road ; 
;and N. W. and W. N. W. one league more will carry 
^ler 10 the Ifle dos Cobras, which lies before the city : 
fte If-.ould then keep the north fide of this ifland clofe 
on board, and anchor above it, before a monaftery of 
^eneoiSines which rtandsuponahiii at the N.W.end 
of the city. 

The river, and indeed the whole coaft, abounds 

with a greater variety of fifti than we hadeverfeen; a 

^^^ day fcldom panedinwhichoneormoreofanew fpeciet 


were not brought to Mr. Banks : the bay alfo is as well «768: 
adapted for catching thefe fi(h as can be conceived ; for **^*" ^^' 
it is full of fmall iflands, between which there is (hallow 
water, and proper beaches for drawing the feine. The 
fca, without the bay, abounds with dolphins, and large 
mackerel of different kinds, which readily bite at a 
hook, and the inhabitants always tow one after their 
boats for that purpofe. 

Though the dinnate is hot, the (ituation of this place 
is certainly wholefome : while we ftaid here, the ther- 
tnomctcr never rofe higher than 83, though we had 
frequent rains, and once a very hard gale of wind 

Ships water here at the fountain in the great fquare, 
though, ks I have obferved, the water is not good ; 
they land their calks upon a fmooth fandy beach, which 
is not more than an hundred yards diftant from the foun- 
tain, and upon application to the Viceroy, a centinel 
will be appoiptcd to look after them, and clear the way 
to. the fountain where they are to be filled. 

Upon the whole, Rio dc Janeiro is a very good place 
for (hips to put in at that want refre(hment : the harbour 
is fafe and commodious ; and provi(ions, except wheat- 
bread and fiour, may be cafily procured : as a fuc- 
cedaneum for bread, there are yams and cadada in 
plenty ; bcef^ both frefli and jerked, may be bought at 
about two-penoe farthing a pound ; though, as I have 
before remarked, it is very lean. The people here jerk 
their beef by taking oqt the bones, cutting it into large 
but thin (lice?, then curing it with fait, and drying it 
in the (hade : it eats very well, and, if kept dry, will 
remain good a long time at fea. Mutton is fcarcely to 
be procured, 4nd hogs and poultry are dear ; of garden 
duff and fruit there is abundance, of which, however^ 
none can be prcfervcd at fea but the pumpkin ; rum, 
fugar, and moIafTes, all excellent in their kind, may 
be had at a reafonable price ; tobacco alfo is cheap, but 
it is not good. Here is a yard for building (hipping, 
and a fmall hulk to heave dov^n by ; for, as the tide 
never rifes above (ix or feven feet, there is no other way 
of coming at a fhip's bottom. 

When the boat which had been fent on (hore return- 
jp^, we hoifted her on board, and flood out to fea. 



CHAP. ni. 



The Pafagifrsm Rio dt Janeira to the. Entrance of 
Streighl ofLe Mairt, with a Dtfcriftion of fme of 
the hihabitants if Terra del Fuego. 

the 9th of December we obfcrvcd the fen 10 
_ : covered wiih broad ftreaks of a yellowiih co- 
lour, feveral of them a mile long, and three or four 
hundred yards wide : fome of ihe water thus coioured 
was taken up, and found to be full of innumerable 
aioms pointed at the end, of a yellowifh colour, and 
none more than a quarter of a line, or the fort ieth part 
of an inch long : in the microfcope thev appeared to be 
Fiifiiculi of fniall fibres interwoven with each other, 
not unlike the nidus of fome of the Phygatifas, called 
Caddices ; but whether ihey were animal or vegetable 
fubflances, whence they came, or for what they were 
defigned, neither Mr. Banks nor Dr. Soiander could 
guefs. The lame appearance had been obferved be- 
fore, when we firfl difcovcred the continent of South' 

On the iiih we hooked a (hark, and while w<f 
were playing it under the cabin window, it threw out 
and drew in again feveral limes what appeared to be its 
flomach : it proved to be a female, and upon being 
opened, fix young ones were taken out of it 5 five of 
them were alive and fwam brifkly in atub of water, 
but the fixth appeared to have been dead fome time. 

Nothing remarkable happened till the 30th, except 
that we prepared for the bad weatber, which we were 
Ihof tly to expeiEt, by bending a new fuit of fails ; but 
on this day we ran a courfe of one hundred and fixty 
miles by the log, through innumerable land iofefls (rf 
various kinds, fome upon the wing, and tpore upon 
the water, many of which were alive ; they appeared 
to t>e cxaQly the fame with the Carjii, the Gp''^(, the 
Pkalsntt, Arania, and other flies that ate Teen in Eng- 
land, though at this time we could not be lefs than 
thirty leagues from land \ and fome of thefe infefts, 
particularly the Grylli and Aranea, never voluntarily 
jeave it at a greater diAancc than twenty yards. 


We judged ourfelves to be nearly oppofite to Baye farts r^^1^\ 

/< / t r u /r TN 1 I r "^ r 1' ir December. 

fondy where Mr. Dalrymple luppofes there is a paliage 
quite through the continent of America ; and we thought 
from the infeSs that there might be a very large river, 
and that it had overflowed its banks. 

On the 3d of January, 1 769, being in latitude 470 1767. 
1 7' S. and longitude 610 29' 45" W. we were all look- f}^^' 
ing out for Pepys* ifland, and for fome time an appear- 
ance was feen in the eaft which fo much refembled land, 
that we bore away for it ; and it was more than two 
hours and an half before we were convinced that it 
was nothing but what failors call a Fog-bank. 

The people now beginning to complain of cold, each 
of them received what is called a Magellanic jacket, 
and a pair of trowfers. The jacket is made of a thick 
woollen-ftufF, called Fearnought^ which is provided by 
the government. We faw, from time to time, a great 
nuniber of penguins, albatroffes, and Iheer-waters^ 
feals, whales, and porpoifes : and on the nth, having Wtdncf-ii. 
pafled Falkland's iflands, we difcovered the coaft of 
Terra del Fuego, at the diftance of about four leagues, 
extending from the W. to S. E. by S. We had here 
five and thirty fathoms, the ground foft, fmall flate 
ftones. As we ranged along the fhore to the S. E. at 
the diftance of two or three leagues, we perceived fmoke 
in feveral places, which was made by the natives, pro- 
bably as a fignal, for they did not continue it after we 
had pafled by. This day we difcovered that the fliip 
had got near a degree of longitude to the weftward 
of the log, which, in this latitude, is 35 minutes of a 
degree on the equator : probably there is a fmall current 
fetting to the weftward, which may be caufed by the 
wefterly current toiiiing round Cape Horn, and through 
the Streight of Le Maire, and the indraught of the 
Straight of Magellan *. 

* The celebrated navigator who difcovered this Streight was a native 
of Portugal, and hitniume in the language of his country, was Fernan- 
do de Magalhaens ; . the Spaniards caU him Hernando Magalhanes, 
and the French Magelian, which is the orthography that has been 
generally adopted t a'CentJeman, the fifth in defcent from 'diisffeat 
adventurer, is nour living in pr near London, and communicated jthe 
true name of his.anceftor to Mt. Banks,. with a re^ueft that it ;night 
■|>c infcrtcd in this'wo^k.- 



1769. Having continued to range the coail, on I he 14th 

J^!!^^!I^ we entered the Streighi of Le Maire ; but ihe tide tum- 

Satuid. 14. ing againft us, drove us out wiih great violence, and 

Enter the i-jji^j fuch a Tea off Cape St. Diego, that the waves 

UMatrc. had exaflly the fame appearance as ihey would have 

had if they had broke over a ledge of rock? ; and when 

the fliip was in th s torrent, (he frequently pitched, 

fo that the bowfprit was under water. About noon, 

we got under the land between Cafe St. Diego and 

Cape St. \ inceni, where I intended to have anchored ; 

but finding the ground every where hard and rocky, 

I and (hallowing from thirty to twelve fathoms, I fent 

the Matter to examine a little cove which lay at a fmall 
diftance to iheeaftwaid ofCape St. Vincent, When he 
returned, he reported, that there was anchorage in 
four fathoms, and a good botioiti, clofe to the eaflward 
of the firft bluffpoint, on the eaft of [Cape St. Vincent, 
at the very entrance of the Cove, to which I gave the 
name of Vincent's Bay: before this anchoring 
ground, however, lay feveral rocky ledges, that were 
covered with fea-weed ; but I was told that there was 
not lefs than eight and nine fathoms over all of them. 
It will probably be thought flrange, that where weeds, 
whicli grow at the bottom, appear above the furtace, 
there Jhouid be this depth of water ; but the weeds 
which grow upon rocky ground in thefe countries, and 
which always diftinguifh it from fand and ooze, are 
of an enormous fize. The leaves are four feet long, 
ind foine of the flalks, though not thicker than a man's 
thumb, above one hundred and twenty : Mr. Banks 
and Dr. Solander examined fome of them, over which 
■we founded and had lourteen fathoms, which is eighty- 
four ftct ; and, as they made a very acute angle with 
the bottom, they were thought lo be at leait one half 
longer : the foot (lalks werefwelled into an air vcffe^ 
and Mr. Banks and Dr. Solander called this plant 
Fucus giganuui. Upon the rcfort of .the Mailer, I 
ftood in wUh the:dHp( but not (rufting iuBplicitly to' 
his intelligence, l:i;orttinued (o found, atjd -found btK 
i6urfuboinsupon^£rflledge that I went over; coiit- 
dutHite, thenfere> tfiM I conid not anchor here wtth^ 
Ottt rifk, I dcRrrnined to feek fome port in theStreigtir, 
> where 


where I might get on board fuch wood and water as 
we wanted. 

Mr. Banks and Dr. Solander, however, being very 
defirous to go on (hore» I fent a boat with thetn and 
their people, while I kept plying as near as pofiible 
with the (hip. 

Having been on (hore four hours, they returned 
about nitie in the evening, with above an hundred dif- 
ferent plants and flowers, all of them wholly unknown 
to the botatiifts of Europe. They found the country 
about the bay to be ingenerid flat, the bottom of it in 
particular was aplain^ coveted with grafs, which might 
eafily have been made into a large quantity of hay ; 
they found alfo abundance of good wood and water, and 
fowl in great plenty. Amoi^ other things, of which 
Nature has been liberal in this place, is Winter's bark, 
Winteranea aromatica ; which may eaiily be known by 
its broad leaf, fliaped like the laureU of a light green 
colour without, and inclining to blue within ; the bark 
is eafily dripped with a bone or a ilkk, and its virtues 
are well known ; it may be ufed for culinary purpofes 
as a fpice, «nd is not \m plealiiHt than wholefome ; 
here is alfo plenty of wild celery ahd fcurvy grafs. The 
trees are chiefly of one kind> a fpecies of the birch call- , 
ed Betuk anfar'^ka ; the (lem is from thirty to forty 
feet long, and from two te three feet in diameter, lb 
that in a cafe of neceflity thefy might pofliWy fupply a 
fbip with tQp-mafts; they are a light white wood, bear 
a fmall leaf, and cleave very (Iratght. Cranberries were 
aflfo found hei*e tngreat plenty , both white and red. 

The perfdns w)io landed (aw none of the inhabitants^ 
but fell in with two of their deferted huts, one in a 
thick wood, iind the other clofe by the beach. 

Having taken the boat on board, I made fail into the 
Streight, and at three in the morning of the 1 5th I an-Suiviay 15 
chored in twelve fathoms and an half, upon coral rocks, 
before a fmall cove, which we took for Port Maurice> 
at the diildnce of about half a mile from the ihore. 
Two of the natives came down to the beach, expeS- 
ing us to land ; but this (|)ot afforded fo little Shelter, 
that I at length detemruned not to examine it : I there- utider fail again about ten o'clock, and Ihe 
fa^'age8 retired into the Woods* 



At two o'dock we anchored in the bay of Good 
Sucxefs ; and after dinner I went on (hore, accompa- 
nied by Mr. Banks and Dr. Solander, lo look for a 
watering place and fpeak to the Indians, feveral of 
whom had come in fight. We landed on the flarboard 
fiJe of the bay near lome rocks, which made fmooth 
(I'iiler and good landing ; thirty or forty of the Indians 
foon made their appearance at ihe end of a fandy beach 
on rhe other fide of the bay ; but feeingour number, 
which was ten or twelve, they retreated. Mr. Banks 
and Dr. Solander then advanced about one hundred 
jfards before us, upon which two of the Indians return- 
ed, and, having advanced fome paces towjtrds them, 
fat down ; as foon as they came up, the Indians rofe, 
and each of them having a fmal! ftick in his hand, 
threw it away, in a direction both from themfelves 
and the ftrangers, which was confsdered as the renun- 
ciation of weapons in token of peace ; they then walk- 
ed brilkly towards their companions, who had hailed at 
about fifty yards behind them, and beckoned the gen- 
tlemen to follow, which they did. They were re- 
ceived with many uncouth figns of friendfhip ; and, 
in return, they diftributed among them fome beads 
and ribbons, which had been brought on Ihore for that 
purpofe, and with which they were greatly delighted. ' 
A mutual confidence and good-will being thus pro- 
duced, our parties joined ; the converfation, fuch as 
it was, became general ; and three (^ them accompa- 
nied us back to the (hjp. When they came on board, 
one of them, whom we took to be a prieft, performed 
much the fame ceremonies which M. Bougainville 
defcribes, and fuppofes to be an exorcifm. When he 
was introduced into a new part of the (hip, or wbeii 
any thing that he had not feen before caught his at- 
tention, he Ihouted with all his force for fome minuteSi 
without direftiug his voice either to us or his compa- 

They eat fome bread and fome beef, but not ap- 
parently with much plcafure, though fuch part of 
what was given them as they did not eat they took 
away with them ; but they would not fwallow a drop 
either of wine or fpirits : they put the gUfs to their 
Kps, but having tafted Ihe liquor, th,ey returned ir, 


with ftrong expreffions of dilguft. Curiofity fceais to '7^9- 
be one of the few paflions whicH diftinguifli men from {*]J|*|I2[i 
brutes ; and of this our gue(ls appeared to have very 
little. They went from one part of the (hip to another, 
and looked at the vaft variety of new objefts that every 
moment prcfented themfelves, without any expreflion 
either of wonder or pleafure, for the vociferation of 
our exorcift feemed to be neither. 

After having been on board about two hours, they 
exprefled a deftre to go a-fhore. A boat was immedi- 
ately ordered, and Mr. Banks thought fit to accompa* 
ny them : he landed them in fafety, and conduced 
them to their companions, among whom we remarked 
the fame vacant indifFerence, as in thofe who had been 
on board ; for as on one fide there appeared no eager- 
nefs to relate, fo on the other'there feemed to be no 
curiofity to hear, how they had been received, or what 
they had feen. In about half an hour, Mr. Banks 
returned to the ihip, and the Indians retired from the 


An Account of what happened in afcending a Mountain 

to fearch for Plants, 

ON the 1 6th, early in the morning, Mr. Banks and Monda^r i6* 
Dr. Solander, with their attendants and fervants, 
and two feamen to aflift in carrying the baggage, ac- 
companied by Mr. Monkhoufe the Sui^on, and Mr. 
Green the Aftronomer, jet out from the fliip, with a 
view to penetrate as far as they could into the country, 
and return at night. The hills, when viewed at a 
diftance^ feemed to be partly wood, partly a plain, 
and above them a bare rock. Mr. Banks hoped to 
get through the wood, and made no doubt, but 
that, beyond it, he (hould, in a country which 
no botanift had ever yet vifited, find alpine plants 
which would abundantly compenfate his labour. 
They entered the wood at a fmall fandy beach, 
a little to the weftward of the watering-place, and 
continued to afcend the hill, through the patblefs 
Vol. I. D d wilderncfs. 


1769- wilJerncfs, till three o'clock, before (hey got a near 
jinufT. ^jg^ of the places which they iniended to vifit. Soon 
afrer they reached what they had taken for a plain ; 
but, to tlieir great difappoiiitment found it a fwamPt 
covered wiihlowbuOies of birch, about three feet hign> 
interwoven with e^ich other, and fo flubborn that ihcy 
could not be bentout of the way ; it was therefore ne- 
cellary to lift the leg over them, which at every ftep 
was buried ancle deep, in the foil. To aggravate the 
pain and difficulty of fuch travelling, the weather, 
which hitherto had been very fine, much like one of 
our briglil days in May, became gloomy and cold 1 
with tiddcn blafts of amofl piercing wind, accompa- 
nied with fnow. They pulhed forward, however, in 
good rpirits, notwithftanding their fatigue, hoping the 
worll of the way was pail, and that ihc bare rock which 
ihey had (ten from the tops of the lower hillj, was 
not more than a mile before them ; but when they had 
got about two thirds over this woody fwamp, Mr, 
Bucban, one of Mr, Banks's draughtmen, was unhap- 
pily fcized with a fit. This made it neceffary for the 
whole company to halt, and it was impoflible that he 
fhoiild go any farther, a fire was kindled, and thofc 
who were moft fatigued 'Aere left behind to take care 
uflum. Mr. Banks, Dr. Solander, Mr. Green, and 
Mr, Monkhoufe went on, and in- 3 ftiort time reached 
the fummu. As botanifls,, their expeSations were 
here abundantly gratified; for they found a great variio^ 
of plants, which, with refpeft to the alpine plants m 
Europe, are esta^lly what thofe pfatlts are with refpe^ 
to fuch as grow in the plain. 

The cold wa:5 now be:u)me more fevere, and the 
fnow-blafls more frequent ; the day alfo was fo far fpent, 
that it was found impoilible to get back to the ihip be- 
fore the next morning: to pafs the night upon fufh a 
mountain, in fuch a climate, was not only comfortlefs, 
hut dreadful ;it wasimpoffible however to be avoided, 
and they were to provide for it as well as they could, 

Mr. Banks and Dr. Solander, while they were im- 
proving an opportunity which they had, with fo much 
Janger and diflicully procured, by gathering the plants 
which thevfoundopon the mountain, fen tMr.Green and 

Rbii^ji) tfiE WoRtri.' 40$ 

Mr. Monkhoiife back to Mf. J&ucKan and the people 17*^- 
that were with hirn, witH difeftibns to bring thecn to a ^ ^^"'^^-^ 
hill, which they thotight!ay in a better route tor return- 
ing to the wCkidi, and which, was therefore aippoirited as 
a general rendezvous. It w^s propofed, that from tliis 
hill they (houid pufh through the fwahip, which feem* 
ed by the hew rbiite not to be more than half a mile over, 
into the (helter of the wood, and there build their wig- 
wahi, and make a fire : this, as their way was all down 
hill, it feemed eafy to actomplifh. Their whole coni* 
pany aflembled at fHe rendei-vous, and though pinched 
with the cold, A^ere in health and fpirits, Mr. Buchah 
himfelf having recovered his ftrength in a much greater 
degree than could have beeii expefted. It was now 
near eigfit o'clock in the evening, but ftill good day • 
light, and, they fet forward for the neareft valley, Mr. 
Banks himfelf undertaking to bring up the rear, arid 
fee that no ftraggler was left behind : this may perhaps 
be thought a fuperfluous caution, biit it will foori ap- 
pear to be Oiherwife. Dr.SoIandeir, who had more 
than once eroded the mdiiritairis which divide Sweden 
from Norway, well knew that extreme cold, efpecially 
when joined with fatigue, produces a torpor and fleepi- 
nefs that are alfhoft irrefirfible : he therefore conjured 
the company to keep movihg, whatever pain it might 
coft them, and whatever relief they might be promifed 
by an inclihafion to reff : W^hoever fits down, fays he, 
will deep ; and wlioever fleeps will wake no more. 
Thus, at once admohiihed and alarmed, they fet for- 
ward : but while thev were flill upon the naked r6ck> 
and before they hao got among the buflies, the cold 
became fu(fdenly to jntenfe, as to produce the eflFeSs 
that had been moil dreaded. Dr. Solander himfelf Wats 
the firft who foiihd the inclination, againft which he 
had warned others, irrefiftible ; and irififted upon be- 
ing fufFered to lie down. Mr. Banks ihtreaited and re- 
nionftrated in vain, down he lay upon the ground, though 
it was covered with fhow ; and it was with great diffi- 
culty that his friend kept him from deeping. Rich- 
mond aHb, one of the black fervants, began to linger, 
having fuffered from the cold in the fame manner as tlie^ 
DbSor. Mr. Banks, therefore, fent five of the com- 
panv, arriong whom was Mr. Buchan, forward to get a 

Dd 2 fo^ 


1769. fire ready ai the firft convenient place they could findi 
f_^^\ and himfcif v.'ith foiir others, remained with the Doc- 

' tor and Richmond, whom partly by perfuafion and en- 

treaty, and partly hy force, they brought on ; but 
' when they had gnt throngh the greateft part of the 

birch and fivamp, they both declared they could go no 
farther. Mr. Banks had recourfe again to entreaty and 
expoflulaEion, but they produced no effect: when Rich- 
mond was told, that ii" he did not go on he would in a 
flion time bCfroien todeaih ; he anfwered. That he 
defired nothing but to lie down and die. The Doaor 
did not fo expliciily renounce his life ; hefaidhewai 
willing to go On, but that he mu/l firft take fome fleep, 
though he had before told the company that to fletp 
was .to periOi Mr. Banks and the reft found il irnpof- 
fiblc to carry them, and there being no rcEnedy, they 
were both TufFered to fit down, being parity fupported 
by the buflies, and in a few minutes they fell into a pro- 
found fleep : foon after, fome of the people who had 
been fent forward returned, with the welcome news 
that a fire was kindled about a quarter ofa mile farther 
■ on the way. Mr. Banks then endeavoured to wake 
Dr. Solirder, and happily fucceeded ; but, though he 
had not (lept five minutes, he had almoft loft the ufe 
of his limbs, and the mufcles were fo (hrunk, that his 
Ihoes fell fro.-n off his feet ; he confented to go forward 
with fuch affiftance as could be given him, but no at- 
tempts to relieve poor Richmond were fuccefsful. It 
being found impoitible to make him ftir, afterfom^ time 
had been loff in the attempt, Mr. Banks left his bther 
black fervant and a feaman, who feemed to have mf 
fered leaft from the coid, to look after him j promif- 
ing, that as foon as two others Ihoutd be fufliciently 
warmed, they (hould be relieved. Mr. Banks, with 
much difficulty, at length got the DoSor to the fire ; 
and foon after Tent two of the people who had been 
refrefhed, in hopes that, with the affiftance of thofe 
who had been left behin.l, they would be able to 
bring Richmond, even though it Should 11 ill be found 
impoffible to wake him. In about half an hour, how- 
ever, they had the mortification to fee thefe two men 
return alone ; they faid, that they had been all round 
the pltce to which they bad been direded, but 


could neither find Richmond nor thofe who hud been 
lift with him ; and that though they had fl^outed many 
times, no voice had replied. This was matter of eq^^l 
furprifc and concern, particularly ,to Mr. B^nks, who, 
while he was wondering how it could happen, ipifled 
a bottle of rum, the confipany's whole ftocli^: which 
they now concluded to be in the knapfack of one of 
the abfentees.. It was conjefturcd that with this 
Richmond had been roufed by the two perfons. whb 
had been left with him, and that, having perhaps 
drank too freely of it themfelves, they had all rambled 
from the place where they had been Jeft, in fearch of 
the fire, infteadof waiting for thof^ who (hould.havc 
been their afliftants and guides. ^iKWher fall of fnow 
now came on, and continued inceflantly for two hours, 
folhat ail Hopes of feeing them again, at leaftaliye, 
were given up ; but about twelve o'clock, to the great 
joy of thofe at the fire, a (houting was hear4.2Lt fome 
diftance. Mr. Banks, with four more, immediately 
went out, and found the feaman with juft (Irength 
enough left to dagger along, and call out for affiftance : 
Mr. Banks fent him immediately to the fire, and by 
his direSion, proceeded in fearch of the other two, 
whom he foon after found. Richmond was upon. his 
legs, but not able to put one before the other ; his 
companion was lying upon the ground, as infenfible aV 
a (lone. Ail hands were riow called ffom the fire^ 
and an attempt was made to carry them to it ; but tbis^ 
not with (landing the united efforts of the whole cprri- 
pany, was found to be impofllblc. The night was ex- 
tremely dark, the fnow was now very deep, and, un- 
der thefe additional difadvantage's, they found it very 
difficult to make way through the bufhes and the bog 
for themfelves, all of them getting many falls in the 
attempt. The only alternative was to make a fire up- 
on the fpot ; but the fnow whiA bad fallen, and was 
ftill falling, befides what was every moment (haken in 
flakes from the trees, rendered it equally imprafti cable, 
to kindle one there, and to bring any part of that 
which had been kindled in the wood thither : they 
were, therefore, reduced to the fad neceffity of leav- 
ing the unhappy wretches to their fate ; having firfl: 
made them a bed of boughs from the trees, and 



1769. fpread 3 covering of the fame kind over them- to a con- 

>^' fideraHe height. ' 
.^. Having now been cxpofed ^o the cold and the fnoy/ 

near an hoiir and a fial^i Tome of the red be£;an to Ijfc 
tdeir fcnfibility ; and one IJrifcoe, another of Mr. 
Banks's fervants. Was fo il!, thai it was thought he 
mufidie before he could be got to the fire. 
' At the fire, however, at length they arrived ; and 
paffed the night in a filuaticp, ^hich, however dread- 
Wl initfelf, was rendered more affl'ifling by tf^c remem- 
braiice of what w^s pafl, and the uncertainty qf what 
was to come. Of twelve, the number that fctout to- 
gether in health ^nd fpiciis, l»'o were fuppofed |o l(e 
Already (^c^d ; a third was fp ill, that it v«35 very (Joiibt- 
fiil ^yfi^,Iler he would be able to go forward in the 
■inornirg ; and a fourth, f^Ir. Buchan, was in danger of 
■a returrt. (Sf his fii5, by a frefli fatigu^ after fo uncom- 
fortable a night: they were diftant from the fhip a 
ipng^lav'sj.oUrncy, through p-ithlefs woods, in which 
it Was tao probalile tliey might ^e bo.wiltJered till they 
were otet taken by the next night ; and tio| having pre- 
pareitfor a journey pf more than eight or icfi hours, 
they were wholly deflimtc of prtivifions, expeptqvul- 
ture which they hap]ieiied tn (linrii while ihey were 
out, and which if equTilly ai'.idcil, would not afford 
tach of them half a ; and they knew not how 
inuch more thcv might fuffer from the cold^a; the fno\y 
ftiil continued to fafi. A dreadful tt(limony of the fe- 
verity of the climate, as it w^s pow th.e midfl of fum- 
me'r in ihispartof the wQrldj the twenty-firft cf De- 
cember beiiig here ihe.longefl day ; and every thing 
might juflly be dreaded from a phsenomeinjri lytiifh, 
?n the correfpondlng feafon, is unknown tvcij in Nor- 
way and Lapland. 
TatfJaj 17. When the morning dawned, ihcy faw nothitig round 
them .IE far as the eye could reach, but fnow, which 

* feemed to lie .is thick upon the tr^es as upon the ground i 

and the blails returned to fre^uentiy, and with fuch 
violence, that ihey fourd it impoflible for them 10 fe( 
out : how long this might lail they knew not, and they 
had but too much rcaibn to apprebend that it would 
confine them in ihat (fcftj.i;? fwe^; 'ill fhey periftieii 
ivith hunger and cu.'d, 

; After 


After having fuifitsred the mifery and terror of this i7f9- 
{itjuation till fiK o'clock in the morning, they conceived . ^^^^^ 
fomc hopes of delivefjmce by difcovering the face of the 
fun through the clouds, which were become thinner, 
and began to break away. Their firft care was to fee 
whether the poor wretches whom they had been obliged 
to leave a^nong the bufhes were yet alive ; three erf 
the company were difpatched for that purpofe, a^d 
very foon afterwards returned with the melancholy 
news, that they were dead. 

Not withftanding the flattering appearanceof the flcy, 
the fnow continued to fall fo thick that they could not 
venture out upon their journey to the fhip ; but about 
S o'clock a fmall regular breeze fprung up, which, 
with the prevailing influence of the fun, at length cleared 
the air ; and they foon after, with great joy, faw the 
fnow fait ia. large flakes from the trees, a certarn flgn 
of an approaching thaw : they now examined more 
critically the ftate of their iavalidj ; Bf ifcoe.was ftill 
very ill, but faid, that he thought himlelf able to walk ; 
and Mr. Buchan was much better than -cither he «w his 
friends had 4ny reafon to.expeft. They were now, 
however, |>r£ffed by the calls of hunger, to which, 
after long fading, every confideration of future good 
or evil immediately gives way. Before they fet for^ 
ward, therefore, it was unanimoufly agreed, that they 
fliould eat their vulture ; the bird was accordingly (kin- 
ned, and, it being thought beft to divide it before it 
was fit to be eaten, it was cut into ten portions, and 
every man cooked his own. as he thought fit. After 
this repaft, which furniftied each of therr^ with about 
tlwee nK)uthfuls, they prepared to fet out ; but it was 
ten o'clock before the fnow wasi fufEciently gone off fo 
render a march prafticable. After a walk of about three 
hours, they were very agreeably furprixed to find them- 
felves upon the beach, and much nearer to the flxip 
than they had any reafon tp expeS. Upon re- 
viewing their track from the.veflel, they perceived, 
that, inftead of afcendlng the hill in a line, fo as to 
penetrate into the country, they had made almoft a 
circle round it. When they came on board, they con- 
gratulated each other upoa their fafety, with a joy 
that DO man can feel who has not been ei:;pofed to 



1769' equal danger ; and as I had buffered great anxiety at 
■j'"""^ ihcir not returning in the evening of the day on which 
they fet oul, 1 was not wholly without my fliare. 


Thi Pajfage ihreitgh the Siraghl nf Lt Main, and a fur- 
thtr DefcTlpihn of ihi Inhabilttnti af Terra dtl Fuego, 
and its Pmduiliom. 

Wrdnef. 18. /"^^ '^^ ^8ih and 19th we were delayed in getting 
Thurf. iq. \^ on board our wood and water by a fwdt : but on 
liiday 10. the 2oth, the weaiher being more moderate, we again 
fent the boat on fliore, and Mr. Banks and I>r. Solan- 
dcr went in it. They landed in the bottom of the bay, 
and while my people were emploj-ed in cutting brooms, 
they purfued their great objefl, the irnprovement of 
natural knowlege, with fuccefs, colleSing many (hells 
and plants which hitherto have been altogether un- 
known : they came on board to dinner, and afterwards 
went again on (Iiore to vifit an Indian town, which 
feme of the people had reported to lie about two miles 
uprhe conntry. They found ihe diftancc not more 
than by the account, and they approached it by what 
appeared to be the common road, yet they were above 
■n hour in getting thither, tor they were frequently up 
to their knees in mud ; when they got within a fmall 
diftance, two of the people came out to meet them, 
with fiich flateas ihcy could affiimc ; when they joined 
them, they began to hollow as they had done on board 
the ftiip, without addrefling themfelves either to the 
Grangers or their companions ; and havit^ continued 
thisftrange vociferation fome time, they condcQed them 
to the town. It was fituated on a dry knoll, or fmall 
hill, covered with wood, none of which fecmed to 
have been cleared away, and confifted of about twelve 
or fourteen hovels, of the moft rude and inartificial 
ftruQure that can be imagined. They were nothing 
more than a few poles fet up, fo as to incline to- 
wards each other, and meet at the top, forming a kind 
of a cone, like fom^ of our bee-hives : on the weather 
fide they were covered with a few boughs, and a little 
grafs ; and omhe lee fide about one eighth of the circle 



was left open, both for a door and a (ire place ; and of 
this kind were the hut^ that had been feen in St. 
Vincent'* bay, in one of which the embers of a fire 
Were ftill reroaining. Furniture they had none ; a lit- 
tle grafs, \Vhich lay round the infide of the hovel, ferv- 
ed both for chairs and beds ; and of all the utendls 
'which neceility and ingenuity have concurred to pro- 
duce among other favage nations, they faw only a 
balket to carry in the hand, a fatchel to hang at the 
back, and the bladder of fome beaft to hold water, 
which the natives drink through a hole that is made 
near the top for that purpofe. 

The inhabitants of this town were afmall tribe, not 
more than fifty in number, of both fexes and of every 
age. Their colour refembles that of the ruft of iron 
mixed with oil, and they have long black hair : the men 
are large, but clumfily built ; their ftature is from 
five feet eight to five feet ten ; the women are much 
lefs, few of them being more than five feet high. 
Their whole appafel coniiftsof the ikin of a guanicoe, 
or feal, which is thrown over their flioulders, exaSly 
in the ftate in which it came from the animal's back ; a 
piece of the fame (kin, which is drawn over their feet, 
and gathered about Uie ankles like a purfe, and a fmall 
flap, which is worn by the' women as a fuccedaneum 
for a fig-leaf. The men wear their cloak open, the 
women tie it iboot their waift with a thong. But al- 
though they are content to be naked, they are Very am- 
bitious to be fine. Their faces were painted in various 
forms : the region of the eye was in general wh^te, 
and the reft of the face adorned with horizontal ftreaks 
of red and black ; yet fcarcely iny two were exaQly 
alike. This decoration feems to be more profufe arid 
elaborate upon particular occkiRons' ; for the tWo Gen- 
tlemen who introduced Mr. Banks and the DoSor 
into the town, Were almoft covered with flreaksof 
black in all direQibns, fo as to make a very flriking 
appearance. Both men and women wore bracelets of 
fuch beads as they .could make themfelvcs of fmali 
fhells or bones ; the women both upon their wrifts 
and ancles, the men upon their wrifts only ; but to 
compenfate for the want of bracelets on their legs, 
they wore a kipd of fillet oif brown worfted round 




ihcir beads. They fcemed lo fet a particular value 
upcn any thing that was red, and preferred beads even 
to a knife or a hatchet. 

Their language in general is guilura!, and they ex- 
preft fome of iheir words by a lonnd exafily like that 
which we make to dear the throai when any thing hap- 
pens to obHrtid it i yel they have words which would 
he deemed foft in the better languages of Europe. 
Mr. Banks learnt what he fuppofes lo be their names 
for beads and water. When ihey wanted beads ■ in- 
ftcad of ribbons or oiher trifie?;, ihey faid hglltca ; 
and when ihey were taken cn fliore from thefliip, and 
by figns aiked where water might be found,they made 
the lign of drinking, and pointing as well to the calks 
as the watering-place, crieil osda. 

We faw no appearance of iheir having any food 
but (bell-fift ; for though feals were frequenily feen 
near the [here, they Teemed to have no implements 
for taking them. The (hell-fifli is coUefited by th^ 
>vomen, whofe bufinefs it feems lo be to attend at low 
water, with a baikct in one hand, a (lick, pointed and 
barbed) in the other, and a fatchel at their backs : ihey 
loofen the limpets and other filh that adhere to the 
rocks, wirh the flick, and put them inro ihebaftel; 
uhicli, when full, they empty into the fatchel. 

The only things that we iound among them in which 
there was the leaft appearance of neatneCs or ingenuity 
were their weapons, which confided of a bow and 
arrows. The bow was not inelegantly made, and the 
arrows were the neateft tliat we had ever fcen : ibcy 
were of wood, poiifhed to the higheft degree ; and 
the point, which was ofglafsor flini, and barbed, was 
formed and fitted with wonderful dexterity. We faw 
alfo foiiie pieces of gUfs and flint among them un- 
wrougbt, befides rings, buttons, cioih, and canvafsjwit h 
other European commodities i they muft therefore 
fometimes travel lo the northward, for it is many years 
fince any fhip has been fo far foulh as this part of Terra 
del Fuego. We obfetved alfo, that they fhewed no 
furprifi; at our fite-arm'-, with the ufe ol which they 
iippeBred to be well aeqyaintsd i for they laade fi^s 
JD Mr. Banks to flioot a fejl which fglloived the l»at 
^ they were going en (hore fiooi the (hip. 

yi. de 


M. dc BpugainvilU, whq, in January 1768^ juft i/^' 
one yp^j- before us, h;^ been on (hore upon this coaft ^j^H^T 
in l^titqde 530 43'4J-'> had, among other things, gi- 
ven glafs ^0 thje people \^hoai he found here ; for he 
fays, th^t a boy about twelve years old took it into his 
head to eat fome of jt : by this unhappy accident he 
died in gre^^ fnifcry ; but thp endeavours of the good 
fa.tber, the French JHmqniir, were nv»re fuccefsfiil 
^l^^in t^oijs of the Surgeon ; for though the Surgeon 
coqld not fave his life, the charitable Pried foupd 
nieaps tp (leal a Chriftian baptiiin upon him fofecretiy, 
tl^at none of his Pag^n lelations knew any thing of 
the matter. Thefe people might probf^bly have {om^ 
of the very glafs which Bougainville left behind him« 
either from other native^, or perhaps ffqip fiimfelf ; for 
they appeared rather to be a travelling horde, thaji to 
haye any fixed bal^itation. Tt^eir boufes afe buijt tp 
ftand but fpr a (hort time ^ they h^ve nq utenfi) of far- 
niture but the b^ij&et and f:^tchel, which h^ve beon 
mentioned before^ apd whjch h^ve handles adapted t« 
the carrying them aboi^t, in the hand ^d upon the 
back » the only cloathing they bad here wa^ fcarcely 
fufScient to prevent their perifhing with cold in the 
fnmmer of this country, much lefs in the extrefne 
fevcrity of winter ; the fliell-fifh whiph feeros to be 
their only food mufl foon be exhfiufted at any ope 
place ; ^nd we had feen houfe^ uppn w|[iat fippeared 
to be a deferred ftatipn in St. Vific?nt's bs^y. 

It is ^Ifp prpbable ^hat tl\e place whef? \ve found 
them wa3 only a temporsjiry r^ficlefice,fFpm thjcir- having 
here nothing like a boat or canoe, pf which it can 
fcarcely be fuppofed that they were wholly deftitutc, 
efpeci^lly as they were qot fca-fifk, or parligulairly af-* 
fecled> cither iu our boat or on bpard tl^ (hip. Wo 
conjectured that there might be a ftreight pr inlet, 
running from the f^a through gro?t part pf this ifland, 
from the Streight of Magellan, whence thefe pieopl^ 
might <;pme, leaving their canoes where fuch inlet tei- 

1 hey did not appear to have afnong them any go- 
vernment or fubordination : none wa^ mpre refpeded 
. than another; yet they feemed to live together in 
th? utmoft harmony and good fellowf}iip. Neither 





did we difcovcr any appearance of religion among them, 
except the noifes which have been mentioned, and 
which wc fiippofed to be a fuperllitious ceremony, 
merely becaufe we could refer them to nothing clfe : 
they were ufed only by one of thofe who came onboard 
theihip, and the two who condufled Mr. Banks and 
Dr. Solander to the town, whom we therefore con- 
je£lured to be priefts. Upon the whole, thefe people 
appeared to be the mofl dellitute and forlorn, as well 
as the mofV ftupid of ;ill human beings ; the outcafts of 
Nature, who fpent their lives in wandering about 
the dreary waftes, where two of our people perished 
with cold in the midft of fummer ; with nodwelling 
but a wretched hovel of (licks and grafi, which would 
not only admitthe wind, but the fnow and the rain ; 
alnioft naked, anddeftitute of every convenience that 
h furnlihed by the mdeftart, having no implement 
even to drefs their food : yet they were content. They 
Teemed to hive no wifh for any thing more than they 
poffelfed, nor did any thing that we offered them appear 
acceptable but beads, as an ornamsnial fuperSuity of 
life. What bodily pain they might fuffer from tlie 
feverities of their winter weconld not know : but it is 
certain, that they fuffcrcd nothing from the want of 
the innunflerable articles which we confider not as the 
luxuries and conveniences only, but the necefTaries of 
life : at their defires arc few, they probably enjoy them 
all ; and how much they may be gainers by an exemp- 
tion from the care, labour and folicitude, which arife 
from a perpetual and unfuccefsfu! effort to gratify 
that infinite variety of defires, which the refinements 
of artificial life have produced among us, is not very 
eafy to determine: pofTibly this may counterbalance 
all the real difadvantages of their fituation in compa- 
rifon with ours, and make the fcales by which 
good and evil are diftributed to man, hang even be- 
tween us. 

In this place we faw no quadruped except feals. Tea- 
lions, and dogs ; of the dogs it is remarkable that thejr 
bark, which thofe that are originally bred in Ame- 
rica do rot. And this is a further proof, that the 
people we faw here had, cither immediately or re- 
mote! vrcomnunicatedwirh the inhabitants of Europe. 
' "fhere 


There are, however, other quadrupeds in this part of '7^9- 
the country ; for when Mr. Banks was at the top of ^ J^— *7* 
the higheft hill that he afcended in his expedition 
through the woods, he faw the footAeps of a large 
bead imprinted upon the furface of a bog, though he 
could not with any probability guefs of what kind it 
might be. 

Of land birds there are but few ; Mr. Banks faw 
none larger than an Englifli blackbird, except fome 
hawks and a vulture ; but of water fowl there is great 
plenty, particularly ducks. Of fiih we faw fcarce any, 
and with our hooks could catch none that was fit to 
eat ; but ihelKfifh, limpets, dams, and mufcles 
were to be found in abundance. 

Among the infeQs, which were not numerous, 
there was neither gnat or muiiquito, nor any other fpe- 
cies that was either hurtful or troublefome, which per- 
haps is more than can be faid of any other uncleared 
country. During the fnow-blafts, which happened 
every day while we were here, they hide themfelves ; 
and the moment it is fair they appear again, as nimble 
and vigorous as the warmefl weather could make 

Of plants, Mr. Banks and Dr. Solander found a vaft 
variety ; the far greater part wholly different from any 
that have been hitherto defcribed. Befides the birch, 
and winter's bark, which have been mentioned already, 
there is the beach, Fagus antarfficus, which, as well 
as the birch, may be ufed for timber. The plants 
cannot be enumerated here ; but as the fcurvy-grafs, 
Cardamine antifcorbutica^ and the' wild celery, Apium 
antarHicumy probably contain antifcorbutic qualities, 
which may be of great benefit to the crews of tich 
fhips as may hereafter touch at this place, the follow- 
ing (hort defcription is inferted : 

The fcurvy-grafs will be found in plenty in damp 
places, near fprings of water, and in general in all 
places that lie near the beach, efpecially at the water- 
ing-place in the Bay of Good Succefs : when it is young, 
the ftate of its greateft perfe3ion, it lies flat upon the 
ground, having many leaves of a bright green, {land- 
ing in pairs oppofite to each other, with a (ingle one 
at the end, which generally makes the fifth upon a 



17(9. footftalk; the plant, paffing from thi* (late, flioou 

junBcy. yp jf, (^aiJts that are fomerimes two feel High, at the 

'■■'"'~*^ top of which are fmall white bioflbms, and thefe are 

fiicceeded by long pods ; the whole plant great! v re- 

fembles that which in England iscalled LadyVfmocfc, 

I or Cuckoo-flower. The wild celery is very like the 

celery in our gardens, the flowers are white, and Hand 
in the fame mannei", in ffnalt tufts at the top of the 
branches, hut the leaves arc of a deeper green. It 
grows in great abundance near the beach, and gene- 
rally upon the foil rhai lies next above ihefpring tides. 
It may indeed eafily be known by the tafte, which 
is between that of celery and parfley. We ufed the 
celery in large quantities, particularly in our foup, 
which, thus medicated, produced the fame good ef- 
fefls which feamen generally derive from a vegeta- 
ble diet, after having been long confined to fait pro- 
.Sundaj an On Sunday, the 22d of Jaouary, about two o'clocHi 
in the morning, havirg got our wood and water on 
board, we failed out of the Bay, and continued our 
courfe through the Streight, 


J general Dffcrlption of tht S. E. pari of terra dtl 
Fuego, and the Slftigbt of Lt Mairi ; Uiilh fomt 
Remarks m Ldrd Ariftt!i Accmtnt of thttn, atidDi- 
rtSfhm for tbi Pajfage wrfiward, ftund this fdr-t ef 
Amerka, into th^ Ssuth Sfas. 

ALMOST" all writers who have mentioned the 
ifland of Terra del Fuego, defcrlbe it as defK- 
tute of wood, and covered with fnow. In (ttt winteif 
it may poflibly be covered with fnow, and thofe who 
faw it ai that feafon might perhaps be eafily debeiWd, 
bv its appearance, into art opinion that it wasdeftitufe 
of wood. Lord Artfon Wis there in the b'eg'inntb^ 
of March, which anfwers tooijr Septe'mbfef; iiidvrt 
were there in the beginning of January, ^hich ail- 
fwerstoour July, Which iilay account for the d'ltfe- 
reiice of his dcfcripti&hof it fromours.We felfin with it 
■1^^ about t wentv-one tea j^ues to the ^veftward of the Streight 


of LrC Mairc, and from the time tliat we Bttt Taw if, 
trees were pl^ly to be diftingniflied with our rfaffes ; • 
and as we canM nearer, tho* here and there, w e ciifco- 
vered patches of fnow, the fjde:^ of the hills and the 
fea coaft appeared to be covered with a bciiut:;ul ver- 
dure. The hills are lofty, but not mountainous, 
though the fummits of them are quite naked. The foil 
in the valleys is rich, and of a con fiderablc depth ; and 
at the foot of alraoft every hill there is a brook, the 
water of which has a reddifh hue, like that which runs 
through our turf bc^ in Englai.d, bat it is bv no intSLOS 
ill taded, and upon the whole proved to be tht bc3 that 
we took iii during our voyage. We ranged the coaft to 
the Streight, and had foundings all the way from 40 to 
20 fathoms, upon a gravelly and fandy bottom The 
mod remarkable land en Terra del Fuegois a hill in the 
form of a fugar-Ioaf, which ftands on the weft fide rsOt 
far from the fea ; and the three hills, called iht Three 
Brothers, about nine miles to the weft ward of Cape St# 
Diego, the low point that forms the north entrance of 
the Streight of Le Maire. 

It is faid in the account of Lord Anfon's Voyage,that 
it is difficult to determine exadly where the Streight 
lies, though the appearance of Terra del Fuego be 
well known, v. ithout knowing alfo the appearance of 
Staten Land ; and that fome navigators have been de- 
ceived by three hills on Staten Land, which have been 
miftaken for the Three Brothers on Terra del Fuego, 
and fo overfliot the Stitight. But no fliip can poflibly 
mifs the Streight that coafts Terra del Fuego within 
fight of land, for it will then, of iifelf, be fufficicntly 
confpicuous ; ^d Staten Land, wiiich forms the eaft 
fide, will be ftill more manifeftly diftingui(hed for 
there is no land on Terra del Fuego like it. Xlie 
Streight of Le Maire can be mifiedonly by ftandin 
too far to the eaftward, without keeping the land of 
Terra del Fuego in fight : if this is done, it mav \ 
mifled, however accurately the appearance of the G 
of Staten Land may have been exhibited ; and 'f w 
is not done, it cannot be mifted, tho* the arm ^^ 

of tbat coaft canndtfcr- The entranrf 'r "f 

Streight fliould not t with J^f • • 5 

and moderate weatli ^V'"'-'^'"'* 




»7'9- of the tide of Rood, which happens here, at the fuU. 
1 -!^ ,_, ^^^ change of the moon, about one or two o'clock ; it 
is alio beft to keep as near to [he Terra del Fuego fliore 
as the winds will admit. By attending to thefe partica- 
lars, a ihrp may be got quite through the Streight in 
one tide; or, atlcafi, to the fooihward of Succefs Biy, 
inio which i[ will be more prudent to put, if the wind 
fiiould be foiitherly, ih^n to attempt the weatheritig of 
Staten Land with a lee wind and a current, which 
may endanger her being driven on that ifland. 

T'hc Strcitfht itfelF, which ia bounded on the weft 

»by Terra del Fuego, and on the ea(l by the weft end 
of Sialen Land, is about five leagues long, and as manjr 
broad. The Bay of Good Succefs lies about the mid- 
dle of it, on the Terra del Fuego fide, and isdifcovered 
immediiiteiyuponenteringthe Streight from the north- 
ward ; and the fouth head of it may be diftinguiftied 
by a mark on the land, that has the appearance of a 
broad road, leading up from the fea into the country : 
at the entrance it is half a league wide, and runs in 
weftward abour two miles and an half. There is good 
anchorage in every part of it, from ten to feven fa- 
thoms, clear ground ; and it affords plenty oFesceed- 
inggood wood and water. The tides tiow in the Bay, 
at the full and change of the moon, about four or five 
o'clock, and rife about five or fix feet perpendicular. 
But the flood runs two or three hours longer in the 
Streight than in the Bay ; and the ebb, or northerly 
current, runs with near doublethf ftrength of the flood. 
• In the appearance of Staten Land, we did not difco- 
ver the wildnefj and horror that isafcribed to it in the 
account of Lord Anfon's voyage. Oq the north fide 
are the appearances of bays or harbours ; and the land 
when we (aw it, was neitherdefliluteofwood norver- 
dure, nor covered with fnow. The ifland feems tobe 
about twelve leagues in length, and five broad. 

On the weft fide of the Cape of Good Succefs, 
which forms the S. W. entrance of the Streight, lies 
Valentine's Bay, of which we only faw the entrance ; 
from this bay the land trends away to the W. S- W. 
for twenty or thirty leagues; it appears to be high and 
moontainou?, and forms feveral bavs and inlets. 




At the diftance of fourteen leases from the bay of '7^0- 
Good Succefs, in the direftion of S. W. f W. and , °"_ 
between two and three leagues from the fhore, lies 
New Ifland. It is about two leagues in length from 
N. E. to S. W. and terminates to the N. E. in a re- 
markable hillock. At the diftance of feven leagues from 
New Ifland, in the direftion of S. W. lies the ifle 
Evouts ; and a little to the weft of the fouth of this 
ifland lie Barnevelt's two fmall flat iflands, clofeto 
each other; they are partly furrounded with rocks^ 
which rife to dilBFerent heights above the water, and lie 
twenty. four leagues from the Streight of Le Maire. 
At the diftance of three leagues from Barnevelt's 
iflands, in the direSion of S. W. byS. lies the S. E. 
point of Hermit's iflands : thefe iflands lie S. E. and 
N. VV. and are pretty high : from moft points of view 
they will be taken for one ifland, or part of the main. 

From the S. E. point of Hermit's iflairds to Cape 
Horn the courfe is S. W. by S. diftant three leagues. 

It can fcarcely be doubted, but that moft, if not all 
of the bays and inlets, of which wcfaw only the open- 
ings, afFord anchorage, wood ind water. The Dutch 
fquadron, commanded by Hermit, certainly put into 
fome of them in the year 1 624 ; and it was Chapen- 
ham, the Vice Admiral of this fquadron, who firft dif- 
covered that the land of Cape Horn confifted of a 
number of iflands. The account, however, which 
thofe who failed in Hermit's fleet have given of thcfc 
parts is extremely defeftive ; and thofe of Schouton 
and Le Maire are ftill worfe : it is therefore no wonder 
that the charts hitherto publiflied fliould be erroneous, 
not only in laying down the land, but in the latitude 
and longitude of the places they contain. I will, how- 
ever, venture to aflert, that the longitude of few parts 
of the world is better afcertained than that of the 
Streight of Le Maire and Cape Horn, as it was laid 
down by feveral obfervatipns of the fun and moon, 
that were made both by myfelf and Mr. Green. 

Th^ variation of the compafs on this coaft I found 
to be from 23^ to 25** Ea except near Barnevelt*^ 
iflands and Cape Horn, Wheere we found it lefs, and 
unfettled ; probably it is difturbed here by the land, 
as Hermit's fquadron, in this very place, found all their 

Vol. L E e • compafles 



compalTts differ from c*cli otlier. The declination of 
ihe dipping needle, when fcl up on fhore in Succefs 
Bay, was 68° i 5' below the fiori/,on. 

Between Streiglit Le Maire and Cape Horn we 
found a current fetting, generally very ftrong, to the 
N. U. when we were in with the ftiore ; but loft it 
when we were at the diftance of fifteen or twenty 

On the 26thof January wetook our departure from 
C-ipe Horn, which lies in latitude 50° 55' S. longitude 
68° 13' W. The fartheft fouthem latitude that we 
made was 60° lo'j our longitude was then 74030'W, 
and we found the variation of the compafs, by the 
mean of eighteen azimuths, to be 27° 9' E. As the 
weather was frequently calm, Mr. Banks went out in 
a fmall boat to (hoot birds, among which were fomc 
aibatrotTes and (heerwaters. The albatrolTea were ob- 
ferved to he larger than thofe which had been taken 
northward of the Streight ; one of them meafured ten 
feet two inches from the tip of one wing lo that of ihe 
other, when they were extended ; the fheerwater, on 
the contrary, is lefs, and darker coloured on the back. 
The albatrofles we Ikinned, and having foaked them 
in fait water tlii the morning, we parboiled them, then 
throwing away the liquor, flewcd them in a very Utile 
frefh water till they were tender, and bad them ferved ' 
up with favoury fauce ; thus dreffed, the difli was 
univerfally commended, and we ot of it very heartily, 
even when there was frelh pork upon the table. 

From a variety of obfervattons which were made 
with great care, it appeared probable in the highell de- 
gree, that, from the time of our leaving the land to the 
Febmity. 1 3lh of February, when we were in latitude 49° 32', 

Mond. 13. 2j)() longitude 90° 37', we had no curreni to the weft. 
At this time we had advanced about 1 2° to the 
weftward, and 3 and | to the north ward of the Streight 
of Magellan : having been juft three and thirty days 
in coming round the land of Terra del Fucgo, or 
Cape Horn, from the eaft entrance of the Streight to 
this fitiiation. And though the doubling of Cape 
Horn is fo much dreaded, that, in the general opi- 
nion, it is more eligible to pafs through the Streight of 
Magellan, we were not once brougla under our ciofe 

t , reefed 




reefed topfails after we left the Streight of Le Maire. «7^- 
The Dolphin in her laft voyage, which (he performed ^ ^"^!^ 
at the fame feafon of the year with ours, was three 
months in getting through the Streight of Magellan, 
exclufive of the time that (he Jay in Port Famine; and 
I am perfuaded, from the winds we had, that if we had 
come by that paflage, we (hould not at this time have 
been in thefe feas ; that our people would have been 
fatigued, and our anchors, cables, fails and rigging 
much damaged ; neither of which inconveniences we 
had now fufFered. But fuppofing it more eligible to 
go round the Cape, than thro' the Streight of Magel- 
lan ; it may ftill be queftioned, wljether it is better to 
go through the Streight of I^e Maire, or (land to the 
eaftw.ard, and go round St^ten Land. The advice 
given in the account of Lord Anfon*s vpyage is, 
^ That atl (hips bound to rhe South Seas, inftead of 
** paflTing through the Streight of Le Maire, (hpuld 
** conftantly pafs to the eaftward of Staten Land, and 
(hould be invariably bent pn rvuming to t^ie iovujj- 
ward as far as the la^tude of ,61 or 62 degr^ei^ be*- 
^' fore they endeavour to ftaii^ tb thfs wi2ftw^rd."*iBut 
4n' my opinion, different circurtiftances may ^t oiXe 
rioie fender it eligible to pafs through the Streight'^ 
•and to keep to the eaftward of Staten. Land at pother.. 
If the land is fallen in with to th? w.eftward of th^ 
'Streight', and the wind is favourable for going through, 
I think it would be very to lofe tin?e hy 
going round Staten Land, as I /arti confident that, by 
attend'mg to the diredions which I have given, the 
Streight may he paffed with the utmofl: fafety and con- 
venience : but if, on the contrary, tjie land is fallen 
in with to the eaftward of the Streight, and the wind 
flaouW prove tempeftuous or unfsivoprahl^^ 1 think it 
would be beft to go round Staten Land ; hut I caanot 
in any cafe concur in recommending the running into 
the latitude of 61 or 62, before any ende^ivour is made 
to fiand to the weftward. We found neither the cur- 
rent nor the^orms which the running fo far to the 
fouthward is fuppofed necqflary to avoid ; and indeed, 
as the winds almoft conftantly blow from th^tquarter, 
it is fcarcely poiTtble to purfue the advice. The navi- 
gator has no choice but to ftand to the fouthward, ' 

E e 2 cloCe. 


clofc upon a wind, and by beeping upon that tack, bt 

j will noi. only make foiilhing, but wefting ; and, iflbe 

wind vai ies towards the norlh of ilie weft. Wis welling 

uill be corinderabk.' It will, irdeed, be bighly pro- 

!ier to nuke fure of awefting fufficient to double ali the 
ands, before an attempt is made to ftand to the noitb- ,^ 
■ward, and to this evejy man's own prudence will o£ ' 
iieceltiiy direct him. 

We now began to have ftjong gales and heavy feas, 
v.'nh itieguiar intervals of calm and. fine weather, 


■Tlje Sequel of li.e Pafagt frem Cape H^n ta the newly 
difcevertd Ipandi in the South Seas, vj'iih a Defcrtp' 
tkn of thtir Figure and Apptaranet ; fime Jccount of ■ 
the iKhalitartU, and fevers] Incidents that happened 
during the Courfe, and at the Ship's Arrival eimng 

ON the firft of March, we were in lalilude 38° 44 
S. and longitude 1 10° 33' W. both by obferva- 
tion and by the log. This agreement, after ,i run of 
660 lesgues, was thought to be very extraordinary ; 
and is a demon flration, that after we left the land of 
Cape Horn we had no current that afFeSed ihe (hip. 
It renders it alfo highly probable, that we had besfi 
near no land of any confider^le extent ; for currents 
are always found when land is not remote, and fomc- 
timcs, particularly on the eaft fide of the continent in 
the Norlh Sea, when land^hasbeen diHant 100 leagues. 
Many birds, as ufual, were conftanily about lb« 
fhip, fo that Mr. Banks killed no lefs than iixty-two 
in one day ; and what is more remarkable, he caught 
two foreft flies, both of ihem of the famefpecies, but 
difTerent from any that have hitherto b?en defcribed ; 
thefe probably belonged to the birds, and came with 
them from the land, which we judged lo he at a great 
diftance. Mr. Banks alfo, about this time, found a 
large cuiile-filh, which had juft been killed by the birds, 
floaling in a mangled condition upon the water : it was 
very difTerent from the cuttle-fifties that ate touud m 
the European feas ; for its arms, inflead «£ fuckers. 


were furnifhed with a double row of very (harp talons, w^^i 
which refembled. thofe of a cat, and, like them, were 
retraftable into a (heath of (kin, from which they 
might be thruft at pleafure. Of this cuttle-fifh vfM 
made one of the heft foups we had ever taftcd. 

The albatrofTes now began to leave us, and aft^r the 
8 th there was not one to be feen. We continued our Wednef. 8. 
courfe without any memorable event till the 24th, when Friday 24. 
fome of the people who were upon the watch in the 
night, reported that they faw a log of wood pafs by the 
(hip; and that the fea, which was rather rough, became 
fuddenly as fmooth as a mill-pond. It was a general opi- 
nion, th